[Footnotes]

[Footnotes]
1
M. von Laue, Das Relativitätsprinzip (Braunschweig, 1911), pp. 8–18.
2
C. Møller, The Theory of Relativity, 2nd ed. (London, 1972), p. 5.
3
Ibid., p. 6.
4
Ibid., p. 30.
5
W. G. V. Rosser, An Introduction to the Theory of Relativity (London, 1964), p. xiii.
6
E. Whittaker, A History of the Theories of Aether and Electricity. The Modern Theories 1900–1962 (London, 1953), Chap. 2.
7
M. Born, "Physics and Relativity," a lecture given at the International Relativity Conference in Berne on 16 July 1955, in Max Born, Physics in My Generation (London, 1956), pp. 189–206.
8
Heinrich Lange, Geschichte der Grundlagen der Physik, Vol. 1: Die formalen Grundlagen—Zeit, Raum, Kausalität (Freiburg/München, 1954), Chap. 10.
9
G. H. Keswani, "Origin and Concept of Relativity," British Journal for the Philosophy of Science, 15 (1965), 286–306; 16 (1965), 19–32, 273–294.
10
C. Scribner, "Henri Poincaré and the Principle of Relativity," Amer. Journ. Phys., 32 (1964), 672–678.
11
T. Kahan, "Sur les origines de la theorie de la relativité restreinte," Revue d'Hist Sci., 12 (1959), 159–165.
12
Gerald Holton, [a] "On the Origins of the Special Theory of Relativity," Amer. Journ. Phys., 28 (1960), 627–636
Gerald Holton, Thematic Origins of Scientific Thought. Kepler to Einstein (Cambridge, 1973), pp. 165–195.
[b] "On the Thematic Analysis of Science: The Case of Poincaré and Rela- tivity," Mélange Alexandre Koyré. II. L'aventure de la Science (Paris, 1964), pp. 257–268
abridged under the title "Poincare and Relativity," in Thematic Origins, pp. 185–195.
13
Stanley Goldberg, [a] "Henri Poincaré and Einstein's Theory of Rela- tivity," Amer. Journ. Phys., 36 (1967), 934–944.
[b] "The Lorentz Theory of Electrons and Einstein's Theory of Relativity," ibid., 37 (1969), 982–994.
[c] "Poincaré's Silence and Einstein's Theory of Relativity," Brit. Journ. Hist. Sci.,5 (1970), 73–84.
14
Kenneth F. Schaffner, "The Lorentz Electron Theory of Relativity," Amer. Journ. Phys., 37 (1969), 498–513.
15
M. A. Tonnelat, Histoire du principe de relativité (Paris, 1971), Chap. V.
16
Arthur I. Miller, "A Study of Henri Poincare's 'Sur la Dynamique de l'Electron'," Arch. Hist Exact Sciences, 10 (1973), 207–328.
17
O. A. Starosel'skaja-Nikitina, "Rol' Anri Puankare v sozdanii teorii otnositel'nosti," Voprosy Istorii. Estestvoznanija i Tekhniki, 5 (1957), 39–49.
18
Tetu Hirosige, [a] "A Consideration Concerning the Origins of the Theory of Relativity," Japanese Studies in the History of Science, No. 4 (1965), pp. 117–123.
[b] "Electrodynamics Before the Theory of Relativity, 1890– 1905," Jap. Stud. Hist. Scu, No. 5 (1966), pp. 1–49, esp. pp. 44–45.
[c] "Sôtairon wa doko kara umareta ka?" ("Where did the Theory of Rela- tivity Emerge from?"), Butsuri (Proceedings, Physical Society of Japan), 26 (1971), 380–388.
19
Gerald Holton, "Einstein, Michelson, and the "Crucial" Experiment," Isis, 60 (1969), 133–197
Gerald Holton, Thematic Origins, pp. 261–352.
20
Ibid., p. 195; p. 327.
21
U. I. Frankfurt and A. M. Frenik, "Ocherki razvitsiya optiki dvizhushchikhsya tel," Trudy Instituta Istorii Estestvoznaniya i Tekhniki, 43 (1961), 3–49
22
F. Arago, "Memoire sur la vitesse de la lumiere" [1810], Comptes rendus, 36 (1853), 38–49.
23
Ibid., p. 40.
24
Ibid., p. 43.
25
Ibid., p. 43.
26
Ibid., p. 46.
27
A. J. Fresnel, "Sur l'influence du mouvement terrestre dans quelques phénoméenes d'optique," Annales de chimie et de physique, 9 (1818)
Oeuvres completes d'Augustin Fresnel (Paris, 1866), 2, 627–636.
28
É. Verdet, "Introduction aux Oeuvres d'Augustin Fresnel," Oeuvres com- plétes d'Augustin Fresnel, 1, ix-xcix, esp. xxxvi.
29
Fresnel, op. cit. (note 27), p. 628
30
E. Whittaker, A History of the Theories of Aether and Electricity, the Classical Theories (London, 1951), pp. 126–127.
31
C. Doppler, "Ueber das farbige Licht der Doppelsterne und einiger anderer Gestirne des Himmels" Abhandlungen kon. Böhm. Ges. Wiss., 2 (1841–1842), 465–482, esp. 468.
32
C. Doppler, "Ueber die bisherigen Erklärungsversuche des Aberrations- phänomens," Abh. kön. Böhm. Ges. Wiss., 3 (1843–1844), 747–765.
33
C. Doppler, ibid., p. 765
34
G. G. Stokes, "On the Aberration of Light," Phil. Mag., 27 (1845), 9–15
Mathematical and Physical Papers, 1, 134–140.
35
G. G. Stokes, "On the Theories of the Internal Friction of Fluids in Mo- tion, and of the Equilibrium and Motion of Elastic Solids," Trans. Cambridge Phil. Soc, 8 (1849), 287–319
Mathematical and Physical Papers, 1, 75–129.
