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information-theory

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Journal Articles
Historical Studies in the Natural Sciences. 2019; 49141–69 doi: https://doi.org/10.1525/hsns.2019.49.1.41
Published: 01 February 2019
... history problems informed his scientific career as he sought to capture the variations he recognized in the natural populations. He used graphical tools to examine hybridization as an evolutionary mechanism and to use the taxonomic data from these variations to study the underlying genetic forces at work...
Journal Articles
Historical Studies in the Natural Sciences. 2016; 465669–709 doi: https://doi.org/10.1525/hsns.2016.46.5.669
Published: 01 November 2016
... institutions in Latin America operated with partial information, competing prerogatives, and costly exchanges of materials and personnel, each of which reflected the shifting economic and political constraints of the global Cold War. Drawing primarily on fellowship files and institutional archives, I situate...
Journal Articles
Historical Studies in the Natural Sciences. 2020; 503248–301 doi: https://doi.org/10.1525/hsns.2020.50.3.248
Published: 28 May 2020
... external and opened up a view of science as a process, including inquiries into experiment, fieldwork, and theory making. Most fundamentally, it broke down old distinctions between words and things, between texts, books, instruments, and images.17 13. Here, we used Robert Merton s approach to analyze the...
Journal Articles
Historical Studies in the Natural Sciences. 2020; 503217–247 doi: https://doi.org/10.1525/hsns.2020.50.3.217
Published: 28 May 2020
... physical interpretation and were pursued for the sake of their own rigor. Pushing questions in practical and applied mathematics to the side, American mathematicians filled the pages of journals, dissertations, and conference proceedings with research in fields like group theory and postulate theory...
Journal Articles
Historical Studies in the Natural Sciences. 2020; 503311–322 doi: https://doi.org/10.1525/hsns.2020.50.3.311
Published: 28 May 2020
... sociologist of science Yves Gingras deals with these issues in Science and Religion: An Impossible Dialogue (translated by Peter Keating). One of Gingras s objectives is to inform the reader about the many meth- odological problems with prevailing historical approaches to studying science and religion (7...
Journal Articles
Historical Studies in the Natural Sciences. 2020; 501-281–89 doi: https://doi.org/10.1525/hsns.2020.50.1-2.81
Published: 02 April 2020
... science over time. In the journal s early years, authors in its pages pursued a fine-grained interest in the intersection of intellectual developments in the sciences with the broadly social forces of scientific communities and world views. That intersection highlighted how the context of theory, existing...
Journal Articles
Historical Studies in the Natural Sciences. 2020; 501-217–24 doi: https://doi.org/10.1525/hsns.2020.50.1-2.17
Published: 02 April 2020
... of science Laudan, Lakatos, and others grappled with the rather specific phil- osophical problem of how to account for theory change and the progress of knowledge in rational terms.12 According to Lakatos, historically informed philosophy of science aimed to provide a rational explanation of the...
Journal Articles
Historical Studies in the Natural Sciences. 2020; 501-241–49 doi: https://doi.org/10.1525/hsns.2020.50.1-2.41
Published: 02 April 2020
... Algorithmically: From Cold War Computer Science to the Socialist Information Culture, HSNS 49, no. 2 (2019): 194 225. 2. E.g., Kenkichiro Koizumi, The Emergence of Japan s First Physicists: 1868 1900, HSPS 6 (1975): iv 108. 3. E.g., Robert E. Kohler, Irving Langmuir and the Octet Theory of Valence, HSPS 4...
Journal Articles
Historical Studies in the Natural Sciences. 2020; 501-2129–182 doi: https://doi.org/10.1525/hsns.2020.50.1-2.129
Published: 02 April 2020
... period- icity. Rather, we will focus on the precise moment in the history of science when Mendeleev, having already composed his first periodic table, was pre- paring to inform the scientific world of his achievement. We will prove that the sequence of events typically associated with this moment is...
Journal Articles
Historical Studies in the Natural Sciences. 2020; 501-290–128 doi: https://doi.org/10.1525/hsns.2020.50.1-2.90
Published: 02 April 2020
... civi- lizations, adding evidence from the tree rings of giant sequoias to sunspot and glaciation theories to strengthen the connection between climatic history and the rise and fall of civilizations.21 These were moral tales that explainedWestern dynamism and Eastern stasis in terms of prevailing...
