[Footnotes]

[Footnotes]
1
J. J. Thomson, "Cathode Rays," Phil. Mag., 44 (1897), 293–316.
Thomson, "On the Structure of the Atom," Phil. Mag., 7 (1904), 237–265
The Corpuscular Theory of Matter (London, 1907).
2
P. M. Heimann, "Moseley and Celtium: The Search for a Missing Element," Annals of Science, 23 (1967), 249–260
J. L. Heilbron, H. G. J. Moseley. The Life and Letters of an English Physicist 1887–1915 (Berkeley, 1974)
H. Kragh, "Historien om Hafnium," Fys. Tidsskr., 69 (1971), 168–182.
3
"The Forces between Atoms and Chemical Affinity," Phil. Mag., 27 (1914), 757–789
The Romanes Lecture (Oxford, 1914).
"On the Structure of the Molecule and Chemical Combination," Phil. Mag., 41 (1921), 510–524
"The Electron in Chemistry," J. of the Franklin Inst., 195 (1923), 593–637.
4
Deutsche Rundschau (November 1889).
5
A. Sommerfeld, Atombau und Spektrallinien, 3rd ed. (Braunschweig, 1922), p. 88.
6
J. L. Heilbron, "The Kossel- Sommerfeld Theory and the Ring Atom," Isis, 58 (1967), 450–485, on 450.
7
Sommerfeld to Bohr, 5 February 1919, ibid.
8
A. H. Compton, "The Intensity of X-Ray Reflection, and the Distribution of the Electrons in Atoms," Phys. Rev., 9 (1917), 29.
Bragg, "X-Rays and Crystal Structure," Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc, Series A, 215 (1915), 253.
P. Debye and P. Scherrer, "Atombau," Phys. Zs., 19 (1918), 474.
9
W. L. Bragg, R. W. James, and C. H. Bosanquet, "The Distribution of Electrons around the Nucleus in the Sodium and Chlorine Atoms," Phil. Mag., 44 (1922), 433.
10
P. Debye, "Der erste Elektronring der Atome," Phys. Zs., 18 (1917), 276–284.
Heilbron, "Kossel-Sommerfeld Theory."
11
L. Vegard, "Über die Erklärung der Röntgenspektren," Ber. d. Deut. Phys. Ges., 19 (1917) , 328–343
"The X-Ray Spectra and the Constitution of the Atom," Phil Mag., 35 (1918) , 293–326.
12
Heilbron, "Kossel-Sommerfeld Theory," pp. 476–477.
13
L. Vegard, "On the X-Ray Spectra and the Constitution of the Atom," Phil. Mag., 37 (1919), 237–280
"Die Erklárung der Röntgenspektren und die Konstitution der Atome," Phys. Zs., 20 (1919), 97–104 and 121–125.
14
L. Vegard, "Der Atombau auf Grundlage der Röntgenspektren," Ber. d. Deut. Phys. Ges., 19 (1917), 344–353
15
Heilbron, "Kossel- Sommerfeld Theory," pp. 484–485.
16
C. Benedicks, "Beiträge zur Kenntnis der Elektrizitätsleitung in Metallen und Legierungen," Jahrb. Rad. u. El., 13 (1916), 351.
17
Vegard, "On the X-Ray Spectra," p. 280
18
I. Langmuir, "The Arrangement of Electrons in Atoms and Molecules," J. Am. Chem. Soc, 41 (1919), 868–934, on 868.
J. D. Main Smith, Chemistry and Atomic Structure (London, 1924), p. 176.
19
C. R. Bury, "Langmuir's Theory on the Arrangement of Electrons in Atoms and Molecules," J. Am. Chem. Soc, 43 (1921), 1602–1609.
20
R. Ladenburg, "Die Elektronenordnung in den Elementen der grossen Perioden," Die Naturwissenschaften, 8 (1920), 5–11
N. Bohr, "On the Constitution of Atoms and Molecules," part II, Phil Mag., 26 (1913), 476–502
A. Sommerfeld, "Atombau und Röntgenspektren," Phys. Zs., 19 (1918), 297–307.
21
H. S. King, "Correlation of Atomic Structure and Spectra," J. Am. Chem. Soc., 44 (1921), 323–328.
22
Bohr, "On the Constitution of Atoms," p. 476.
23
Ibid., p. 486.
24
J. W. Nicholson, 'The High-Frequency Spectra of the Elements, and the Structure of the Atom," Phil. Mag., 27 (1914), 541–564.