36
Ibid., Mathematical and Physical Papers, 1, 126–127.
37
David B. Wilson, "George Gabriel Stokes on Stellar Aberration and the Luminiferous Ether," British Journal for the History of Science, 6 (1972), 57–72, esp. 61–62, 71.
38
David B. Wilson, ibid., p. 70
39
G. G. Stokes, "On the Constitution of the Luminiferous Ether, Viewed with Reference to the Phenomenon of the Aberration of Light," Phil. Mag., 29 (1846), 6–10
Mathematical and Physical Papers, 1, 153–156.
"On the Consti- tution of the Luminiferous Ether," Phil. Mag., 32 (1848), 343–349
Mathe- matical and Physical Papers, 2, 8–13.
40
J. Challis, "On the Aberration of Light,"Phil Mag., 27 (1845), 321–327.
Wilson, op. cit. (note 37).
41
G. G. Stokes, op. cit. (note 39), Mathematical and Physical Papers, 2, 11.
42
Royal Society of London, Catalogue of Scientific Papers 1800–1900. Subject Index, Vol. 3: Physics, Parts I and II (Cambridge, 1912, 1914).
43
A. H. L. Fizeau, "Sur les hypothèses relatives à l'éther lumineux, et sur une expérience qui paraît démontrer que le mouvement des corps change la vitesse avec laquelle la lumière se propage dans leur intérieur," Comptes rendus, 33 (1851), 349–355.
44
A. H. L. Fizeau, "Sur une méthode propre à rechercher si l'azimut de polarisation du rayon réfracté est influencé par le mouvement du corps ré- fringent," Comptes rendus, 49 (1859), 717–723
Ann. de chim., 58 (1860), 129–163.
45
J. Babinet, "De l'influence du mouvement de la Terre dans les phênomé- nes optiques," Comptes rendus, 55 (1862), 561–564.
46
Robert Grant, History of Physical Astronomy (New York and London, 1966; originally London, 1852), Chaps. 14, 16, 19, and 21
Arthur Berry, A Short History of Astronomy (New York, 1961; originally 1898), Chaps. 12 and 13.
47
W. Klinkerfues, "Ueber den Einfluss der Bewegung des Mittels und den Einfluss der Bewegung der Lichtquelle auf die Brechbarkeit der Strahls," Gdtt. Nachr. (1865), pp. 157–160, 210
"Weitere Mitteilungen iiber den Ein- fluss der Bewegung der Lichtquelle auf die Brechung des Strahls," Gött. Nachr. (1865), pp. 376–384
(1866), pp. 33–60
"Untersuchungen aus der analy- tischen Optik, insbesondere iiber den Einfluss der Bewegung der Lichtquelle auf die Brechung." Astron. Nachr., 66 (1866), 337–366.
48
W. Klinkerfues, Die Aberration der Fixsterne nach der Wellentheorie (Leipzig, 1867)
"Versuche über die Bewegung der Erde und der Sonne im Aether," Astron. Nachr., 76 (1870), 33–38.
49
E. Ketteler, "Ueber den Einfluss der astronomischen Bewegungen auf die optischen Erscheinungen," Ann. d. Phys., 144 (1871), 109–127, 287–300
144 (1872), 363–375, 550–563; 146 (1872), 406–430; 147 (1872), 404–429
"Nachtraglicher Zusatz zu der Abhandlung über die Aberration," Ann. d. Phys., 147 (1872), 478–479
"Ueber den Einfluss der astronomischen Be- wegungen auf die optischen Erscheinungen. Nachtrag zu den letzten Abhand- lungen," Ann. d. Phys., 148 (1873), 435–448
Astronomische Undulations- theorie oder die Lehre von der Aberration des Lichtes (Bonn, 1873).
50
E. Ketteler, op. cit (note 49), Ann. d. Phys., 144 (1871), 127.
51
E. Mach, "Ueber eine Longitudinalwellenmachine," Ann. d. Phys., 132 (1867), 174–176.
52
E. Ketteler, op. cit (note 49), Ann. d. Phys., 144 (1871), 114.
53
W. Veltmann, [a] "Fresnel's Hypothese zur Erklärung der Aberra- tionserscheinungen," Astron. Nachr., 75 (1870), 145–160
[b] "Ueber die Fortpflanzung des Lichtes in bewegten Medien," Astron. Nachr., 76 (1870), 129–144
[c] "Ueber die Fortpflanzung des Lichtes in bewegten Medien," Ann. d. Phys., 150 (1873), 497–535.
54
lbid. [c], p. 498
55
Ibid., pp. 499–500
56
Ibid., p. 501.
57
G. B. Airy, "On a Supposed Alteration in the Amount of Astronomical Aberration of Light, Produced by the Passage of Light Through a Considerable Thickness of Refractive Medium," Phil. Mag., 43 (1872), 310–313
"Addi- tional Note to the Paper 'On a Supposed Alteration...'," Phil. Mag., 45 (1873), 306.
58
M. Hoek, "Détermination de la vitesse avec laquelle est entraînée une onde lumineuse traversant un milieu en mouvement," Arch, néerl, 3 (1868), 180–185
"Determination de la vitesse avec laquelle est entraîné un rayon lumineux traversant un milieu en mouvement," ibid., 4 (1869), 443–450.
59
E. Mascart, "Sur les modifications qu'éprouve la lumiere par suite du mouvement de la source lumineuse et du mouvement de l'observateur," Ann. de l'École norm., 1 (1872), 157–214
3 (1874), 363–420.
60
"Prix décerné. Annee 1872.—Prix extraordinaires. Grand prix des sciences mathematique. Rapport lu et adopté dans la séance du 14 juillet 1873," Comptes rendus, 79 (1874), 1531–1534.
