[Footnotes]

[Footnotes]
1
Roger Revelle, "Foreword," K.O. Emery, J.I. Tracey, Jr., and H.S. Ladd, "Geology of Bikini and nearby atolls," USGS professional paper, 260-A (1954), iii-vii.
2
Navy Press Summary, No. 12, 19 Jul 1947, RG 374, DNA, entry 47B, box 158, folder Outgoing Dispatches, NACP
Charles Darwin, The structure and distribution of coral reefs (London, 1842).
3
Emery, Tracey, and Ladd (ref. 1), 120-124.
4
Michael Aaron Dennis, "A change of state: The political cultures of technical practice at the MIT Instrument Laboratory and the Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory, 1930- 1945" (Ph.D. dissertation, Johns Hopkins University, 1991)
J.M Sanchez- Ron, eds., National military establishments and the advancement of science and technology (Dordrecht, 1996), 261-326
ibid, 215-232
Chandra Mukerji, A fragile power: Scientists and the state (Princeton, 1989).
5
Susan Schlee, The edge of an unfamiliar world: A history of oceanography (New York, 1972), 23-67
Gary E. Weir, "An ocean in common: Naval officers, scientists, and the ocean environment, 1919-1965" unpublished ms., 35-93.
[Columbus O'Donnell Iselin], "Sound transmission in sea water: A preliminary report," 1 Feb 1941, p. 3, RG 227, OSRD, entry 29, box 752
Willem Hackmann, Seek and strike: Sonar, anti-submarine warfare and the Royal Navy, 1914-1954 (London, 1984), 136.
6
Schlee, ibid, 272-280
Helen Raitt and Beatrice Moultin, Scripps Institution of Oceanography: First fifty years (Los Angeles, 1967), 92-136.
7
Weir (ref. 5), 160-168, 215-222
Thomas Wayland Vaughan to Commander Guy Davis, 28 Feb 1924, SIOD (Vaughan), Records 1924-1936, AC11, box 1, folder Correspondence, SIOA
RG 37, HO General Correspondence 1924-1945
RG 37, entry 48, box 142, folder Hl-15 (6) 253572-256000
SIOD (Revelle), Records 1931-1960, AC16
8
Naomi Oreskes, "Weighing the earth from a submarine: The gravity measuring cruise of the U.S.S. S-21," Gregory Good, ed., The earth, the heavens, and the Carnegie Institution of Washington: Historical perspectives after ninety years (Washington, D.C., 1994), 53-68.
9
Vaughan to Bigelow, 4 Jan 1929
Bigelow to Vaughan, 7 Jan 1929, SIOD (Vaughan) (ref. 7), box 2, folder Correspondence Jan 1929
Secretary of the Navy, 22 Mar 1929, SIOD (Vaughan), box 2, folder Correspondence Mar 1929.
10
Henry Bryant Bigelow, Oceanography: Its scope, problems and economic importance (Boston, 1931)
Thomas Wayland Vaughan, "The oceanographic point of view," Contribu- tions to marine biology: Lectures and symposia given at the Hopkins Marine Station (Stanford, 1930), 40-56
Roger Revelle to Harald U. Sverdrup, 26 Oct 1936, RR, MC 6, Correspondence Series 1935-June 1936, box 1, folder 53, SIOA.
11
[Columbus O'Donnell Iselin], The application of oceanography to subsurface warfare (Washington, D.C., 1946), 4-5
(Summary technical report of Division 6, NDRC, vol. 6A).
12
Robert Marc Friedman, Appropriating the weather: Vilhelm Bjerknes and the construc- tion of a modern meteorology (Ithaca, 1989)
Harald U. Sverdrup and Richard H. Fleming, "The waters off the coast of southern California," SIO, Bulletin, 4 (1941), 261-378.
13
H.W. Menard, The ocean of truth: A personal history of global tectonics (Princeton, 1986), 30-37.
14
Athelstan F. Spilhaus, " A bathythermograph," Journal of marine research, 1 (1937– 1938), 95-100
George R. Erdhardt, "Bathythermograph," Robert Bud and Deborah Jean Warner, eds., Instruments of science: A historical encyclopedia (New York, 1998), 54-56.