Journal Articles
Historical Studies in the Natural Sciences. 2019; 495504–555 doi: https://doi.org/10.1525/hsns.2019.49.5.504
Published: 01 November 2019
... the cytoplasm the cell membrane . . . the outer arrow is placed as close to the inner arrow as possible, or is simply erased and forgotten. 2 Although this sharp boundary is now one of the defining characteristics of the cell, in the cell theory s first century the membrane led a more dubious life...
Journal Articles
Historical Studies in the Natural Sciences. 2019; 495556–565 doi: https://doi.org/10.1525/hsns.2019.49.5.556
Published: 01 November 2019
.... Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 2019. 240 pp., illus, index. ISBN 978-0-2620-3904-8. $32.00 (hardcover). Over the last decade, histories of data, information, and quantification have flourished in direct engagement with our towering twenty-first-century social technologies: big data, digital surveillance, and...
Journal Articles
Historical Studies in the Natural Sciences. 2019; 495471–503 doi: https://doi.org/10.1525/hsns.2019.49.5.471
Published: 01 November 2019
... charting the global trajectory of behavioral theories and models postwar, it provides a fine example for the indeterminacy or instability of scientific meaning, thus clearly illustrating the sociocultural dynamics of localization and hybridization that studies of science in translation have labored to...
Journal Articles
Historical Studies in the Natural Sciences. 2019; 495566–572 doi: https://doi.org/10.1525/hsns.2019.49.5.566
Published: 01 November 2019
... Foucauldian histories of the present and Actor-Network Theory (ANT). Moreira s period of study with John Law perhaps explains his affinity with ANT, which, he argues, is an adequate conceptual tool to pursue a gene- alogical history of the present (8). The Foucauldian-ANT approach serves to underpin a...
Journal Articles
Historical Studies in the Natural Sciences. 2019; 494447–458 doi: https://doi.org/10.1525/hsns.2019.49.4.447
Published: 01 September 2019
.... Central to her theory is that tumor cells are not all equal, with at least some being stem cells, which, she asserts, explains many of the features of cancer and could lead to the development of new tools in our arsenal of treatments. Whereas Fagan s work is useful from a theoretical point of view...
Journal Articles
Historical Studies in the Natural Sciences. 2019; 494351–383 doi: https://doi.org/10.1525/hsns.2019.49.4.351
Published: 01 September 2019
... Chicago Press, 2016), 333 34. 9. Peter A. Chow-White, The Informationalization of Race: Communication, Databases, and the Digital Coding of the Genome, in Genetics and the Unsettled Past: The Collision of DNA, Race, and History, ed. Keith Wailoo, Alondra Nelson, and Catherine Lee (New Brunswick, NJ...
Journal Articles
Historical Studies in the Natural Sciences. 2019; 494384–419 doi: https://doi.org/10.1525/hsns.2019.49.4.384
Published: 01 September 2019
... theories, suitable models, or sufficient actuarial experience to answer adequately the questions or supply the information needs of policymakers . . .What is needed now are expert judgment fore- casts subjective though they necessarily must be on some of the 45. Regarding deep time and its relationship to...
Journal Articles
Historical Studies in the Natural Sciences. 2019; 494420–446 doi: https://doi.org/10.1525/hsns.2019.49.4.420
Published: 01 September 2019
..., Wallace sought to inform his readers of the situation at hand and dispose of any misinformation. To do this, he enlisted the help of an engineer from that planet of canals, Mars.31 Because 28. Waldo, An Engineer s Life (ref. 24), 321. 29. Ibid., 332. 30. John F. Wallace, Plain Facts about the Panama...
Journal Articles
Historical Studies in the Natural Sciences. 2019; 493300–337 doi: https://doi.org/10.1525/hsns.2019.49.3.300
Published: 01 June 2019
... Göttingen in the late eighteenth century, by focusing on universal historian August Ludwig Schlözer and the experimentalist Georg Christoph Lichtenberg. In a time of scientific and political revolutions, they regarded facts as eternal knowledge, contrasting them with short-lived theories and speculations...
Journal Articles
Historical Studies in the Natural Sciences. 2019; 493273–299 doi: https://doi.org/10.1525/hsns.2019.49.3.273
Published: 01 June 2019
... with the act of climbing mountains. It was in this era that alpinism, writes Wigen, became a tool to elevate the Japanese people as a whole: to a more refined sensibility, a more informed perspective, and a more exalted status in the hierarchy of nations. 7 Japan s glacier debate, we argue, throws...