61
E. Mascart, op. cit. (note 59), Ann. de l'Écolenorm., 3 (1874), 418.
62
Op. cit. (note 60), p. 1534
63
A. Beer, "Ueber die Vorstellungen vom Verhalten des Aethers in bewegten Mitteln," Ann. d. Phys., 94 (1855), 428–434.
64
J. Boussinesq, "Sur le calcul des phénoménes lumineux produits à l'in- térieur des milieux transparents animés d'une translation rapide, dans le cas où l'observateur participe lui-même à cette translation," Comptes rendus, 76 (1873), 1293–1296.
65
E. Mascart, op. cit. (note 59),Ann. de l'Ecole norm., 3 (1874), 420
66
Op. cit. (note 60), p. 1532
67
H. A. Lorentz, "Over den invloed, dien de beweging der Aarde op de lichtverschijnselen uitoefent," Versl. Kon. Akad. Wet., 2 (1886), 297–372 (French translation: "De l'influence du mouvement de la terre sur les phé- nomènes lumineux," Arch, néerl., 21 (1887), 103–176; Collected Papers, 4, 153–214).
68
J. C. Maxwell to W. Higgins, 10 June 1867.
"Further Observations on the Spectra of some of the Stars and Nebulae...," Phil. Trans., 158 (1868), 529–564.
69
J. C. Maxwell, "Ether," The Scientific Papers of James Clerk Maxwell, 2, 763–775.
70
G. F. FitzGerald, "On Electromagnetic Effects Due to the Motion of the Earth," Trans. Roy. Dublin Soc., 1 (1882), 319
The Scientific Writings of the Late George Francis FitzGerald, pp. 111–118.
71
J. J. Thomson, "On Maxwell's Theory of Light," Phil. Mag., 9 (1880), 284–291.
72
T. DesCoudres, "Ueber das Verhalten des Lichtathers bei der Bewegung der Erde," Ann. d. Phys., 38 (1889), 71–79.
13
Ibid., p. 72
74
Ibid., p. 72
75
A. A. Michelson, "The Relative Motion of the Earth and the Luminiferous Ether," Amer. Journ. Sci, 22 (1881), 120–129.
Lloyd S. Swenson, The Ethereal Aether. A History of the Michelson-Morley-Miller Aether-Drift Experiments, 1880–1930 (Austin and London, 1972).
76
A. A. Michelson and E. W. Morley, "Influence of Motion of the Medium on the Velocity of Light, "Amer. Journ. Sci, 31 (1886), 377–386.
77
Ibid., p. 386.
78
Ibid., p. 379.
79
A. A. Michelson and E. W. Morley, "On the Relative Motion of the Earth and Luminiferous Ether," Amer. Journ. Sci., 34 (1887), 333–345, esp. 334.
80
Ibid., p. 339.
81
H. A. Lorentz, op. cit. (note 67).
82
Ibid., §8.
83
Ibid., §24.
84
Ibid., Collected Papers, 4, 203
85
Ibid., §26.
86
T. Hirosige, "Origins of Lorentz' Theory of Electrons and the Concept of the Electromagnetic Field," Historical Studies in the Physical Sciences, 1 (1969), 151–209.
87
H. A. Lorentz, Over de Theorie der Terugkaatsing en breking van het licht (Academisch Proefschrift, Leiden, 1875)
Collected Papers, 1, 1–192.
88
H. A. Lorentz, "La théorie électromagnétique de Maxwell et son applica- tion aux corps mouvants," Arch. néerl., 25 (1892), 363–552
Collected Papers, 2, 164–343, esp. 228
89
Rayleigh, "Aberration," Nature, 45 (1892), 449–502
Scientific Papers, 3, 542–553, esp. 544.
90
Ibid., Scientific Papers, 3, 551.
91
O. J. Lodge, [a] "Aberration Problems.—A Discussion concerning the Motion of the Ether near the Earth, and concerning the Connexion between Ether and Gross Matter; with some new Experiments," Phil Trans., A184 (1893), 727-804
[b] "Experiments on the Absence of Mechanical Connexion between Ether and Matter,"Phil. Trans., A189 (1897), 149–166.
92
Ibid., [a], p. 729.
93
Ibid., p. 731.
94
Ibid., p. 753.
95
L. Zehnder, "Ueber die Durchlassigkeit fester Körper für den Lichtather," Ann. d. Phys., 55 (1895), 65–81.
96
T. Hirosige, op. cit. (note 86), pp. 161–167.
97
R. Reiff, "Die Fortpflanzung des Lichtes in bewegten Medien nach der electrischen Lichttheorie," Ann. d. Phys., 50 (1893), 361–367.
98
H. von Helmholtz, "Folgerungen aus Maxwell's Theorie uber die Be- wegung des reinen Aethers,"Ann. d. Phys., 53 (1893), 135–143.
99
J. Larmor, Aether and Matter. A Development of the Dynamical Rela- tions of the Aether to Material Systems, on the Basis of the Atomic Constitu- tion of Matter, Including a Discussion of the Influence of the Earth's Motion on Optical Phenomena (Cambridge, 1900), p. 19.
100
W. C. Henderson and J. Henry, "Experiments on the Motion of the Ether in an Electromagnetic Field," Phil. Mag., 44 (1897), 20–26.
101
A. A. Michelson, "The Relative Motion of the Earth and the Ether," Amer. Journ. Sci., 3 (1897), 475–478.
102
H. A. Lorentz, "Over de terugkaating van licht door lichamen die zich bewegen," Versl. Kon. Akad. Wet, 1 (1892), 28–31
"De relative beweging van de aarde en den aether," ibid., 1 (1892), 74–79
"De aberratietheorie van Stokes," ibid., 1 (1892), 97–103
"Over den infloed van de beweging der aarde op de voortplanting van het licht in dubbelbrekende lichamen," ibid., 1 (1893), 149–154.
