[Footnotes]

[Footnotes]
1
L. Rosenfeld, "Introduction" to On the Constitution of Atoms and Molecules (Copenhagen, 1963)
L. Rosen- feld and E. Riidinger, "The Decisive Years, 1911–1918," in S. Rozental, ed., Niels Bohr: His Life and Work as seen by his Friends and Colleagues (Amsterdam and New York, 1967), 38-73.
2
T. Hirosige and S. Nisio, "Formation of Bohr's Theory of Atomic Constitution," Jap. Stud- ies Hist. Sci., No. 3 (1964), 6–28
J. L. Heilbron, A History of Atomic Models from the Discovery of the Electron to the Beginnings of Quantum Mechanics, diss. (University of California, Berkeley, 1964)
R. McCormmach, "The Atomic Theory of John William Nicholson," Arch. Hist. Exact Sci., 3 (1966), 160–184.
C. E. Behrens, "Atomic Theory from 1904 to 1913," Am. J. Phys., 11 [1943], 60–66
"The Early Development of the Bohr Atom," ibid., 135–147
"Fur- ther Developments of Bohr's Early Atomic Theory," ibid., 272–281
E. T. Whittaker, A History of the Theories of Aether and Electricity. II. The Modern Theories, 1900–1926 [London, 1953]
L. S. Polak, "Die Entstehung der Quantentheorie des Atoms (Das Rutherford-Borsche Atommodell)," Sowjetische Beitrage zur Geschichte der Naturwissenschaft [Berlin, 1960], 226–242)
3
T. S. Kuhn, J. L. Heilbron, P. Forman, and L. Allen, Sources for History of Quantum Physics. An Inventory and Report (Philadelphia, 1967).
4
N. Bohr, Studier over metallernes elektrontheori (Copenhagen, 1911)
S. Rozental, Niels Bohr, 36–37.
5
H. A. Lorentz, "The Motion of Electrons in Metallic Bodies," Proc. Amst. Acad., 7:2 (1905), 438–453, 585–593, 684–691.
6
Bohr, Studier, 4.
7
Ibid.
8
Ibid., 5.
9
J. J. Thomson, The Corpuscular Theory of Matter (London, 1907), 86
W. Sutherland, "The Elec- tric Origin of Rigidity and Consequences," Phil. Mag., 1 (1904), 417–444, esp. 423–435.
10
Bohr, Studier, 57–58, 116–117.
11
H. A. Lorentz, "On the Emission and Absorption by Metals of Rays of Heat of Great Wave- lengths," Proc. Amst. Acad, 5 (1903), 666–685.
12
J. J. Thomson, "On the Electrical Origin of the Radiation from Hot Bodies," Phil. Mag., 14 (1907), 217–231
"On the Theory of Radiation," ibid., 20 (1910), 238–247
J. H.Jeans, "The Motion of Electrons in Solids. I," ibid., 17 (1909), 773–794.
13
Bohr, Studier, 77, 103–104.
14
J. H. Jeans, "Temperature-Radiation and the Partition of Energy in Continuous Media," Phil. Mag., iy (1909), 229–254.
15
Bohr, Studier, 103.
16
J. J. Thomson, "Indications relatives á la constitution de la matiére fournies par les recherches récentes sur le passage de Pélectricité á travers les gaz," Congres international de physique. Rapports (Paris, 1900–01), 3, 138–151.
17
H. J. van Leeuwen, "Problémes de la théorie électronique du magnétisme,"Journal de physique et le radium, 2 (1921), 361–377, on 376.
J. H. van Vleck, The Theory of Electric and Magnetic Susceptibilities (Oxford, 1932), 101–102
18
P. Langevin, "Magnétisme et la théorie des électrons," Ann. de chimie et de physique, 5 (1905), 70–127, esp. 73–97.
19
Van Vleck, op. cit. (note 17), 23.
