[Footnotes]

[Footnotes]
1
Fritz Reiche, Die Quantentheorie: Ihr Ursprung und ihre Entwicklung (Berlin, 1921)
John H. Van VIeck, "Quantum Principles and Line Spectra," Bull. Nat. Res. Council, 10 (1926), dated 7 August 1925
Werner Heisenberg, "Die Entwicklung der Quantentheorie 1918-1928," Naturwiss., 16 (1929), 490–496.
2
Thomas S. Kuhn, et al., Sources for History of Quantum Physics: An Inventory and Report (Philadelphia, 1967).
Wolfgang Pauli, Wis- senschaftlicher Briefwechsel mit Bohr, Einstein, Heisenberg, u.a. The first volume covering 1919–1929
3
Daniel Serwer, " Unmechanischer Zzvang: Pauli, Heisenberg, and the Rejection of the Mechanical Atom, 1923–1925." Hist. Stud. Phys. Scl, 8 (1977), 189–256.
4
"Zwang" (ibid., p. 190, n. 4).
5
Niels Bohr, "Linienspektren und Atombau," Ann. d. Phys., 71 (1923), 228–288, on p. 276.
Serwer, "Unmechanischer Zwang," pp. 206–208.
6
Serwer, ibid., pp. 237ff.
7
Ibid., p. 255.
8
Joan Bromberg, "The Impact of the Neutron: Bohr and Heisenberg," Hist. Stud. Phys. Set, 3 (1971), 307–341.
9
Serwer, "Unmechanischer Zwang," p. 254.
10
Heisenberg to Bohr, 27 November [1933] [BSC 20, 2]
ibid.
11
"The Richtmyer Memorial Lecture— When is a Particle?" Am. J. Phys., 46 [1978], 597–606, on p. 600
Robert H. Kargon, "The Conservative Mode: Robert A. Millikan and the Twentieth-Century Revolution in Physics," /sis, 68 (1977), 509–526.
12
Heisenberg to Pauli, 19 November [1921] (SHQP 80
Pauli, Briefwechsel, [16]).
13
Pauli to Bohr, 11 February 1924 (BSC 14, 3
Pauli, Briefwechsel, [54]).
14
Werner Heisenberg, "Über eine Abánderung der formalen Regeln der Quanten- theorie beim Problem der anomalen Zeemaneffekte," Zs. f. Phys., 26 (1924), 291–307
"Über ein neues Quantenprin- zip und dessen Anwendung auf die Theorie der anomalen Zeemaneffekte" (SHQP 45, 8).
Serwer, "Unmechanischer Zwang," pp. 215ff.
15
Werner Heisenberg, "Zur Quantentheorie der Linienstruktur und der anomalen Zeemaneffekte," Zs. f. Phys., 8 (1922), 273–297
received 17 December 1921.
Serwer, "Unmechanischer Zwang/' pp. 209-210
Edward MacKinnon, "Heisenberg, Models, and the Rise of Matrix Mechanics," Hist. Stud. Phys. Sci., 8 (1977), 137–188, on p. 141
Paul Forman, "The Doublet Riddle and Atomic Physics circa 1924," Jsis, 59 (1968), 156–174, on pp. 159–160.
"Alfred Landé and the Anomalous Zeeman Effect, 1919–1921," Hist. Stud. Phys. Sci., 2 (1970), 153–261.
16
Heisenberg, "Zur Quantentheorie der Linienstruktur," p. 273.
17
Heisenberg to Landé, 29 October 1921 [SHQP 6, 2]
18
Max Born, "Quantentheorie und Stórungsrechnung," Naturwiss., 11 [1923], 537–542, on p. 541.
19
Sommerfeld to Bohr, 25 March 1922 [BSC 7, 3].
20
Verhl. Opt. Inst. Petrograd, 1 (1920).
"Termstruktur und Zeemaneffekte der Multipletts," Zs. f. Phys., 15 (1923), 189–205, on p. 189, n. 3
ibid.