Collected Papers, 4, 215–218; 219–223; 224–231; 232–236, respectively.
103
H. A. Lorentz, Versuch einer Theorie der electrischen und optischen Erscheinungen in bewegten Körpern (Leiden, 1895)
Collected Papers, 5, 1–138.
104
T. Hirosige, "Electro- dynamics before the Theory of Relativity, 1890–1905," Japanese Studies in the History of Science, No. 5 (1966), pp. 1–49, esp. pp. 14–18.
105
H. A. Lorentz, op. cit. (note 103), Collected Papers, 5, 1.
106
Ibid., pp. 1–3.
107
Ibid., p. 7.
108
W. Voigt, "Theorie des Lichtes für bewegte Medien," Gött. Nachr. (1887), pp. 177–238
Ann. d. Phys., 35 (1888), 370–396; 524–551.
109
F. Klein to Lorentz, 20 October 1897, Algemeen Rijksarchief, den Haag, Lorentz Papers 1.
110
L. Boltzmann to Lorentz, 13 October 1897, Algemeen Rijksarchief, den Haag, Lorentz Papers 1.
111
Klein to Lorentz, op. cit. (note 109).
112
Lorentz to Boltzmann, 20 October 1897, Algemeen Rijksarchief, den Haag, Lorentz Papers 1.
113
G. L. de Haas-Lorentz, ed., H. A. Lorentz—Impressions of His Life and Work (Amsterdam, 1957), p. 89.
114
Verhandlungen der Gesellschaft deutscher Naturforscher und Arzte, 70 (1898), 2. Teil, 1. Halfte, p. 83.
115
DesCoudres to Lorentz, 18 November 1898, Algemeen Rijksarchief, den Haag, Lorentz Papers 1.
116
M. Planck to Lorentz, 21 October 1898, Algemeen Rijksarchief, den Haag, Lorentz Papers 1.
H. A. Lorentz, "De aberratietheorie van Stokes in de onderstelling van een aether niet overal dezelfde dichtheid heeft," Versl. Kon. Akad. Wet, 7 (1899), 523–529.
Collected Papers, 4, 245–251.
117
W. Wien, "Ueber die Fragen, welche die translatorische Bewegung des Lichtathers betreffen," op. cit. (note 114), pp. 49–56.
Ann. d. Phys., 65 (1898), Beilage, i–xviii.
118
Ibid., Ann. d. Phys., 65 (1898), Beilage, xvii–xviii.
119
H. A. Lorentz, "Die Fragen, welche die translatorische Bewegung des Lichtathers betreffen," op. cit. (note 114), pp. 56–65
Collected Papers, 7, 101–115.
120
Ibid., p. 56
121
Ibid., p. 59
122
Ibid., p. 64.
123
Ibid., p. 65.
124
G. Mie, "Ueber mögliche Aetherbewegungen," Ann. d. Phys., 68 (1899), 129–134
"Ueber die Bewegung eines als flüssig angenommenen Aethers," Phys. Zeits., 2 (1801), 319–325.
125
H. Haga, "Ueber den Versuch von Klinkerfues," Arch, néerl., 5 (1900), 583–586
"L'expérience de Klinkerfues," ibid., 6 (1901), 765–772.
126
W. Klinkerfues, op. ext. (note 48), Astron. Nachr., 76 (1870), 33–38.
127
R. Wachsmuth und O. Schönrock, "Beiträge zu einer Wiederholung des Mascart'schen Versuches," Verh. Deutsch. Phys. Ges., 4 (1902), 183–188.
128
Egon v Oppolzer, "Erdbewegung und Aether," Ann. d. Phys., 8 (1902), 898–907.
129
A. H. L. Fizeau, "Constatation du mouvement de la terre par les radia- tions calorifiques," Cosmos, 1 (1853), 689–692
Ann. d. Phys., 92 (1854), 652–655.
130
A. H. Bucherer to Lorentz, 15 February 1902, 6 April 1902, and 8 De- cember 1902, Algemeen Rijksarchief, den Haag, Lorentz Papers 2.
H. A. Lorentz, "The Intensity of Radiation and the Motion of the Earth," Proc. Roy. Acad. Amsterdam, 4 (1902), 678–681
Collected Papers, 5, 167–171.
Dutch version, Versl. Kon. Akad. Wet, 10 (1902), 804–808
A. H. Bucherer, "Über den Einfluss der Erdbewegung auf die Intensität des Lichtes.'Mnn. d. Phys., 11 (1903), 270–283.
131
P. Nordmeyer, "Über den Einfluss der Erdbewegung auf die Verteilung der Intensität der Licht- und Wärmestrahlung," Ann. d. Phys., 11 (1903), 284–302.
132
W. Wien, "Über einen Versuch zur Entscheidung der Frage, ob sich der Lichtäther mit der Erde bewegt oder nicht," Phys. Zeits., 5 (1904), 585–586.
A. Schweitzer, "Uber die experimentelle Entscheidung der Frage, ob sich der Lichtather mit der Erde bewegt oder nicht," Phys. Zeits., 5 (1904), 809–811.
133
A. A. Michelson, "Relative Motion of Earth and Aether," Phil. Mag., 8 (1904), 716–719.
134
Kelvin, "Nineteenth Century Clouds over the Dynamical Theory of Heat and Light," Phil Mag., 2 (1901), l–40
Journ. Roy. Inst., 16 (1902), 363–397
The Royal Institution Library of Science, Physical Series (London, 1970), 5, 324–358, esp. 324.
135
F. T. Trouton, "The Results of an Electrical Experiment, Involving the Relative Motion of the Earth and Ether, Suggested by the late Prof. Fitz- Gerald," Trans. Roy. Soc. Dublin, 7 (1902), 379–384
The Scientific Writings of G. F. FitzGerald, pp. 557–565.