21
P. Curie, "Propriétés magnétiques des corps á diverses températures," Ann. de chem. et de phys., 5 (1895), 289–405.
22
Bohr, Studier, 103, 108
J. J. Thomson, "The Magnetic Properties of Corpuscles Describing Circular Orbits," Phil. Mag., 6 (1903), 673–693
R. Gans, "Zur Elektronentheorie des Fer- romagnetismus," Gbtt. Nachr. (1910), 197–273, esp. 213–230
supra, note 20.
Thomson, op. cit., 687–688
Studier, 108
23
Miss Leeuwen, op. cit. (note 17), 373–375
Van Vleck, op. cit. (note 17), 94–100.
24
Studier, 5, 108, 120
supra, 215.
Bohr read the Cambridge Philosophical Society in November 1911 {infra, 228).
Kuhn et ai, Sources [note 3, supra].
26
NB to Margrethe Norlund, 26 Sept 1911
Rosenfeld and Riidinger, op. cit. (note 1), 39–40.
27
NB to Harald Bohr, 29 Sept 1911 (BPC).
28
NBtoS. B. McLaren, 17 Dec 1911
C. W. Oseen, 1 Dec 1911 (BSC).
Kuhn et al., op. cit. [note 3].
29
NB to Harald Bohr, 23 Oct 1911 (BPC).
30
NB to Harald Bohr, 23 Oct 1911 (BPC).
S. B. McLaren (ibid.
S. B. McLaren, "The Emission and Absorption of Energy by Electrons," Phil. Mag., 23 [1911], 66–83
Sci- entific Papers, ed. J. Larmor [Cambridge, 1925], 22–27).
31
Rozental, Niels Bohr, 30.
32
NB to Harald Bohr, 23 Oct 1911 (BPC).
34
Russell McCormmach, "J. J. Thomson and the Structure of Light," Br.J. Hist. Sci.,3 (1967), 362–387
Lord Rayleigh, The Life of Sir J. J. Thomson (Cambridge, 1942), 202.
35
J. J. Thomson, "On the Structure of the Atom ...," Phil. Mag., 7 (1904), 237–265.
36
J. J. Thomson, Corpuscular Theory of Matter
"On the Scattering of Rapidly Moving Elec- trified Particles," Proc. Camb. Phil. Soc, 15 (1910), 465–471.
37
J. J. Thomson, "On the Theory of Radiation," Phil. Mag., 20 (1910), 238–247.
38
Bohr, Studier, 34, 117.
40
A. E. Haas ("Über die elektrodynamische Bedeutung des Planckschen Strahlungsgesetzes und über eine neue Bestimmung des elektrischen Elementarquantums und der Dimensionen des Wasserstoffatoms," Sitzb. Wien. Ak., ng:2a [1910], 119–144
"Der Zusammenhang des Planckschen elementaren Wirkungsquantums mit den Grundgrossen der Elektronentheorie," Jahrb. Rad. und Elek., 7 [1910], 261–268)
La théorie du rayonnement et les quanta. Rapports et discussions de la reunion tenue a Bruxelles du 30 octobre au 3 novembre ign [Paris, 1912], 124)
41
Larmor's Aether and Matter (Cambridge, 1900), 189–193
43
NB to Harald Bohr, 29 Sept and 23 Oct 1911
NB to Ellen Bohr (his mother), 31 Oct and 6 Dec 1911 (BPG).
Rozental, Niels Bohr, 23–24.
44
NB to Harald Bohr, 23 Oct 1911 (BPC).
45
Ibid.
Rosenfeld and Rüdinger, op. cit. (note 1), 41
46
M. Reinganum, 9 Nov and 17 Dec 1911
C. Oseen, 1 Dec 1911 (BSC).
47
NB to Harald Bohr, 23 Oct 1911
Camb. Phil. Soc. to NB, 7 May 1912 (BPC).