15
Iselin to John T. Tate, 19 Aug 1941, RG 227, NDRC, entry 78, box 39, folder Navy Conference 5 Sep 1941
"Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution work, 1 Oct 1940-31 Nov 1941," RG 227, NDRC, entry 78, box 53
Iselin, 10 Apr 1942, RG 227
16
Burhans to Sverdrup, 26 Dec 1939
SIOD (Sverdrup), Records 1936-1948, box 1, folder 15, Correspondence, SIOA
RR, Biographical Series, box 1, folder 28, Navy Service 1936-1937
1940-42
(A.D. Burhans) to Chief of Naval Operations, 29 Oct 1940, RG 37
Vern O. Knudsen to John T. Tate, 15 Jul 1941, RG 227, NDRC
17
Weir (ref. 5), 323-334
Iselin to Tate, 1 Oct 1941, RG 227, NDRC, entry 77, box 4
David K. Allison, "U.S. Navy research and development since World War II," Merritt Roe Smith, ed., Mili- tary enterprise and technological change: Perspectives on the American experience (Cam- bridge, MA, 1985), 289-328.
18
Naval Research Advisory Committee to the Technical Aide, Secretary of the Navy, 28 Jan 1941, RG 19
19
H.G. Bowen to Jewett, 10 Feb 1941
Jewett to Bowen, 13 Feb 1941, RG 227, NDRC entry 78, box 38, folder C-4
Chief Bureau of Ships (A.H. Van Keuren) to Chief of Naval Operations, 31 Mar 1941, RG 19
BS General Correspondence 1940-45, S68, box 1201
NDRC, S.M. Robinson to Chairman, NDRC, 10 Apr 1941, RG 19
BS General Correspondence 1940-45, S68, box 1201
20
Summary technical report of Division 6, NDRC, Vol. 1, John Coleman, ed., A survey of subsurface warfare in World War II (Washington, D.C., 1946), 36-56.
21
WJ. Ruble, Director NRSL and the first two directors of UCDWR, Vern O. Knudsen and Gaylord P. Harnwell: RG 19, BS General Correspon- dence 1940-1945, box 641, folder NP22/S/68.
Knudsen to John T. Tate, 22 Jan 1942, RG 227, NDRC, entry 78, box 52, folder UC General 1. On Harnwell: J.A. Furer to Director Navy Radio and Sound Laboratory, 17 Jul 1942, RG 227, NDRC, entry 77, box 8, folder 03.00 harbor defense.
22
Carl Eckart, "Fundamental studies in underwater sound," in Coleman, ed. (ref. 20), 119-143.
UCDWR Roster 1941-45, SIOA.
23
W.A. Lee, Jr. to Chief Bureau of Ships, 27 Apr 1942, RG 227, NDRC, entry 77, box 4, folder 01.90
R.W Bennett to Commander 10th Fleet, 22 Oct 1944, RG 19, BS Secret Correspondence 1944, S68, box 157, folder Aug 1944.
24
UCDWR, Manual for bathythermo- graph pilot instructors, Sep 1944, SIO Library.
25
Colpitts to Tate, 13 Feb 1943, RG 227, NDRC, entry 78, box 37, folder Division 6 management
Spitzer to Richard H. Fleming, 22 Jun 1942, RG 227, NDRC, entry 79, box 15, folder F through 29 June 1942
Eckart to Spitzer, 4 May 1944, RG 227, NDRC, entry 77, box 1, folder 01.00 sonar performance studies.
26
Iselin (ref. 5), 1-22, 72-80.
27
Iselin to Vannevar Bush, nd [1940], RG 227, NDRC, entry 77, box 4, folder 01.90.
UCDWR slide rule and sonar charts: Richard H. Fleming and Roger Revelle, "Calculation of sound ray paths in sea water," 16 Jan 1942, RG 227, OSRD, entry 29, box 6, folder 672 UC
UCDWR, "General conditions for echo ranging in the west- ern north Pacific Ocean," 30 Jan 1942, RG 227, OSRD, entry 29, box 6, folder 672 UC.