136
F. T. Trouton and H. R. Noble, "The Mechanical Forces Acting on a Charged Condenser Moving through Space," Phil. Trans., A202 (1904), 165–181.
137
Rayleigh, "Is Rotatory Polarization Influenced by the Earth's Motion?" Phil. Mag., 4 (1902), 215–220
Scientific Papers, 5, 58–62.
138
Rayleigh, "Does Motion through the Aether Cause Double Refraction?" Phil. Mag., 4 (1902), 678–683
Scientific Papers, 5, 63–67.
139
D. B. Brace, "On Double Refraction in Matter Moving through the Aether," Phil. Mag., 7 (1904), 317–329.
140
J. Larmor, "On the Ascertained Absence of Effects of Motion through the Aether, in Relation to the Constitution of Matter, and on the FitzGerald- Lorentz Hypothesis," Proc. Phys. Soc. London, 18 (1904), 253–258
Mathe- matical and Physical Papers, 2, 274–280.
141
D. B. Brace, "The Aether 'Drift' and Rotary Polarization," Phil. Mag., 10 (1905), 383–396.
142
D. B. Brace, "A Repetition of Fizeau's Experiment on the Change Pro- duced by the Earth's Motion in the Rotation of a Refracted Ray," Phil. Mag., 10 (1905), 591–599.
143
E. W. Morley and D. C. Miller, [a] "On the Theory of Experiments to Detect Aberrations of the Second Degree," Phil Mag., 9 (1905), 669–680
[b] "Report of an Experiment to Detect the FitzGerald-Lorentz-Effect," ibid., pp. 680–685.
144
Ibid., [a], p. 669.
145
H. A. Lorentz, "Vereenvoudige theorie der electrische en optische verschijnselen in lichamen die zich bewegen," Versl. Kon. Akad. Wet., 7 (1899), 507–522.
Collected Papers, 5, 139–155.
T. Hirosige, op. ext. (note 104), pp. 24–27.
146
J. Larmor, "A Dynamical Theory of the Electric and Luminiferous Medium. Part III: Relations with Material Media," Phil. Trans., A190 (1897), 205–300
Mathematical and Physical Papers, 2, 11–132.
T. Hirosige, op. ext. (note 104), pp. 10–14.
147
J. Larmor, op. cit. (note 99), pp. 173–179.
148
Ibid., p. 173.
149
H. Poincaré, "Relations entre la physique expérimentale et la physique mathematique," Rapports présentés au Congrés international de Physique de 1900 (Paris, 1900), 1, 1–29
La science et l'hypothése (Paris 1902), Chaps. 9 and 10.
150
H. A. Lorentz, "Electromagnetische versehijnselen in een stelsel, dat zich met willekeurige snelheid kleiner dan die van het licht bewegt," Versl. Kon. Akad. Wet. Amst., 12 (1904), 986–1009.
English version: "Electro- magnetic Phenomena in a System Moving with Any Velocity Smaller than That of Light," Proc. Roy. Acad. Amsterdam, 6 (1904), 809–831
Collected Papers, 5, 172–197.
151
O. J. Lodge, "Note on Mr. Sutherland's Objection to the Conclusiveness of the Michelson-Morley Aether Experiment," Phil. Mag., 46 (1898), 343–344, esp. 344.
152
O. J. Lodge, "On the Question of Absolute Velocity and on the Mechani- cal Function of an Aether, with Some Remarks on the Pressure of Radiation," Phil. Mag., 46 (1898), 414–426.
153
H. A. Lorentz, "Weiterbildung der Maxwellschen Theorie. Elektronen- theorie," Encyklopadie der mathematischen Wissenschaften (Leipzig, 1904), 5, Nr. 14.
154
H. A. Lorentz, ibid., pp. 277–279.
155
H. A. Lorentz, op. cit. (note 150).
156
H. A. Lorentz, The Theory of Electrons and Its Applications to the Phenomena of Light and Radiant Heat (Leipzig, 1909), p. 230.
157
H. Poincare, [a] "Sur la dynamique de l'electron," Comptes Rendus, 140 (1905) , 1504–1508
Oeuvres de Henri Poincare, 9, 489–493.
[b] "Sur la dynamique de l'electron," Rendiconti del Circolo matematico di Palermo, 21 (1906) , 129–176
Oeuvres, 9, 494–550.
Arthur I. Miller, op. cit. (note 16).
158
Arthur I. Miller, op. cit. (note 16), p. 252.
159
H. Poincare, "A propos de la theorie de M. Larmor. (3)," L'eclairage electrique, 5 (1895), 5–14
Oeuvres, 9, 395–413.
160
H. Poincaré, Électricité et optique. La lumiere et les theories électro- dynamiques. Leçon professees à la Sorbonne en 1888, 1890 et 1899 (Paris, 1901), p. 536
161
Ibid.
162
H. Poincare, op. cit. (note 149), Rapports, 1, 22
La science et Vhy- pothese, p. 201
Science and Hypothesis (New York, 1952), p. 172.
163
H. Poincaré, ibid., Rapports, 1, 23
La science et Vhypothése, p. 202
164
H. A. Lorentz, op. cit. (note 150), Collected Papers, 5, 173–174.
165
H. Poincaré, "L'etat actuel et l'avenir de la physique mathématique," Bulletin des sci. math., 28 (1904), 302–324, esp. 306
La valeur de la science (Paris, 1905), pp. 170–211, esp. pp. 176–177
166
H. Poincaré, ibid., Bulletin, p. 307
La valeur de la science, p. 179.
167
H. Poincaré, ibid., Bulletin, p. 302
La valeur de la science, p. 171
The Value of Science (New York, 1958), p. 91.