Geschichte der Quantentheorie [Mannheim, 1967], pp. 89–90
21
Q. S. Barnett, "Magnetization by Rotation," Phys. Rev., 6 [1915], 239–270
A. Einstein and J. W. de Haas, "Experimenteller Nachweis for Ampéreschen Molekularströme," Verhl. Deut. Phys. Geselh, 17 [1915], 152–170
22
Niels Bohr, "Der Bau der Atome und die physikalischen und chemischen Eigenschaften der Elemente," lecture delivered 18 October 1921 in Copenhagen; pub- lished in German translation in Bohr, Drei Aufsätze Uber Spektren und Atombau (Braunschweig, 1922), pp. 70–146, on p. 98. B
The Theory of Spectra and Atomic Constitution [Cambridge, 1922], pp. 61–126
23
Heisenberg, "Zur Quantentheorie der Linienstruktur," p. 281.
24
Bohr to Landé, 15 May 1922 (SHQP 4, 3)
Serwer, "Unmechanischer Zwang," p. 224 and n. 103.
25
Arnold Sommerfeld, "Zur Quantentheorie der Spektrallinien," Ann. d. Phys., 51 (1916), 1-94 and 125–167.
26
Niels Bohr, "On the Quantum Theory of Line-Spectra. Part I," D. Kgl. Danske Vidensk. Selsk. Skrifter, naturv. og. math. Afd., 4 (1918)
Sources of Quantum Mechanics, ed. B. L. Van der Waerden (New York: Dover edition, 1967), pp. 95–137
in Niels Bohr, Collected Works, gen. ed. L. Rosenfeld, III: The Correspondence Principle (1918–1923), ed. J. R. Nielsen (Amsterdam, 1976), 65–102.
Sources, p. 106
Sources, p. 107
28
Forman, "Alfred Landé and the Anomalous Zeeman Effect, 1919– 1921"
Arnold Sommerfeld, Atombau und Spektrallinien, 3rd ed. (Braunschweig, 1922)
Van Vleck, "Quantum Principles and Line Spectra."
31
Arnold Sommerfeld, "Allgemeine spektroskopische Gesetze, insbesondere ein magnetooptischer Zerlegungssatz," Ann. d. Phys., 63 (1920), 221–263, on p. 231
32
Joseph Larmor, "On the Theory of the Magnetic Influence on Spectra; and on Radiation from Moving Ions," Phil. Mag., 44 (1897), 503–512
H. A. Lorentz, "Über den Einfluss magnetischer Kräfte auf die Emission des Lichtes," Ann. d. Phys., 63 (1897), 278–284.
33
Arnold Sommerfeld, "Zur Theorie des Zeeman-Effektes der Wasserstofflinien, mit einem Anhang über den Stark-Effekt," Phys. Zs., 17 (1916), 491–507
Peter Debye, "Quantenhypothese und Zeeman-Effekte," ibid., pp. 507–512.
34
Sommerfeld, Ātombau und Spektralhnien, 4th ed. (B̄raunschweig, 1924), Figure 135, p. 675.
35
Alfred Landé, "Über den anomalen Zeemaneffekt (Teil I)," Zs. f. Phys., 5 (1921), 231–241
Forman, "Alfred Landé," pp. 195f.
36
Sommerfeld to Landé, 25 February 1921 (SHQP 4, 13
Forman, "Alfred Landé," p. 249).
37
Alfred Landé, Fortschritte der Quantentheorie (Dresden, 1922), p. 54
38
"Verzeichnis der Bewerber um Aufnahme in das Maximilianeum für das Jahr 1920," records at Maximilianeum, Munich
Armin Hermann, Werner Heisen- berg: In Selbstzeugnissen und Bilddokumenten (Hamburg, 1976), p. 13
Werner Heisenberg 1901-1976, trans. Timothy Nevill (Bonn-Bad Godesberg, 1976), pp. 12-13.
39
Sommerfeld/ "Allgemeine spektroskopische Gesetze."
40
Sommerfeid, Atombau, 2nd ed. (1921), p. ix.
41
Arnold Sommerfeld, "Ein Zahlenmysterium in der Theorie des Zeemaneffektes,', Naturwiss., 8 (1920), 61–64.