25
Philosophical Magazine, in U. Hoyer, "Über die Rolle der Stabilitätsbetrachtungen in der Bohrschen Atomtheorie," Arch. Hist. Ex. Sc., 10 (1973), 177–206; on 204–205.
26
Bohr to Moseley, 21 November 1913
27
"On the Constitution of Atoms," part I, pp. 12–14
28
N. Bohr, "On the Quantum Theory of Line Spectra," Kgl Dan. Vid. Selsk. Skr. Nat. Mat. Afd., Series 8, 4 (1918–1922), 1–118.
B. L. van der Waerden, Sources of Quantum Mechanics (Amsterdam, 1967).
M. Jammer, The Conceptual Development of Quantum Mechanics (New York, 1966), pp. 110–118.
29
Ibid., p. 19.
30
H. G. Small, 'The Helium Atom in the Old Quantum Theory," Diss. Univer- sity of Wisconsin 1971.
31
N. Bohr, "The Spectra of Hydrogen and Helium," Nature, 95 (1915), 6.
32
N. Bohr, manuscript draft and notes entitled "On the Mechanical Problem of the Motion of a Nuclear Atom with Two Electrons" (1916–1917)
"Helium Spectrum" (1916–1917)
33
J. H. Van Vleck, "The Dilemma of the Helium Atom," Phys. Rev., 19 (1922), 419.
34
H. A. Kramers, "Über das Modell des Heliumatoms," Zs. Phys., 13 (1923), 312–342, on 342.
35
M. Born and W. Heisenberg, "Die Elektronenbahnen im angeregten Heliumatom," Zs. Phys., 16 (1923), 229.
36
Kramers, "Über das Modell des Heliumatoms."
37
N. Bohr, "Über die Serienspektra der Elemente," Zs. Phys., 2 (1920), 423–469, on 465.
38
Ibid.
39
Bohr to O. W. Richardson of 25 December 1919
Heilbron, "Kossel-Sommerfeld Theory," p. 478
40
Bohr to Rudolf Ladenburg, 16 July 1920 (BSC)
41
Erwin Schrödinger, 15 June 1921 (BSC).
42
N. Bohr, "Atomic Structure," Nature, 107 (1921), 104–107. Letter dated 14 February 1921.
43
N. Campbell, "Atomic Structure," Nature, 106 (1920), 408–409.
44
Bohr, "Atomic Structure" (February 1921), p. 106.
45
Ibid.
46
N. Bohr, "Atomernes Bygrving og Stoffernes fysiske og kemiske Egenskaber," Fys. Tidsskr., 19 [1921], 153–220, on 179
"On the Selection Principle of the Quantum Theory," Phil. Mag., 43 [1922], 1112–1116.
47
N. Bohr, "Atomic Structure," Nature, 108 (1921), 208–209
"Atomic Structure," Nature, 107 [1921], 170
49
Bohr, 21 February 1921 (BSC).
Kramers to Landé, 14 February 1921.
Paul Forman, "Scientific Internationalism and the Weimar Physicists: The Ideology and Its Manipulation in Germany after World War I," Isis, 64 (1973), 151–181.
50
Ehrenfest to Bohr, 27 September 1921 (BSC)
51
Sommerfeld to Landé, 3 March 1921.
Forman, "Scientific Internationalism."
52
Rutherford to Bohr, 26 September 1921 (BSC).
53
Bohr, "Atomernes Bygning."
54
N. Bohr, "Der Bau der Atome und die physikalischen und chemischen Eigenschaf- ten der Elemente," Zs. Phys., 9 (1922), 1–67
N. Bohr, Drei Aufsätze über Spektren und Atombau (Braunschweig, 1922)
The Theory of Spectra and Atomic Constitution [Cambridge, 1922]
Les Spectres et la Structure de VAtome [Paris, 1923]
55
Franck to Bohr, 21 February 1922 (BSC).
56
Kramers to Landé, 28 February 1921 (BSC).
57
Sommerfeld to Bohr, 25 April 1921 (BSC).
58
Atomes et Élec- trons (Paris, 1923).
Leon Brillouin, P. Weiss, M. de Brog- lie, P. Langevin, Jean Perrin, Manne Siegbahn, Rutherford, Ehrenfest, and R. A. Milli- kan. See also "Solvay Mpderne og Kvantefysikkens Udvikling" in N. Bohr, Atomfysik og Menneskelig Erkendelse, II (Copenhagen, 1964)
(The Solvay Meetings and the Develop- ment of Quantum Physics [Institut International de Physique, 19611).