168
H. Poincaré, ibid., Bulletin, p. 311
La valeur de la science, pp. 187–188.
169
H. Poincaré, "La dynamique de l'électron," Revue gén. des sci., 19 (1908), 386–402
Oeuvres, 9, 551–86
Science et methode (Paris, 1908), pp. 215–272.
170
H. Poincaré, ibid., Oeuvres, 9, 563
Science et methode, p. 235
171
H. Poincare, ibid., Oeuvres, 9, 567
Science et methode, p. 240
Science and Method (New York, n.d.), p. 221.
172
H. Poincare, "La mécanique nouvelle," Revue électrique, 13 (1910), 23–28, esp. 24: "Il faut expliquer pourquoi."
173
H. Poincare, "La dynamique de l'electron," Supplement aux Annales des Postes, Telegraphes et Telephones (1913).
114
Ibid., p. 47
175
D. B. Brace, "The Negative Results of Second and Third Order Tests of the 'Aether Drift' and Possible First Order Methods," Phil Mag., 10 (1905), 71–80, esp. 72.
176
F. Hasenöhrl, "Zur Theorie der Strahlung in bewegten Körpern," Ann. d. Phys., 15 (1904), 344–370
16 (1905), 589–592.
177
op. cit. (notes 264, 265, and 268).
178
H. Poincaré, op. cit. (notes 169, 172, and 173).
179
A. Einstein, "Zur Elektrodynamik bewegter Korper," Annalen der Physik, 17 (1905), 891–921, esp. 891
180
Ibid
181
Max Wertheimer, Productive Thinking, enlarged edition edited by Michael Wertheimer (New York and London, 1959), pp. 213–226.
182
A. Einstein, "Ernst Mach,"Phys. Zeits., 17 (1916), 101–104.
183
Jun Ishiwara, Einstein Kyôzyu Kôen-roku (The Record of Professor Einstein's Lectures) (Tokyo, 1923), pp. 131–151. Reprint (Tokyo, 1971), pp. 78–88.
184
Anton Reiser, Albert Einstein. A Biographical Portrait (London, 1931).
185
Gerald Holton, "Influences on Einstein's Early Work in Relativity Theory," The American Scholar, 37 (1967–1968), 59–79.
Thematic Origins of Scientific Thought, pp. 197– 217, esp. p. 211.
186
Albert Einstein/Michele Besso, Correspondence 1903–1955, translation, notes, and introduction by Pierre Speziali (Paris, 1972), pp. 390–392; 464–465.
187
Albert Einstein, "Autobiographisches," Paul Arthur Schilpp, ed., Albert Einstein: Philosopher-Scientist (New York, 1949 and 1951), pp. 1–95.
188
R. S. Shankland, "Conversations with Albert Einstein," Amer. Journ. Phys., 31 (1963), 47–57.
189
Carl Seelig, Albert Einstein. Eine dokumentarische Biographie (Zurich, 1954).
190
A. Einstein to C. Seelig, 19 February 1955.
Seelig in Technische Rundschau (1955)
Max Born, op. cit. (note 7), p. 193.
191
Gerald Holton, op. cit. (note 19).
192
Gerald Holton, op. ext. (note 12), [a], pp. 629–630.
193
A. Einstein, "Über einen die Erzeugung und Verwandlung des Lichtes betreffenden heuristischen Gesichtspunkt," Ann. d. Phys., 17 (1965), 132– 148, esp. 132.
T, Takabayasi, "Koten Buturigaku no Hôkai Katei ni tuite" ("On the Process of the Decline of Classical Physics"), Kagakusi Kenkyu, No. 11 (1949), pp. 1–9, esp. p. 5.
194
Gerald Holton, op. ext. (note 185), Thematic Origins of Scientific Thought, pp. 204–205.
195
A. Einstein to M. Besso, 6 January 1948, op. cit. (note 186), p. 391.
196
Albert Einstein, Lettres à Maurice Solovine (Paris, 1956), p. viii.
197
David Hume, A Treatise of Human Nature (Oxford, 1888); reprint (Ox- ford, 1968), pp. 26–68.
198
Ibid., p. 53.
199
Ibid., p. 64.
200
Ibid., p. 35.
201
Ibid., p. 65.
202
A. Einstein, op. cit. (note 179), p. 892.
203
Philipp G. Frank, "Einstein, Mach, and Logical Positivism," P. A. Schilpp, ed., Albert Einstein: Philosopher-Scientist, pp. 269–286, esp. pp. 272–273.
204
Hans Reichenbach, "The Philosophical Significance of the Theory of Relativity," ibid., pp. 287–311, esp. pp. 290–291.
205
Gerald Holton, "Mach, Einstein, and the Search for Reality," Daedalus (1968), pp. 636–673
Thematic Origins of Scientific Thought, pp. 219–259, esp. p. 224.
206
Wataru Hiromatu, "Mach's Philosophy and the Theory of Relativity—In Referring to His Criticism of Newtonian Physics" (in Japanese), in W. Hiro- matu and H. Kato, eds. and trans., Mach: Ninsiki no Bunseki (Mach: Analysis of Knowledge) (Tokyo, 1966); reprint (Tokyo, 1971), pp. 136–173.
207
Carl Seelig, op. cit. (note 189), p. 39.
208
E. Mach, Die Mechanik in ihrer Entwicklung historisch-kritisch dargestellt, 3rd ed. (Leipzig, 1897).
Mach's Mechanics
209
M. Besso to A. Einstein, 12 October, 4 and 23 November, and 8 Decem- ber 1947, op. cit. (note 186), p. 386
210
A. Einstein to M. Besso, 6 January 1948, op. cit. (note 186), p. 391.
211
Ibid., pp. 390–391
212
A. Einstein, op. cit (note 187), p. 21.
213
A. D'Elia, Ernst Mach (Firenze, 1971).
John T. Blackmore's biographical study Ernst Mach. His Work, Life, and Influence (Berkeley, 1972)
214
E. Mach, Die Geschichte und die Wurzel des Satzes von der Erhaltung der Arbeit. Vortrag gehalten in der K. B'ohm. Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften am 15. Nov. 1871 (Leipzig, 1909).