42
Heisenberg to Pauli, 19 November [1921] (SHQP 80
Pauii, Briefwechsel, [16]).
43
Heisenberg to Landé, 3 October 1922 (SHQP 6, 2).
44
//Vorlesungsverzeichnis fur das Wintersemester 1920/21/' Phys. Zs., 21 (1920), 557–560, on p. 559.
45
Arnold Sommerfeld, "Schwebende Fragen der Atomphysik," lecture delivered at Naturforscher-Versammlung, Bad Nauheim, 19–25 September 1920, printed in Phys. Zs., 21 (1920), 619–621.
46
Forman, "Alfred Landé," pp. 163–164.
47
Sommerfeld, "Schwebende Fragen," p. 620.
Niels Bohr, "Über die Serienspektra der Elemente," Zs. f. Phys., 2 (1920), 423–469
Bohr, Drei Aufsatze, pp. 20-69.
"On the Series Spectra of the Elements," in The Theory of Spectra, pp. 20–60
Collected Works, III, 241–282.
48
Bohr, ibid., p. 59.
Alfred Landé, "Das Serienspektrum des Heliums," Phys. Zs., 20 [1919], 233–234
"Storungstheorie des Heliums," Phys. Zs., 21 [1920], 114–122
49
Woldemar Voigt, "Weiteres zum Ausbau der Koppelungstheorie der Zeemanef- fekte," Ann. d. Phys., 41 (1913), 403–440
"Die Anomalen Zeemaneffekte der Spektral- linien vom D-Typus," Ann. d. Phys., 42 (1913), 210–230.
50
Voigt, "Weiteres zum Aus- bau der Koppelungstheorie," p. 440.
51
Bohr, "On the Series Spectra," p. 59.
52
Sommerfeld to Landé [ca. 31 March 1921] (SHQP 32, 1
Forman, "Alfred Landé," p. 261).
53
Heisenberg to Landé, 28 November 1921 [SHQP 6, 2]
"Deutscher Physiker-Tag" in Jena, 18–24 September 1921.
Phys. Zs., 22 (1921), 320.
54
Arnold Sommerfeld, "Quantentheoretische Umdeutung der Voigtschen Theorie des anomalen Zeemaneffektes vom D-Linientypus," Zs. f. Phys., 8 (1922), 257–272
Atombau, 3rd ed. (1922), pp. 491–493.
85
Werner Heisenberg, "Über quantentheoretische Umdeutung kinematischer und mechanischer Beziehungen," Zs. f. Phys., 33 (1925), 879–893
Sources of Quantum Mechanics, pp. 261–276.
56
SHQP 80
Pauli, Briefwechsel, [93]
57
"Münchener physikalisches Mittwochcol- loquium" (SHQP 20)
58
Naturwiss., 10 (1922), 65–104.
Hilbert Festschrift.
59
Arnold Sommerfeld and Ernst Back, "Fünfundzwanzig Jahre Zeemaneffekte," Naturwiss., 9 [1921], 911–916, on pp. 913–914.
60
Heisenberg to Landé, 16 November 1921 (SHQP 6, 2).
Heisenberg to Landé, 28 November 1921 [SHQP 6, 2]
61
"Die theoretische Formeln bedeuten bis jetzt zweifellos nur eine erste Náherung." (Heisenberg, "Zur Quantentheorie der Linienstruktur/' p. 295.)
ibid.
Heisenberg to Pauli, 25 November [1921] [SHQP 80; Pauli, Briefwechsel, (17)]
62
Hans A. Bethe and Edwin S. Salpeter, Quantum Mechanics of One- and Two-Electron Atoms (Berlin, 1957), p. 211.
63
Niels Bohr, "Atomic Structure," Nature, 107 [1921], 104–107, dated 14 February 1921
ibid., 108 [1921], 208–209, dated 16 September 1921
64
Sommerfeld, Atombau, 3rd ed. (1922), p. viii.
65
Sommerfeld, "Quantentheoretische Umdeutung," p. 257.