59
B. Schroder-Gudehus, Deutsche Wissenschaft und inter- nationale Zusammenarbeit, 1914–1928 (Geneva, 1966)
D. J. Kevles, "Into Hostile Political Camps: The Reorganization of International Science in World War I," Isis, 62 (1971), 47–60
Forman, "Scientific Internationalism."
62
W. Heisenberg, Der Teil und das Ganze (München, 1969), p. 45.
63
L. Bloch, "La structure des atomes d'aprés les travaux récents de N. Bohr," J. phys. et rad., 5 (1922), 110–124.
64
F. Paneth, "Das periodische System der chemischen Elemente," Ergebn. d. Ex. Naturwiss., 1 (1922), 362–403.
65
Ibid., p. 397;
66
A. D'Abro, The Rise of the New Physics (Dover, 1951), 2, 529–549
A. Sommerfeld, Atombau und Spektrallinien, 4th ed. (Braunschweig, 1924), pp. 179–197
M. Born, Vorlesungen uber Atommechanik (Berlin, 1925), pp. 170–209.
67
Bohr, Göttingen lectures (BSC), 21 June 1922.
68
H. A. Kramers, "Das Korrespondenzprinzip und der Schalenbau des Atoms," Naturwissenschaften, 27 (1923), 550–559.
69
F. Hund, Geschichte der Quantentheorie (Mannheim, 1967), 94–103
J. L. Heilbron, "A His- tory of the Problem of Atomic Structure from the Discovery of the Electron to the Beginning of Quantum Mechanics," Diss. University of California, Berkeley, 1964, pp. 392–401.
H. Hoist and H. A. Kramers, Bohrs Atom- teori (Copenhagen, 1922)
The Atom and the Bohr Theory of its Structure (London, 1924).
70
N. Bohr, "Linienspektren und Atombau," Ann. d. Phys., 71 (1923), 228–286, on 253 and 256.
71
N. Bohr, "Über die Anwendung der Quantentheone auf den Atombau, I: Die Grundpostulate der Quantentheone," Zs. Phys., 13 (1923), 117–159.
"On the Application of the Quantum Theory to Atomic Structure, I: The Funda- mental Postulates," Proc. Cambr. Phil. Soc. (Supplement), 22 (1924), 1–42.
72
Bohr, "Atomic Structure" (February 1921).
73
Bohr, "Atomic Structure" (September 1921).
74
A. Sommerfeld, "Zur Quantentheorie der Spektrallinien," Sitzungsber. Miinchen Ak. (1916), pp. 131–182.
Heilbron, "Atomic Structure," pp. 356–362 (Sommer- feld) and pp. 381–384 (Schrödinger).
75
E. Schrödinger, "Versuch der modellmassigen Deutung des Terms der scharfen Nebenserien," Zs. Phys., 4 (1921), 347–357.
W. T. Scott, Erwin Schrödinger. An Introduction to His Writings [Amherst, Mass., 1967], p. 46.
76
Sommerfeld, Atombau 3rd ed., p. 404.
77
Bohr to Schrödinger, 15 June 1921 (BSC).
78
H. A. Kramers, "Atom- og Kvanteteoriens Udvikling i Arene 1913–1925," Fys. Tidsskr., 33 (1935), 82–96.
80
Jammer, Quantum Mechanics, pp. 89–109
Hund, Quantentheorie, pp. 71–84
Heilbron, "Atomic Structure," pp. 342–347
E. Whittaker, A History of the Theories of Aether and Electridty, vol. 2: The Modern Theories (London, 1953), pp. 118–131
A. E. Ruark and H. C. Urey, Atoms, Molecules and Quanta, 2nd ed. (New York, 1964), 1, 72–74 and 128–135
D. ter Haar, The Old Quantum Theory (Oxford, 1967), pp. 43–54.
81
Bohr, Göttingen lectures (BSC), 20 June 1922.
83
Bohr, Göttingen lectures (BSC), 21 June 1922.
84
Bohr, Gottingen lectures (BSC), 21 June 1922.
85
Bohr, "Atomernes Bygning," p. 207.
86
George Hevesy, "Aufzeichnungen über die Entdeckung des Hf. Geschrieben in Tapio-Sap im Juli 1923," Niels Bohr Institute. The appendix appeared in Bohr, Drei Aufsatze, p. 147.