215
Hermann Helmholtz, Über die Erhaltung der Kraft, eine physikalische Abhandlung, vorgetragen in der Sitzung der physikalischen Gesellschaft zu Berlin am 23sten Juli 1847 (Berlin, 1847); reprint (Bruxelles, 1966).
216
Ibid., p. 2
217
Ibid., p. 6
218
W. Wundt, Die physikalischen Axiome und ihre Beziehung zum Causal- prinzip. Bin Kapitel aus einer Philosophie der Naturwissenschaft (Erlangen, 1866). See Ernst Cassirer, The Problem of Knowledge. Philosophy, Science, and History since Hegel (New Haven, 1950), pp. 87–88.
219
E. Mach, op. cit. (note 214), p. 19.
220
Cassirer, op. cit (note 218), p. 88.
221
B. Riemann, "Gravitation und Licht," Gesammelte mathematische Werke und wissenschaftlicher Nachlass, 2nd ed. (1892); reprint (New York, 1953), pp. 532–538.
Yôitu Kondô, Sin Kikagaku Sisôsi (A Conceptual History of Geometry. Revised) (Tokyo, 1966), p. 189.
222
E. Mach, op. ext. (note 208), p. v
223
E. Mach, op. ext. (note 214), p. 2
224
E. Mach, op. ext. (note 208), p. v
225
Ibid., p. 135
226
Ibid., pp. 231–232
221
Ibid., pp. 274–275
228
Ibid., p. 486
229
A. Einstein, op. cit (note 182), pp. 102–103.
230
E. Mach, Die Mechanik, 8th ed. (Leipzig, 1921), p. 20
231
J. C. Maxwell, Matter and Motion (1877)
Joseph Larmor (London, 1920), p. 2.
232
Ibid, p. 13.
233
Ibid., pp. 28–29.
234
Wissenschaftliche Abhandlungen von Hermann Helmholtz (Leip- zig, 1882–1895), 1, 12–75, on 68.
235
H. von Helmholtz, Vorlesungen über die Dynamik discreter Massen- punkte, 2nd ed. (Leipzig, 1911; 1st ed. 1898), p. 24.
236
Kiyonobu Itakura, Tosaku Kimura, and Eri Yagi, Nagaoka Hantarb Den (A Biography of Han tar o Nagaoka) (Tokyo, 1973), p. 170.
237
CarlSeelig, op. cit. (note 190), p. 14.
238
Arthur I. Miller, op. cit. (note 16), p. 212, footnote 11.
239
H. A. Lorentz, op. ext. (note 156), p. 2.
240
A. Einstein, Aether und Relativitatstheorie (Berlin, 1920), p. 7.
241
H. Poincaré, op. cit. (note 162), Rapports, 1, 26
La science et l'hy- pothese, p. 207
242
H. Poincaré, La science et l'hypothesé, pp. 245–246
243
Russell McCormmach, "Einstein, Lorentz, and the Electron Theory," Hist. Stud. Phys. Set., 2 (1970), 41–87
Stanley Goldberg, op. cit. (note 13)
Arthur I. Miller, op. cit. (note 16).
244
T. Hirosige, "Origins of Lorentz' Theory of Electrons and the Concept of the Electromagnetic Field,"Hist. Stud. Phys. Sci., 1 (1969), 151–209.
245
H. A. Lorentz, Theory of Electrons, p. 230.
246
H. A. Lorentz, "Alte und neue Fragen der Physik," Phys. Zeits., 11 (1910), 1234–1257
Collected Papers, 7, 205–257.
247
H. A. Lorentz, "De lichtaether en het relativiteitsbeginsel," Jaarboek Kon. Acad. Wet. (1915)
Collected Papers, 9, 233–243.
248
H. A. Lorentz, op. cit. (note 156), p. 43.
249
M. Born, Physics in My Generation (London, 1956), p. 192.
250
H. A. Lorentz, op. cit. (note 247), Collected Papers, 9, 241.
251
H. A. Lorentz, "Considération élémentaire sur le principe de relativité," Revue gén. des sci., 25 (1914), 17'9
Collected Papers, 7, 147–165.
252
H. Poincaré, [a] "La theorie de Lorentz et le principe de reaction," Arch, need., 5 (1900), 252–278
Oeuvres, 9, 464–488.
[b] La science et Vhypothese, p. 135.
[c] Op. cit. (note 169), Oeuvres, 9, 552
Science et methode, p. 217.
Arthur I. Miller, op. cit. (note 16), pp. 233–234.
253
H. Poincare, La science et l'hypothese, p. 135
254
H. Poincaré, La science et Vhypothese, Chaps. 3–5.
255
Ibid., p. 66
Science and Hypothesis, p. 50.
256
Ibid., p. 5
Science and Hy- pothesis, p. xxvi.
251
Ibid., pp. 162–163
Science and Hypothesis, p. 136.
258
Ibid., p. 6.
259
Ibid., p. 178
260
H. Poincaré, op. cit. (note 166).
261
H. Poincaré, "L'espace et le temps," Scientia, 12 (1912), 159–171, esp. 168
Derniéres pensées (Paris, 1913), p. 105
262
H. Poincaré, op. cit. (note 169), Oeuvres, 9, 572
Science et methode, p. 248
Science and Method, p. 228.
263
H. Poincaré, op. cit. (note 261), p. 169
Derniéres pensées, p. 107.