48
Rosenfeld and Rüdinger, op. cit. (note 1)
NB to Harald Bohr, 2 Feb 1912 (BPC)
N. Bohr, "Note on the Electron Theory of Thermoelectric Phenomena," Phil. Mag., 23 (1912), 984–986
50
P. Weiss, "Über die rationalen Verháltnisse der magnetischen Momente der Molekiile und das Magneton," Phys. Zs., 12 (1911), 935–952.
51
Rosenfeld, op. cit. (note 1), 75–77.
52
Harald on 3 Aug 1913 (BPC)
53
Phys. Zs., 12 (1911), 952.
54
below, 244, n.85.
55
N. Bohr, "Reminiscences of the Founder of Nuclear Science and of Some Developments Based on his Work," Proc. Phys. Soc., 78 (1961), 1083–1115
NB to Ellen Bohr, 31 Oct 1911
56
Bohr ("Reminiscences," 1084)
C. T. R. Wilson, "On an Expansion Apparatus for Making Visible the Tracks of Ionizing Particles in Gases and Some Results Obtained by its Use," Proc. Roy. Soc., A, 87 (1912), 277–292.
57
Rosenfeld and Riidinger, op. cit. (note 1), 43–44
Bohr, "Reminiscences," 1083–1084
Rutherford to W. H. Bragg, 20 Dec 1911
A. S. Eve, Rutherford [New York and Cambridge, 1939], 208
NB to Harald and Ellen Bohr, 28 Jan 1912 [BPC]
58
Ruth Moore, Niels Bohr. The Man, his Science and the World they Changed (New York, 1966), 31–39
Rosenfeld, op. cit. (note 1), xv.
59
NB to Harald Bohr, 7 March 1912 (BPC).
60
Cavendish in 1911–1912
J. L. Heilbron, "The Scattering of a and ft Particles and Rutherford's Atom," Arch. Hist. Exact Sci., 4 [1968], 247–307
61
NB to Margrethe Norland, March (?) 1912
Rosenfeld and Riidinger, op. cit. (note 1), 45.
62
Ibid.
63
NB to Harald Bohr, 7 March 1912 (BPC).
65
NB to Harald Bohr, 27 May 1912 (BPC).
66
NB to Camb. Phil. Soc., 8 May 1912 (copy)
Harald Bohr, 19 May 1912 (BPC).
67
NB to Harald Bohr, 27 May and 12 June 1912 (BPC).
68
NB to Harald Bohr, 27 May 1912 (BPC).
70
Rosenfeld, op. cit. (note 1), xvi
71
J. Stark, "Folgerungen aus einer Valenzhypothese II. Metallische Leitung der Elektrizitát," Jahrb. Rad. u. Elek., g (1912), 188–203.
73
BPC. Rosenfeld (op. cit. [note 1], xvii–xviii)
74
Darwin's paper, "A Theory of the Absorption and Scattering of the a Rays,"
Phil. Mag., 23, 901–920
75
Heil- bron, "Scattering ... and Rutherford's Atom" (note 60).
77
N. Bohr, "On the Theory of the Decrease of Velocity of Moving Electrified Particles on passing through Matter," Phil. Mag., 25 (1913), 10–31
78
J. J. Thomson, "Ionization by Moving Electrified Particles," Phil. Mag., 23 (1912), 449–457
"Moving Electrified Particles," 11 and 12.
79
Bohr, op. cit., 13.
80
Ibid.
81
op. cit. [note 1], xv
Heilbron, "Scattering ... and Rutherford's Atom," op. cit. [note 60], 256–257.
82
G. A. Schott, "On the Kinetics of a System of Particles illustrating the Line and Band Spectrum," Phil. Mag., 8 (1904), 384–387
"A Dynamical System illustrating the Spectrum Lines ...," Nature, 69 (1904), 437. On 11 March 1911
Heilbron, "Scattering ... and Rutherford's Atom," op. cit. [note 60], 300 n.