66
"Versuch zur modellmássigen Deutung des Terms der scharfen Nebenserie," Zs. /. Phys., 4 [1921], 347-354
Heisenberg, "Zur Quantentheorie der Linienstruktur," p. 279, n. 1.
67
Heisenberg, ibid., p. 276.
69
Heisenberg to Pauli, 19 November [1921]
17 December [1921]
SHQP 80
Fauli, Briefwechsel (16) and (18)
Heisenberg to Landé, 1 December 1921 [SHQP 6, 2].
70
Heisenberg to Pauli, 25 November [1921] (SHQP 80
Pauli, Briefwechsel [17]
71
Heisenberg to Pauli, 17 December [1921] (SHQP 80
Pauli, Briefwechsel [18]
72
Landé, "Zur Theorie der anomalen Zeeman- und magneto-mechanischen Effekte," p. 353.
73
Landé, ibid., p. 353, n. 4.
74
Sommerfeld to Einstein, 11 January 1922, in Albert Einstein and Arnold Sommer- feld, Briefwechsel, ed. A. Hermann (Basel, 1968), pp. 96–97.
75
note 61.
76
note 29.
77
Bohr, "Atomic Structure."
78
Landé to Bohr, 12 May 1922 (BSC 4, 3)
Landé, "Zur Theorie der anomalen Zeeman- und magneto-mechanischen Effekte," p. 353, n. 2.
79
Niels Bohr, "Über die Anwendung der Quantentheorie auf den Atombau. I. Die Grundpostulate der Quantentheorie," Zs. /. Phys., 13 (1923), 117–165, on pp. 135–139
"On the Application of Quantum Theory to Atomic Structure. Part I—The Fundamental Postulates," Proc. Comb. Phil. Soc, Supplement, 1924, dated November 1922
Collected Works, III, 455–500.
80
Landé, "Termstruktur und Zeemaneffeket der Multipletts."
81
Alfred Landé, "Das Versagen der Mechanik in der Quantentheorie/' Naturwiss., 11 (1923), 725–726
"Schwierigkeiten in der Quantentheorie des Atom- baues, besonders magnetischer Art," Phys. Zs., 24 (1923), 441–44
82
Bohr, "On the Series Spectra," p. 59.
83
Alfred Landé, "Über den anomalen Zeemaneffekt (II. Teil)," Zs. /. Phys., 7 (1921), 398-405
84
A. Rubinowicz, "Bohrsche Frequenzbedingung und Erhaltung des Impulsmomen- tes," Phys. Zs., 19 (1918), 441–445 and 465–474
88
Bohr, "On the Quantum Theory of Line-Spectra, Part I" [Sources], p. 131
Landé, "Über den anomalen Zeemaneffekt [Teil II," p. 232, n. 2.
86
"Damit stellen wir uns in bewussten Gegensatz zur klassischen Ausstrahlung." (Heisenberg, "Zur Quantentheorie der Linienstruktur," p. 281, n. 2.)
8
"Über den anomalen Zeemaneffekt [II. Teil]"
"Nachwort" to Pauli, Briefwechsel, vol. 1
Landé to Bohr, 12 May 1922 (BSC 4, 3).
88
Pauli to Landé, 5 October 1921 [SHQP 4, 12
Pauli, Briefwechsel, (14)].
89
Heisenberg to Landé, 3 October 1921 [SHQP 6, 2].
90
Heisenberg to Landé, 23 October 1921 (SHQP 6, 2).
91
Heisenberg to Landé, 23 October 1921 [SHQP 6, 2].
93
Heisenberg to Landé, 11 October 1921
16 October 1921
23 October 1921
94
Arnold Sommerfeld and Werner Heisenberg, "Die Intensitat der Mehrfachli- nien und ihrer Zeemankomponenten," Zs. f. Phys., 11 (1922), 131–154
"Eine Bemerkung über relativistische Róntgendubletts und Linienschárfe," Zs. f. Phys., 10 (1922), 393–398
95
"Das 'Gedankenexperiment/ von dem ich Ihnen das letzte Mai schrieb, hat mich gestern zu einem vollen Erfolge geführt." (Heisenberg to Landé, 29 October 1921 [SHQP 6, 2].)