87
Bohr, Göttingen lectures (BSC), 21 June 1922.
88
Bohr, Göttingen lectures (BSC), 21 June 1922.
89
Ruark and Urey, Atoms
Sommerfeld, Atombau
J. H. van Vleck, "Quantum Principles and Line Spectra," Bull. Nat. Res. Council, 10 (1926), 1
E. Buchwald, Das Korrespondenzprinzip (Berlin, 1923).
Jammer, Quantum Mechanics
K. Meyer-Abich, Korrespondenz, Individualtät und Komplementarität (Wiesbaden, 1965).
90
Jammer, ibid., p. 118
91
Bohr, "Serienspektra," pp. 427 and 444.
92
Bohr, "Atomic Structure" (February 1921), p. 104.
93
Ibid., p. 105.
94
Bohr, "Atomernes Bygning," p. 183.
96
Kramers, "Atom- og Kvanteteoriens," p. 87.
97
Bohr, "Atomernes Bygning," p. 182.
98
H. A. Kramers, "Intensities of Spectral Lines," Kgl. Dan. Vid. Selsk. Skr. Nat. Mat. Afd., Series 8, 3 (1919).
99
Van Vleck, "Quantum Principles," p. 97.
100
F. C. Hoyt, "The Relative Intensity of X-Ray Lines," Phil. Mag., 46 (1923), 135–145
"Relative Probabilities of the Transitions Involved in the Balmer Lines of Hydrogen," Phil. Mag., 47 (1924), 826–831
"The Harmonic Analysis of Electron Orbits," Phys. Rev., 25 (1925), 174–186
"Application of the Correspondence Principle to Relative Intensities in Series Spectra," Phys. Rev., 26 (1925), 749–760.
101
R. C. Tolman, "Note on the Problem of the Quantitative Formulation of Bohr's Correspondence Principle," Phil. Mag., 49 (1925), 130–136.
102
Heilbron, "Atomic Structure," p. 396
ibid., p. 395
103
A. Landé, "Das Serienspektrum des Heliums," Phys. Zs., 20 (1919), 228–234
"Störungstheorie des Heliumatoms," Phys. Zs., 21 (1920), 114–122.
Heilbron, "Atomic Structure," pp. 376–380.
104
J. Franck and F. Reiche, "Über Helium und Parhelium," Zs. Phys., 1 (1920), 154.
105
Bohr, "Atomernes Bygning," p. 184.
106
Ibid., p. 187.
108
Bohr, "Atomernes Bygning," p. 191.
109
Bohr, "Göttingen lectures," 21 June 1922. "Einen sehr heimtückischen Überfall auf die Symmetric"
110
Bohr, "Atomernes Bygning," p. 200.
112
E. C. Stoner, "The Distribution of Electrons among Atomic Levels," Phil. Mag., 48 (1924), 719–736, on 719.
113
Ibid.
114
A. Landé, "Würfelatome, periodisches System und Molekülbin- dung," Zs. Phys., 2 (1920), 380–404.
Heilbron, "Atomic Structure," pp. 371–380
Paul Forman, "Alfred Landé and the Anomalous Zeeman Effect, 1919–1921," Hist. Studies Phys. Sci., 3 (1970), 153–237.
115
Forman, ibid., p. 177
116
Sommerfeld, Atombau, 3rd ed., p. 134.
117
G. Wentzel, "Fortschritte der Atom- und Spektraltheorie," Ergebn. d. Ex. Natur- wiss., 1 (1922), 299–314.
118
Nuclear Physics, 41 (1963), 11–16.
119
Del og Helhed [Copenhagen, 19711, p. 45
120
Kramers, "Atom- og Kvanteteoriens," p. 90.
121
Heisenberg, R. Courant, and C. Møller in S. Rozental, ed., Niels Bohr (Copenhagen, 1964).
122
L. Rosenfeld and E. Rüdinger, "Gennembrudsårene 1911–1918," ibid., pp. 36-71.
Atombau, 4th ed., p. 658.
123
Hund, Quantentheorie, p. 76.
124
P. Ehrenfest, "Adiabatische Transformationen in der Quantentheorie und ihre Behandlung durch Niels Bohr," Naturwissenschaften, 11 (1923), 543–550, on 550.
125
Atombau, 4th ed., p. VI.
126
Ibid., p. 192.