Knudsen to Tate, 5 Jan 1942, and 10 Feb 1942, RG 227, NDRC, entry 77, box 4, folder 01.90
Knudsen to Tate, 5 Feb 1942, RG 227, OSRD, entry 29, box 6, folder 672 UC
Joint conference on the relation of oceanographic work to the anti-submarine warfare problem, 26 Feb 1942, RG 227, NDRC, entry 77, box 4, folder 01.90. On strategic use of charts: Iselin to Bush
[Richard H. Fleming] to Gaylord P. Harnwell, 18 Sep 1942, RG 227, NDRC, entry 77, box 5, folder 01.90.
28
Iselin (ref. 11), 9-12
Eckart (ref. 22), 135-137
UCDWR, Maximum echo ranges: Their prediction and use (Jan 1944), RG 227, OSRD, entry 29, box 680, folder UC
Minutes of a conference on the transmission of sound in the sea, 11-12 Oct 1943, RG 227, NDRC, entry 77, box 4, folder 10.70, transmission of underwater sound.
29
Roger R. Revelle, "Marine bottom samples collected in the Pacific Ocean by the Carnegie on its seventh voyage," Carnegie Institution of Washington publication, 556, pt. 1 (1944), 1-180
Revelle to Harold Hoots, 21 Oct 1939, RR, Biographical Series, box 1, folder 62 correspondence Aug -Oct 1939, SIOA.
30
Iselin (ref. 11), 16
Iselin to J.A. Furer, 2 Apr 1942, RG 38, CNO Formerly Security Classified Correspondence, Headquarters Commander in Chief, box 215, folder S68, NACP
NDRC, The use of bottom sediment charts, May 1943, RG 37, HO Security Classified General Correspondence, 1924-1945, entry 49, box 30, folder A10-1/S68 428232.
31
RG 298, Office of Naval Research, Office of the Coordinator of Research and Develop- ment, conference, 11 Nov 1942, military requirements for oceanography, box 62, folder oceanographic data volume I, NACP
Revelle to Iselin, 10 Aug 1943, RG 19, BS General Correspondence 1943, Radio Division, S68, box 109, folder Mar-Dec 1943.
32
Colpitts to Harnwell, 27 Jun 1944, RG 227, NDRC, entry 79, box 6, folder Harnwell
Rawson Bennett to Harald U. Sverdrup, 9 May 1944, RG 37, HO Security Classified Gen- eral Correspondence, entry 49, box 31, folder A10-1/S68 428232.
Pacific theatre in July 1945
T.A. Solberg to H.T. Orville, 2 Jul 1945, RG 38, DCNO (Air) Flight Division, Aerology Division, General Correspondence 1919-1945, box 3, folder HI -(1), #1.
33
Tate to Bush, 20 Feb 1942, RG 227, NDRC, entry 77, box 8, folder 03.00. NRSL, "Report of survey of San Francisco Harbor to determine locality of proposed locations for harbor defense installations," 23 Jan 1943
NRSL, "Survey of Puget Sound area: Report on the suitability of possible herald locations Strait of Juan de Fuca and Admiralty Inlet, State of Washington," 5 Feb 1943, RG 19, BS General Correspondence 1940-1945, box S68, 1216, folder Jan-Feb 1943. On objections, see ref. 21.
34
Guillermo Medina to W.B. McKean, 1 Feb 1944, RG 37, HO Security Classified Gen- eral Correspondence, entry 49, box 23, folder 407972-408670
Hydrographer to Chief of Naval Operations, 1 Jul 1944, RG 37, entry 49, box 64, folder A9-1/EN-22, 476706.
Majuro and Kwajalein atolls: RG 37, entry 49, box 61, folder QH588/H1-18, 471686.
35
H.H. Styfried to Captain Slayton, 25 Apr 1944, RG 37, HO Security Classified General Correspondence, entry 49, box 62, folder A9-4/AG 84, 472511
Commanding Officer U.S.S. Hydrographer, 3 Jul 1944, entry 49, box 63, folder A9-4/AG 84, 475846.