96
ibid.
97
Landé, "Über den anomalen Zeemaneffekt (Teil I)," p. 231.
98
"Aber Rubinowicz setzt ja überhaupt völlige Symmetrie um die Feldachse, d.h. eigentlich den nortnalen Zeemaneffekt, voraus; also ist es umso gewagter, ihn [the total momentum] für Fragen des anomalen Zeemaneffektes anzuwenden." (Heisenberg to Landé, 16 October 1921 [SHQP 6, 2].)
99
Heisenberg to Landé, 5 November 1921
16 November 1921 (SHQP 6, 2).
100
Landé to Bohr, 12 May 1922 (BSC 4, 3)
101
/Tch begründe also das Auswahlprinzip uncí zugleich die raumliche Quantelung des Valenzelektrons überhaupt duren Korrespondenzpr[inzip] und Storungstheorie." (Heisenberg to Landé, 16 November 1921 [SHQP 6, 21.)
102
"Bei den Tripletts scheint mir wirklich ein Widerspruch gegen Rubinowicz vor- zuliegen, aber sind Impulsbetrachtungen wirklich so stichhaltig, nachdem sie in der Quantentheorie alie Augenblicke nicht mehr gelten? Glauben Sie überhaupt an die Kugelwelle?" (Heisenberg to Landé, 19 November 1921 [SHQP 6, 2].)
103
Heisenberg to Landé, 9 November 1921
16 November 1921
19 November 1921 (SHQP 6, 2).
104
Wolfgang Pauli, "Über das Modell des Wasserstoffmolekülion," Ann. d. Phys., 68 (1922), 177–204
105
Bohr, "On the Application of Quantum Theory," p. 12n.
Pauli, "Über das Modell des Wasserstoffmolekülion," section 3.
106
Heisenberg to Pauli, 19 November [1921] (SHQP 80
Pauli, Briefivechsel, [16]
107
Landé on 28 November 1921 (SHQP 6, 2).
108
Atombau, 3rd ed. (1922), pp. 310-324.
Sommerfeld to Einstein, 11 January 1922 [Einstein and Sommerfeld, Briefwechsel, p. 97].
109
Heisenberg to Landé, 29 October 1921 (SHQP 6, 2).
110
Heisenberg to Landé, 28 November 1921 [SHQP 6, 2].
111
ibid.
112
Heisenberg, "Zur Quantentheorie der Linienstruktur," pp. 281–282
(p. 281, n. 2
113
"Auch Sommerfeld halt meine theoretischen Überlegungen für vóllig gesichert" (Heisenberg to Landé, 28 November 1921 [SHQP, 6, 2]).
114
Heisenberg to Landé, 15 December 1921 [SHQP 6, 2].
115
Sommerfeld to Bohr, 25 March 1922 [BSC 7,3].
116
Werner Heisenberg, "Die absoluten Dimensionen der Kár- mánschen Wirbelbewegung," Phys. Zs., 23 [1922], 363–366
Werner Heisen- berg, "Über Stabilitát und Turbulenz von Flüssigkeitsstrómen," Ann. d. Phys., 74 [1924] 577–624
117
Sommerfeld, Atombau, 3rd ed. (1922), p. 501.
118
Ibid., p. 504.
119
Heisenberg to Landé, 25 January 1922 (SHQP 6, 2).
120
Bohr to Landé, 15 May 1922 [BSC 4, 3].
121
Bohr, "Linienspektra und Atombau," p. 251.
122
Bohr to Landé, 15 May 1922 [BSC 4, 3]
123
Bohr, "Der Bau der Atome," p. 99.
124
Heisenberg to Pauli, 6 March [1922] (SHQP 80
Pauli, Briefwechsel, [21]
Bohr, "Der Bau der Atome," p. 96.
125
Heisenberg's discussion of Bohr's ideas in Heisenberg to Landé, 25 January 1922 (SHQP 6, 2).