127
A. Sommerfeld, "Zur Theorie des periodischen Systems," Phys. Zs., 26 (1925), 70–74
128
E. Rutherford, 'The Electrical Structure of Matter,"
Chemical News, 127 (1923), 177–182
129
A. Dauvillier and L. de Broglie, "Le système spectral des rayons röntgen et struc- ture de 1'atome," J. Phys. et Rad., 6 (1924), 1–19, on 1.
130
Bohr, "Serienspektra," p. 465.
131
Bohr, Göttingen lectures (BSC), 21 June 1922.
132
Bohr, Göttingen lectures (BSC), 21 June 1922.
133
J. W. van Spronsen, History of Periodic Systems (Amsterdam, 1969)
E. G. Mazurs, Graphic Representations of the Periodic System during One Hundred Years (Univ. of Alabama, 1974).
134
J. Thomsen, "Om den sandsynlige Forekomst af en Gruppe uvirksomme Grundstoffer," Oversigt over Kgl. Dan. Vid. Selsk. Forh. (1895), p. 1.
135
J. Thomsen, "Classifications des corps simples," Extr. Bull. d° l'Acad. Royale des Sciences et des Lettres de Dan. (1895), p. 1.
136
Langmuir to Bohr, 3 November 1921 (BSC).
137
G. N. Lewis, Valence and the Structure of Atoms and Molecules (New York, 1923), p. 58.
138
W. Hughes, "A Possible Reconciliation of the Atomic Models of Bohr and of Lewis and Langmuir," Nature, 110 (1922), 37
H. S. Allen, "An Atomic Model with Stationary Electrons," Nature, 110 (1922), 310
O. Lodge, "Bohr and Langmuir Atoms," Nature, 110 (1922), 341
N. V. Sidgwick, "Co-ordination Compounds and the Bohr Atom," J. Chem. Soc, 123 (1923), 725
"The Bohr-Atom and Covalency," Chem. & Ind. (1923), pp. 1203–1206
N. R. Campbell, "A Static or Dynamic Atom?" Nature, 111 (1923), 659
The Structure of the Atom (Cambridge, 1923)
W. P. Davey, "Radiation," J. Franklin Inst. (1924), p. 478.
139
Sidgwick, "Co-ordination Compounds."
140
Campbell, "A Static or Dynamic Atom?"
141
Ibid.
142
J. D. Main Smith, "The Bohr Atom," Chem. & Ind. (1923), pp. 1073–1078, on p. 1973.
143
J. D. Main Smith, "Atomic Structure," Chem. & Ind. (1924), pp. 323–325
Chemistry and Atomic Structure (London, 1924).
Jammer, Quantum Mechanics, p. 142.
144
Jammer, Quantum Mechanics, p. 136
W. Pauli, "Remarks on the History of the Exclusion Principle," Science, 103 (1946), 213–215.
145
W. Pauli, "Exclusion Principle and Quantum Mechanics," in Nobel Lectures—Physics (1942–1962) (Amsterdam, 1964), pp. 27–43.
146
Pauli, "History of the Exclusion Principle."
147
W. Pauli, "Über den Zusammenhang des Abschlusses der Elektronengruppen im Atom mit der Komplexstruktur der Spektren," Zs. Phys., 31 (1925), 765–785
148
Thomson, The Corpuscular Theory.
149
Bohr, "On the Constitution of Atoms," p. 500.
150
N. Bohr, "Atomic Models and X-Ray Spectra," Nature, 92 (1914), 553–554.
T. S. Kuhn, J. L. Heilbron, P. Forman, and L. Allen, Sources for History of Quantum Physics. An Inventory and Report (Philadelphia, 1967)
152
Sommerfeld, Atombau
Ruark and Urey, Atoms
M. Siegbahn, Spektroskopie der Röntgenstrahlen (Berlin, 1924)
G. Hevesy, Chemical Analysis by X-Rays and its Applications (New York, 1932)
A. Dauvillier and R. Ledoux-Lebard, La physique des rayons X (Paris, 1921)
M. de Broglie, Les rayons X (Paris, 1922).
153
Heilbron, "Kossel-Sommerfeld Theory," pp. 461 and 482.
154
V. V. Raman and P. Forman, "Why Was It Schrödinger Who Developed de Broglie's Ideas?" Hist. Studies Phys. Sci, 1 (1969), 291–314.
155
D. Coster, "On the Spectra of X-Rays and the Theory of Atomic Structure," Phil. Mag., 43 (1922), 1070–1107
44 (1922), 546–573.