"The Scattering of a and Particles by Matter and the Structure of the Atom," Phil. Mag., 21 (1911), 669–688.
83
280–281, infra.
note 79, supra
Harald of 12 June 1912
84
"Moving Electrified Particles," op. cit. [note 77], 27, 23
84a
Margrethe Norlund, during May, June, and July 1912.
85
Supra, 227, 232.
Solvay Congress in 1911
Solvay Rapports (op. cit. [note 40], 447)
Bibliog. de la France, 102 [1913], No. 887
Nernst-Festschrift, 1912, 90–98
infra, 259
"Moving Electrified Particles," op. cit. [note 77], 27
Solvay Rapports
Poincaré in January 1912
Russell McCormmach, "Henri Poincaré and the Quantum Theory," Isis, 58 [l967], 37-55
supra, 233
Rutherford's "Note" in the Planck-Heft of Naturwissenschaften, ij [1929], 483
86
Rosenfeld (op. cit. [note 1], xxi–xxviii)
87
Ibid., xxii.
88
Rosenfeld, xxi n.
89
J. J. Thom- son, Corpuscular Theory of Matter, 103–120.
90
Heilbron, "Scattering ... and Rutherford's Atom," op. cit. [note 60]
supra, 226
91
The Corpuscular Theory of Matter, 158-162
92
Rosenfeld, xxiii.
93
Rosenfeld, xxv–xxvii.
94
Ibid., xxvii
95
Ibid.
96
Rosenfeld (op. cit. xxi)
97
Rosenfeld, xxx–xxxi.
98
Bohr, "Moving Electrified Particles," op. cit. (note 77), 23.
99
Ibid.
Hevesy dated 7 February 1913
BSC; Ro- senfeld, xxxii–xxxiii
J. S. Town- send, Electricity in Gases [Oxford, 1915], Chaps. VII, XII.
100
Lothar Meyer ("Die Natur der chemischen Elemente ais Funktion ihrer Atomgewichte," Ann. d. Chem. u. Pharm., 1870, Suppl. 7, 354–364)
W. Nernst, Theoretical Chemistry from the Standpoint of Avogadro's Rule and Thermodynamics, trans. R. A. Lehfeldt from 4th German ed. (London, 1904), 189–192.
W. H. Bragg, "On the a Particles of Radium, and their Loss of Range in passing through various Atoms and Molecules," Phil. Mag., 10 [1905], 318–340.
A. Whiddington, "The Production of Characteristic Rontgen Radia- tions," Proc. Roy. Soc. A, 85 [1911], 323–332.
Section VI, infra.
101
NB to Hevesy, 7 Feb 1913 (BSC)
Hevesy to Rutherford, 14 Oct 1913
Rosenfeld and Riidinger, op. cit. [note 1], 48
G. von Hevesy, "Bohrsche Theorie und Radioaktivität," Na- turwissenschaften, 11 (1923), 604–605.
Bohr's "Reminiscences," op. cit. (note 55), 1084–1086
103
Ibid., I, 7
II, 11–12, 16
Bohr, "Reminiscences," 1085.
104
Bohr, "Reminiscences," 1085
G. von Hevesy, "Die Valenz der Radioelemente," Phys. Zs., 14 (1913)549–62.
106
Bohr, "Moving Electrified Particles," op. cit. (note 77), 26.
Heilbron, "Scattering ... and Rutherford's Atom," op. cit. [note 60J, 305.
108
Ibid., II, 16.
Ibid., I, 7
J. L. Heilbron, "The work of H. G. J. Moseley," his, 57 [1966], 336–364
110
NB to Rutherford, 4 Nov 1912 (BSC)
Rosenfeld and Rüdinger, op. cit. (note 1), 50–51.
111
note 84, supra.
114
Rosenfeld, xxxii–xxxiv.