H.H. Hess, " Drowned ancient islands of the Pacific basin," American journal of science, 244 (1946), 772-791.
port summaries for Calcutta, 8 Dec 1942, and Karachi, 29 May 1944, RG 37, entry 49, box 38, folder 442632.
36
Oceanographic Division of UCDWR for Jul-Oct 1941, RG 227, OSRD, entry 29, box 672, folder UC.
"Accuracy of echo ranges from BT observations," 11 Dec 1941, RG 227, OSRD, entry 29, box 672, folder UC
"Report of the probable effects of sound rays on varying depth of sound projectors," 18 Dec 1941, RG 227, OSRD, entry 29, box 675, folder UC.
Tate to Harnwell, 9 Apr 1942, RG 227, NDRC, entry 79, box 15, folder H through June 1942.
Federal Bureau of Investigation, File on Harald U. Sverdrup, FBI HQ 125– 8951.
Naomi Oreskes and Ronald Rainger, "Science and security before the atomic bomb: The loyalty case of Harald U. Sverdrup," Studies in history and philosophy of mod- ern physics, in press.
37
Revelle to Colpitts, 2 Oct 1943, and Revelle to Director Scripps Institution of Oceanog- raphy, 2 Oct 1943, HO Security Classified General Correspondence, entry 49, box 31, folder 1, A10-1/S68 428232
Revelle to UCDWR, 25 Nov 1944, RG 227, NDRC, entry 77, box 6, folder 01.93, submarine supplements.
38
Sverdrup to Robert Gordon Sproul, 15 June 1942, SIO Office of Director (Sverdrup),
box 1, folder 20, Correspondence Jan-Jun 1942.
A "Method for forecasting of swell," was prepared in November 1942 by Seiwell's unit, RG 38, DCNO (Air), box 3, folder Hl-(1) #2.
JMC meeting 8 Dec 1942, RG 218, Joint Chiefs of Staff, Central Decimal File, 1942-1945
JMC Meetings, box 206, folder 3 Nov 1942
NACP. On Revelle's activities: 7 Jan 1943, RG 298, box 62, folder Oceanogaphic Data Volume I; 27 Jan 1943, 28 Jan 1943, 29 Apr 1943, and 13 May 1943, RG 218, JMC meet- ings, box 209, folder 3 Dec 1942 Subcommittees.
Vice Chief of Naval Operations to Hydrographer, 9 June 1943, RG 38, DCNO (Air), box 3, folder Hl-(l) #1.
Hydrographer to Commander of the 8th Fleet, 7 Oct 1943, RG 37, HO Security Classified General Correspondence, entry 49, box 16, folder HI 383545 #2.
JAMS reports, including chapters on oceanography, are inRG319, Army Chief of Staff Reports and Messages, 1918-1951, NACP.
Charles C. Bates and John F. Fuller, America's weather warriors 1814-1985 (College Station, TX, 1986), 48-102.
39
Solberg to Orville; Memorandum of a conference between Roger Revelle and Harald Sverdrup, 22 Oct 1944, SIOSF, AC6
"Research: Surface current, drift, salinity, and tem- perature studies World War II, July -December 1944," box 16, folder 41, SIOA
Charles C. Bates, "Wave research in the United States from August 1943 to November 1944," RG19, BS Secret Correspondence 1945, S68, box 153, folder Jan-Feb 1945.
40
Martin W. Johnson, "Underwater noise and distribution of snapping shrimp in central Pacific areas," 14 Jan 1944, UCDWR report U146, UCDWR Reports, AC 86-14, box 2, SIOA
F. Alton Everest and Elva M. Everest, "World War II underwater: An engineer called to San Diego, California for wartime research in underwater sound," unpublished ms., 1992.
Raitt and Moultin (ref. 6), 92-136
Eric L. Mills, Biological oceanography: An early history, 1870-1960 (Ithaca, 1989).