"Präzisionsmessungen in der L-Serie der schwereren Elemente," Zs. Phys., 4 (1921), 178
"Zur Systematik der Röntgenspektren," Zs. Phys., 6 (1921), 185– 203
"On the Principle of Combination and Stokes' Law in the X-Ray Series," Phys. Rev., 19 (1922), 20
"Nouvelles recherches sur la série L des éléments Ba à Rb," Arch. Néerl. d. Sci. Ex. et Nat., 6 (1923), 76.
156
N. Bohr and D. Coster, "Róntgenspektren und periodisches System der Elemente," Zs. Phys., 12 (1923), 342–374, dated 22 October 1922.
157
Ibid., p. 357.
158
Coster, "On the Spectra," p. 1073.
159
G. Wentzel, "Zur Systematik der Röntgenspektren," Zs. Phys., 6 (1921), 84–89; "Klas- sifizierung der O- und P-Niveaus mittels des Auswahlprinzips für die Röntgenspek- tren," Zs. Phys., 8 (1922), 85–88.
160
A. Sommerfeld and G. Wentzel, "Über regulare und irreguläre Dubletts," Zs. Phys., 7 (1921), 86.
161
Bohr, "Atomic Structure" (September 1921).
162
Bohr and Coster, "Röntgenspektren," p. 363.
163
Coster, "On the Spectra," p. 572.
164
Bohr and Coster, "Röntgenspektren."
165
Ibid., p. 368.
166
Coster, "On the Spectra," p. 1101.
167
Bohr and Coster, "Röntgenspektren," p. 370.
168
Y. Sugiura and H. C. Urey, " On the Quantum Theory Explanation of the Anoma- lies in the 6th and 7th Periods of the Periodic Table," Kgl. Dan. Vid. Selsk.Mat. Fys. Medd., Series 7, 13 (1926), 1–18.
Y. Nishina, "On the L-Absorption Spectra of the Elements from Sn(50) to W(74) and Their Relation to the Atomic Constituion," Phil. Mag., 49 (1925), 521–537.
169
Bragg, James, and Bosanquet, "The Distribution of Electrons."
170
Ibid., p. 438.
17,
M. Siegbahn and B. B. Ray, "On the Irregularity of the Ka Doublets in the Ele- ments of Lower Atomic Number," Ark. för Mat. Astr. Och Fys., 18 (1924), 1–4.
172
A. Dauvillier, "Sur la structure électronique et la classification des éléments," Rev. Gen. de l'Électricité (1920), pp. 787–795
L. de Broglie and A. Dauvillier, "Sur la structure électronique des atomes lourds," Comp. Rend., 172 (1921), 1650–1653
L. de Broglie and A. Dauvillier, "Sur la distribution des électrons dans les atomes lourds," Comp. Rend., 173 (1921), 137–139
A. Dauvillier, "Analyse de la structure atomique," Comp. Rend., 174 (1921), 1077–1079.
173
A. Dauvillier and R. Ledoux-Lebard, La physique des rayons X (Paris, 1921), p. 72
A, Dauvillier, "Analyse de la structure électronique des éléments, II," J. de Phys. et Rod., 3 (1922), 221–251.
L. de Broglie and A. Dauvillier, "Semi-Optical Lines in the X-Ray Spectra," Phil Mag., 50 (1925), 752–753
Bohr and Coster, "Röntgenspektren," p. 349.
174
"On the Spectra," pp. 561 and 1105.
175
A. Dauvillier, "Sur la table périodique des éléments et leurs lignes spectrales," J. de Phys. Chim. (1922), 346–348, on 347.
177
A. Dauvillier, "Analyse de la structure électronique des éléments," J. de Phys. et Rad., 3 (1922), 154–177 and 221–251.
178
Bohr, "Atomic Structure" (September 1921), p. 208.
179
A. Dauvillier and L. de Broglie, "Le système spectral des rayons röntgen et struc- ture de l'atome," J. de Phys. et Rad., 6 (1924), 1–19
dated 1 December 1923
A. Dauvil- lier, "Sur la distributions des électrons entre les niveaux L des éléments," Comp. Rend., 178 (1924), 476–479.
180
L. de Broglie, "Rayons X et equilibre thermodynamique," J. de Phys. et Rod., 3 (1922), 33–45.
181
Stoner, "The Distribution of Electrons," p. 735.