115
N. Bohr, "On the Constitution of Atoms and Molecules [Part I, untitled]," Phil. Mag., 26 (1913), 1–25
"Part II. Systems containing only a Single Nucleus," ibid., 476–502
"Part III. Systems containing Several Nuclei," ibid., 857–875.
note 51, supra.
116
NB to Rutherford, 6 Mar 1913 (BSC).
118
Heilbron, History of Atomic Structure, 276–278
McCormmach, "Atomic Theory of... Nicholson," 175–177
note 1
119
J. w. Nicholson, "The Constitution of the Solar Corona. II," Month. Not. Roy. Astr. Soc., 72 (1912), 677–692
"The Constitution of the Solar Corona. III," ibid., 729–739.
120
Nature, 90 (1912), 424.
121
Rosenfeld, xxxvi.
123
NB to C. W. Oseen, 1 December 1911 (BSC).
Nicholson's paper is "On the Number of Elec- trons concerned in Metallic Conduction," Phil. Mag., 22 (1911), 245–266.
Ruther- ford to W. H. Bragg, 23 Dec 1912 (Rutherford Correspondence, Cambridge University Library).
124
"Solar Corona II," op. cit. (note 119), 678–680
125
J. W. Nicholson, "On the New Nebular Line at υ4353," Month. Not. Roy. Astr. Soc., 72 (1912), 693
McCormmach, "Atomic Theory of... Nicholson," 167–169.
126
McCormmach, op. cit., 183–184.
127
Ibid., 165–166
Nicholson, "Solar Corona II," 682.
128
J. W. Nicholson, "A Structural Theory of the Chemical Elements," Phil. Mag., 22 (1911), 864–889
129
Rosenfeld, xxxvi, lv.
Nicholson's "Solar Corona III," 730
130
Section VI, infra
note 99, supra
131
J. H. Jeans, Report on Radiation and the Quantum Theory (London, 1914), 50
McCormmach, "Atomic Theory of... Nicholson," 184.
132
F. Horton, "On the Origin of Spectra," Phil. Mag., 22 (1911), 214– 219.
Heilbron, History of. . . Atomic Structure, op. cit. (note 1), 176-185.
133
J. Stark, Prinzipien der Atomdynamik, 3 vols. (Leipzig, 1910–1915).
134
ibid. 2 (1911), 131–144.
Corpuscular Theory of Matter, 156–160
"Radiation Produced by the Recombination of Ions," 454–462
note 78, supra.
135
Rosenfeld, xxxix–xl
Sister St. John Nepomucene, "Rydberg: the Man and the Constant," Chymia, 6 (1960), 127–145
137
Rosenfeld, xxxix
138
Stark, op. cit. (note 133), 2, 44–45.
139
supra. 244, n.85.
"Über die Erregung der Quecksilberresonanzlinie 253.6 juju durch Elektronenstosse," Verh. deutsch. phys. Ges. [1914], 512–517.
140
Phil. Mag., 26 [1913]
Rosenfeld, op. cit. [note 1].
141
NB to Rutherford, 21 March 1913 (BSC).
142
Rosenfeld and Riidinger, op. cit. (note 1), 54.
144
Bohr's Theory of Spectra and Atomic Constitution (Cambridge, Eng., 1922), 1–19.
Fysisk Tidsskrift, 12 (1914), 97–114.
145
Planck (Ann. d. Phys., 31 [1910], 758–768
ibid., 37 [1912], 642–656
Verh. deutsch. phys. Ges. [1911], 138–148).
Hirosige and Nisio (op. cit. [note 2])
Planck's original
"Solar Corona II," op. cit. [note 119], 677
146
Rosenfeld and Riidinger, op. cit. [note 1], 59–60.
147
Hirosige and Nisio (note 2)
Bohr's lecture to the Danish Physical Society (op. cit. [note 144], 13–14)
"On the Quantum Theory of Radiation and the Structure of the Atom," Phil. Mag., 30 [1915], 394–415, esp. 396.