126
ibid.
Sommerfeld to Bohr, 25 March 1922 (BSC 7, 3).
127
Bohr, "Linienspektra und Atombau."
128
Max Born and Albert Einstein, Briefwechsel [Munich, 1969], p. 114.
Heisenberg to Pauli, 9 October 1923 [SHQP 80
Pauli, Briefwechsel, (47)].
129
Bohr, "On the Application," p. 42.
Bohr, "On the Series Spectra," p. 60
"Der Bau der Atome," p. 146.
130
Niels Bohr, "Die Theorie des Atombaus," Góttingen, 1922 [Bohr MSS 10, 5], p. 76.
131
Arnold Sommerfeld, "Model for Neutral Helium Atom," J. Ovt. Soc. Am., 7 [1923], 509–515
SHQP 6, 2
BSC 8, 2
132
Bohr, "Linienspektra und Atombau," p. 253.
133
Bohr, ibid.
note 26.
134
Niels Bohr and Dirk Coster, "Róntgenspektren und periodisches System der Elemente," Zs. f. Phys., 12 (1923), 342–374
135
Bohr, "Linienspektra und Atombau," p. 266n.
136
Niels Bohr, "Appendix to Part III [On the Quantum Theory of Line-Spectra]," D. Kgl Danske Vidensk. Selsk. Skrifter, naturv. og math. Afd., 4 (1922), 112–118
Collected Works, III, 178–184, on p. 117.
137
Landé, "Zur Theorie der anomalen Zeeman- und magneto-mechanischen Ef- fekte/' p. 353.
139
Landé, "Zur Theorie der anomalen Zeeman- und magneto-mechanischen Ef- fekte," pp. 353–354.
140
note 21.
141
Lahdé, "Über den anomalen Zeemaneffekt (II.Teil)."
142
Landé, "Termstruktur und Zeemaneffekte der Multipletts."
143
Arnold Sommerfeld, "Spektroskopische Magnetonenzahlen," Phys. Zs., 24 (1923), 360-364, on p. 364
144
Heisenberg to Pauli, 6 March (1922) (SHQP 80
Pauli, Briefwechsel, [21]).
145
Bohr to Landé, 3 March 1923 [SHQP 4, 1].
"Atomteoretiske Problemer" [1923], 9 pp. (Bohr MSS 11, 1).
146
Bohr to Landé, 3 March 1923 [SHQP 4, 1]
147
ibid.
148
Bohr, "Linienspektra und Atombau," p. 276.
149
Bohr to Landé, 3 March 1923 (SHQP 4, 1).
150
Bohr, "Linienspektra und Atombau," p. 276.
181
Serwer (Untnechanischer Zwang," pp. 206–208).
152
H. A. Kramers, "Über das Modell des Heliumatoms," Zs. f. Phys., 23 (1923), 312-341, on p. 340
153
"On the Constitution of Atoms and Molecules," Part I, Phil. Mag., 26 [1913], 1-25, on p. 7.
Bohr, "On the Application," p. 3.
154
Kramers, "Uber das Modell des Heliumatoms," p. 339
Bohr, "On the Applica- tion," pp. 15–16.
"Termstruktur und Zeemaneffekt der Multipletts, zweite Mitteilung," Zs. f. Phys., 19 [1923], 112–123, on p. 121
158
Irving Langmuir, "Forces within a static Atom," Phys. Rev., 18 [1921], 104.
A. H. Compton, "Possible Magnetic Polarity of Free Electrons," Phil. Mag., 41 [1921], 279–281.
156
John H. Van Vleck, "The Normal Helium Atom and Its Relation to the Quantum Theory," Phil Mag., 44 (1922), 842–869, on p. 851
157
Bohr, "Linienspektra und Atombau," p. 273, n. 1.
158
Ibid., p. 278.
159
Ibid., p. 276.
160
Werner Heisenberg, "Zur Quantentheorie der Multiplettstruktur und der anoma- len Zeemaneffekte", Zs. f. Phys., 32 (1925), 841–860, on p. 842
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