182
B. S. Hopkins, Chapters in the Chemistry of the Less Familiar Elements (Champaign, III, 1939)
J. W. Mellor, A Comprehensive Treatise of Inorganic and Theoretical Chemistry, 5 (London, 1924)
M. A. Weeks, Discovery of the Elements, lsted. (Easton, Pa., 1933), 7th ed. (Easton, Pa., 1968).
183
Ber. Deutsche Chem. Gesellschaft, 57 (1924), 1–10
184
H. A. Iddles, "The Charles James Hall of Chemistry of the University of New Hampshire," J. Chem. Ed., 7 (1930), 812–820.
185
Hommage a. Georges Urbain (Paris, 1939), p. 16.
G. Urbain, "25 Years of Research on the Yttrium Earths," Chem. Rev., 2 (1924), 181–185.
186
G. Urbain, "Sur un nouvel élément qui accompagne le lutecium et le scandium dans les terres rare," Comp. Rend., 152 (1911), 141–143.
187
Moseley to Rutherford, 5 June 1914.
Heilbron, Moseley, p. 236.
188
Urbain to Rutherford, 26 September 1915.
Heimann, "Moseley and Celtium," p. 254.
189
E. Friman, "On the High-Frequency Spectra (L-Series) of the Elements Lutecium-Zinc," Phil Mag., 32 (1916), 497.
190
M. de Broglie, "Sur les bandes K d'absorption des terres rares pour les rayons X," Comp. Rend., 170 (1920), 725–726.
191
A. Dauvillier, "Sur les séries L du lutécium et de l'ytterbium et sur l'identification du celtium avec rélément de nombre atomique 72," Comp. Rend., 174 (1922), 1347–1349
G. Urbain, "Les numéros atomiques du néo-ytterbium, du lutécium et du celtium," ibid., pp. 1349–1351.
192
Ibid., p. 1349.
193
Ibid., p. 1351.
194
E. Rutherford, "Identification of a Missing Element," Nature, 109 (1922), 781.
195
Ibid.
197
Bohr to Franck, 15 July 1922 (BSC).
198
Bohr, Drei Aufsatze, p. 147.
199
Oskar Klein's recollections in Rozental, Niels Bohr, pp. 71–90.
200
N. Bohr, "The Structure of the Atom," Nobel Lectures, Physics, 1922–1941 (Amster- dam, 1965), pp. 7–44, on p. 42.
201
Ibid.
202
Bohr to Coster, 3 July 1922 (BSC).
203
Coster to Bohr, 28 May 1922 (BSC)
Bohr to Auer, 5 July 1922 (BSC).
204
Bohr to Coster, 3 July 1922 (BSC).
205
Coster to Bohr, 15 July 1922 (BSC).
206
Coster to Bohr, 16 July 1922 (BSC).
207
Coster to Bohr, 28 July 1922 (BSC)
Bohr to Coster, 5 August 1922 (BSC).
208
G. Hevesy and F. Paneth, Lehrbuch der Radioaktivitat (Leipzig, 1923), p. 109
209
Paneth, "Das periodische System," p. 383.
210
Hevesy, "Aufzeichnungen." "Ohne Paneth's Zureden hätte ich vielleicht die Ar- beit gar nicht aufgenommen."
211
D. Coster, "Het Element Hafnium," Physica (Nederlandsch Tijdschrift voor Natuurkunde), 5 (1923), 133–141.
212
J. A. Christiansen, "En Kemikers Mode med Niels Bohr," Fys. Tidsskr., Bohr memorial issue (1963), pp. 31–46, on p. 38.
213
Bohr, "The Structure of the Atom."
Rozental, Niels Bohr, p, 81
214
Coster to Bohr, 2 January 1923 (BSC).
215
D. Coster and G. Hevesy, "On the Missing Element of Atomic Number 72," Nature, 111 (1923), 79
dated 2 January 1923.
216
Rutherford to Hevesy, 8 January 1923.
G. Hevesy, "Gamle Dage," Fys. Tidsskr., Bohr memorial issue (1963), pp. 26–30, on p. 30.
217
Rutherford to Bohr, 8 January 1923 (BSC).
218
Hevesy, "Aufzeichnungen."
219
Kragh, "Historien om Hafnium,"
H. Kragh and P. Robertson, "On the Discov- ery of Element 72," J. Chem. Ed. (forthcoming).
This content is only available via PDF.

Article PDF first page preview

Article PDF first page preview