Paul Ehrenfest ("Bemerkung betreffs der spezifischen Warme zweiatomiger Gase," Verh. deutsch. phys. Ges. [1913], 451–457
"A Mechanical Theorem of Boltz- mann and its Relation to the Theory of Energy Quanta," Proc. Amsterdam Acad., 16 [1913], 591– 597).
148
infra, 281
149
K. M. Meyer-Abich, Korrespondenz, Individualitat, und Komp¿ementaritat, Boethius, Texte und Abhandlungen zur Geschichte der Exakten Wissenschaften (Wiesbaden, 1965).
150
Op. cit. (note 144), 11.
151
Ibid., 14.
152
"Solar Corona," op. cit. [note 119], 679
154
note 147, supra.
155
N. Bohr, "On the Effect of Electric and Magnetic Fields on Spectral Lines," Phil. Mag., 27 (1914), 506–524
"On the Quantum Theory of Radiation and the Structure of the Atom," ibid., 30 (1915), 394–415.
156
Max Jammer, The Conceptual Development of Quantum Mechanics [New York, 1966], 91–93
Solvay Congress in 1911
note 85, supra
157
A. Sommerfeld, "Zur Theorie der Balmerschen Serie," Sitzungsb. Bayer. Akad. zu München, 1915, 425–458, esp. 428, 431.
Thomas S. Kuhn, The Structure of Scientific Revolutions (Chicago, 1962), 138–139.
158
note 82, supra
note 161 infra
159
P. Debye, "Die Konstitution des Wasserstoff-Moleküls," Sitzungsb. d. Bayer. Akad. zu München, 1915, 1–26
A. Sommerfeld, "Die allgemeine Dispersionsformel nach dem Bohrschen Modell," in Arbeiten aus den Gebieten der Physik, Mathematik, Chemie—Festschrift Julius Elster und Hans Geitel (Braunschweig, 1915), 549–584
"Die Drudesche Dispersionstheorie vom Standpunkte des Bohrschen Modelles und die Konstitution von H2, O2, und N2," Ann. d. Phys., 53 (1917), 497–550.
160
N. Bohr, "Die Anwendung der Quantentheorie auf periodische Systeme," in Abhandlungen über Atombau aus den Jahren 1913–16, trans. H. Stintzing (Braunschweig, 1921), 123–151
Phil. Mag. for April 1916
note 157, supra
note 91, supra
161
Bohr, "Moving Electrified Particles," op. cit. (note 77), 23 n.
162
T. S. Kuhn, "The Crisis of the Old Quantum Theory, 1922–1925,"
163
Supra, 245–246.
164
Rosenfeld, xxiii
note 100, supra.
166
Rosenfeld, xxiii
167
Heilbron, History of. . . Atomic Structure, op. cit. (note 1), 313–319
168
J. J. Thomson, "Ionization by Moving Electrified Particles," Phil. Mag., 23 (1912), 449–457
Heilbron, "Moseley" (note 108, supra), 345.
169
Rosenfeld, xxiv–xxviii
supra, 248–249.
170
Ibid., xxvi.
171
Ibid., xxv
172
Supra, 282.
173
Rosenfeld, xxvii, xlvii, 61.
174
Heilbron, "Moseley," op. cit. (note 108), 361, n. 81.
175
J. L. Heilbron, "The Kossel-Sommerfeld Theory and the Ring Atom," his, 58 (1967), 451–485.
176
N. Bohr, "Der Bau der Atome und die physikalischen und chemischen Eigenschaften der Ele- mente," Zs. Phys., 9 (1922), 1–67.
177
E. C. Stoner, "The Distribution of Electrons Among Atomic Levels," Phil. Mag., 48 (1924), 719–736
W. Pauli, "Über den Zusummenhang des Abschlusses der Elektronengruppen im Atom mit der Komplexstruktur der Specktren," Zs. Phys., 31 (1925), 765–783, esp. 773–776.
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