264
W. Kaufmann, "Die magnetische und electrische Ablenkbarkeit der Becquerelstrahlen und die scheinbare Masse der Elektronen," Gött. Nachr., Math.-phys. Kl. (1901), pp. 143–155.
265
W. Kaufmann, "Ueber die electro magnetische Masse des Elektrons," Gött. Nachr., Math.-phys. Kl. (1902), pp. 291–296
"Ueber die ^lektromag- netische Masse' der Elektronen," Gött. Nachr., Math.-phys. Kl. (1903), pp. 90–103.
266
W. Wien, "Ueber die Möglichkeit einer elektromagnetischen Begründung der Mechanik," Verh. d. Deutsch. Phys. Ges., 8 (1906), 136–141
Physika- lische Abhandlungen und Vorträge, 2, 115–120.
[b] "Die Kaufmannschen of the electromagnetic view of nature see Russell McCormmach, op. cit. (note 243).
267
A. H. Bucherer, Mathematische Einführung in die Elektronentheorie (Leipzig, 1904)
P. Langevin, "La physique des electrons," Revue gén. des sci., 16 (1905), 257–276
La physique depuis vingt ans (Paris, 1923), pp. 1–69.
268
W. Kaufmann, "Über die Konstitution des Elektrons," Sitzb. preuss. Akad. Wiss. (1905), pp. 945–956.
269
Max Planck, [a] "Das Prinzip der Relätivitat und die Grundgleichungen der Mechanik," Verh. d. Deutsch. Phys. Ges., 8 (1906), 136–141
Physika- lische Abhandlungen und Vorträge, 2, 115–120.
[b] "Die Kaufmannschen Messungen der Ablenkbarkeit der β-Strahlen in ihrer Bedeutung für die Dy- namik der Electronen," Phys. Zeits., 7 (1906) 753–761
Phys. Abhandlungen und Vorträge, 2, 121–135.
270
A. H. Bucherer, "Messungen an Becquerelstrahlen. Die experimentelle Bestatigung der Lorentz-Einsteinschen Theorie," Phys. Zeits., 9 (1908), 755– 762
"Die experimentelle Bestatigung des Relativitätsprinzips," Ann. d. Phys., 28 (1909), 513–536.
271
J. Laub, "Über die experimentellen Grundlagen des Relativitätsprinzips," Jahrb. d. Rad. u. Elekt, 7 (1910), 405–463, esp. 462.
272
M. Planck, op. cit. (note 269), [a.], Phys. Abhandlungen und Vorträge, 2, 115
273
M. Planck, op. cit. (note 269), [h],Phys. Zeits., 7 (1906), 761
274
Ibid., p. 756.
275
H. Poincaré, op. cit. (notes 169, 172, and 173)
"La mécanique nouvelle," in Poincaré, Sechs Vorträge über ausgewählte Gegenstände aus der reinen Mathematik und mathematischen Physik (Leipzig, 1910), pp. 49–58.
276
Op. cit. (note 269), [b], Phys. Zeits., 7 (1906), 760–761.
277
H. Minkowski, "Mechanik und Relativitätspostulat," appendix to "Die Grundgleichungen für die elektro magnetise hen Vorgänge in bewegten Kör- pern," Gött. Nachr., Math.-phys. Kl. (1908), pp. 53–111
Zwei Abhandlungen uber die Grundgleichungen der Elektrodynamik (Leipzig, 1910), pp. 5–57; ap- pendix, pp. 45–57.
278
Ibid., p. 45
279
H. Minkowski, "Das Relativitätsprinzip," Ann. d. Phys., 47 (1915), 927– 938, esp. 927
280
Carl Seelig, op. cit. (note 189), p. 89.
281
T. Hirosige, "Syoki no Sôtaironteki Rikigaku" ("Relativistic Mechanics in its Early Stage"), Buturigakusi Kenkyû, 4 (1968), 39–54
5 (1969), 55–70
6 (1970), 27–61.
Stanley Goldberg, "In Defense of Ether: The British Response to Ein- stein's Special Theory of Relativity, 1905–1911," Hist. Stud. Phys. Sci., 2 (1970), 89–125.
282
H. Minkowski, "Raum und Zeit," Jahresber. d. Deutsch. Math. Verein., 18 (1908), 75–88
Phys. Zeits., 10 (1909), 104–111.
283
H. A. Lorentz, op. cit. (note 246) .Collected Papers, 7, 211.
284
M. Born, "Die träge Masse und das Relativitátsprinzip,' Ann. d. Phys., 28 (1909), 571–584
"Die Theorie des starren Elektrons in der Kinematik des Relativitätsprinzips," Ann. d. Phys., 30 (1909), 1–56, 840
"Über die Dy- namik des Elektrons in der Kinematik des Relativitätsprinzips," Phys. Zeits., 10 (1909), 814–817.
285
P. Frank, "Die Stellung des Relativitätsprinzips im System der Mechanik und der Elektrodynarnik," Sitzungsb. Wiener Akad. Wiss., 118 (1909), 373– 446, esp. 376.
286
M. Planck, "Die Stellung der neueren Physik zur mechanischen Weltan- schauung," Verh. Ges. Deutsch. Naturf. u. Ärzte, 82 (1910), part 1, pp. 58– 75
Phys. Abhandlungen und Vorträge, 3, 30–46, esp. 39
287
Thomas S. Kuhn, The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, 2nd ed. (Chicago, 1970), Chap. 4.
288
Tetu Hirosige, Kagaku no Syakaisi: Kindai Nihon no Kagaku Taisei (A Social History of Science: The Social System of Science in Modern Japan) (Tokyo, 1973)
Jerome R. Ravetz, Scientific Knowledge and Its Social Problems (Oxford, 1971), esp. Chap. 2.
289
A. Koyré, Étude d'histoire de lapensée scientifique (Paris, 1966), pp. 71– 72 and passim.
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