41
Sverdrup and Fleming, "Waters off southern California"
Harald U. Sverdrup, "Oceano- graphic observations of the 'E.W. Scripps' cruises of 1940," SIO, Records of observations, 1 (1944), 161-248
Susan Schlee, On almost any wind: The saga of the oceanographic re- search vessel "Atlantis" (Ithaca, 1978), 13-107.
42
"Minutes of the meeting held in the Hydrographic Office," 19 Oct 1945, SIOSF, "U.S. Navy Hydrographic Office 1945-46," box 26, folder 25
Commander Amphibious Forces to Commander in Chief, U.S. Fleet, 20 Aug 1945, RG 38, Commander in Chief Confiden- tial Correspondence 1945, box 1805, folder Hl-(3) #1
E.W. Mills to Hydrographer, 11 Dec 1945, RG 38, DCNO (Air), box 3, folder HI (1) #1. From late 1943 until the end of the war, Furer took part in numerous discussions on postwar research, including Charles E. Wilson's Committee on Post War Research and what eventually became the Research Board for National Security. RG 298, box 52, includes three large folders on postwar research.
43
Pacific Science Board, (Washington, D.C., National Research Coun- cil), 6.
44
Pacific Science Board: George S. Myers Papers, RU 7313, Division 1, box 28, folder NRC [2], Smithsonian Institution Archives, Washington, D.C.; SIOSF, "Pacific Science Board, National Research Council, June, 1946-1947," box 27, folder 21. On the USGS
RG 57, Records of the USGS, Geologic Division, Military Geology Branch, entry 144, Records Concerning Pacific Geological Surveys 1947-1960, NACP.
45
Report on conference on the proposed work of the Hydro- graphic Office, 4 Dec 1945, SIOSF, "U.S. Navy Hydrographic Office, 1946," box 26, folder 25
J.A. Furer to Commander Submarine Forces Pacific, 7 Feb 1945, RG 227, NDRC, entry 78, box 57, folder demobilization III.
46
Conference at La Jolla, 10-13 Jan 1945, SIOSF, "Contracts: Summaries and General, 1945– 1946," AC5, box 5, folder 55.
Iselin, to Sverdrup, 10 Apr 1946, and Sverdrup to Iselin, 12 Apr 1946
SIOSF, "Expeditions: Operation Cross- roads, Mar-Apr 1946," box 6, folder 28.
47
Memorandum for Commander Revelle (ibid.)
[Harald U. Sverdrup], Memorandum on postwar studies of the oceanography of the surface Layers, 31 May 1945, SIOD (Sverdrup), box 1, folder 26
[Roger Revelle] Memorandum to the Chief of Naval Re- search, [Oct 1947], SIOD (Revelle), "Operation Crossroads, 1946," box 97, folder 17.
48
Roger Revelle, "Report of the co-ordinator of oceanography," 1
SIOD (Revelle), "Re- port of the Technical Director of Operation Crossroads 1946," box 3.
The quote on theory of coral reefs is in Memorandum, 013B [Oceanographic Section] Joint Task Force One to 01D Joint Task Force One, 11 May 1946
SIOSF, "Expeditions: Operation Crossroads, 1946," May-Dec 1946, AC6, box 6, folder 29, p.7 (a history of the oceanographic section of Joint Task Force One up to 1 May 1946, written by Revelle)
Munk to Sverdrup, 29 Mar 1946, SIOSF, "Expeditions: Operation Crossroads, March-April 1946," box 6, folder 28.
49
Harvey Sapolsky, Science and the Navy: The history of the Office of Naval Research (Princeton, 1990), 40-49.
Navy Department, Office of Research and Inventions, 1 Jul 1946, "Constituting a part of Contract N6ori 111 with the Regents of the University of California,"
SIOSF, "Contract N6ori-lll, 1946-1947," box 5,
folder 65.
[Roger Revelle], "The mili- tary aspects of the Geophysics Branch Program," SIOSF "U.S. Navy, Office of Naval Re- search, February 1947-1948," AC6 box 26, folder 36, SIOA.
50
RG 374, DNA, entry 47B, box 156, folder incoming dispatches
Revelle to William S. Parsons, 18 Jun 1947, box 156, folder Al operation plans.
Project Officer, memo #1, 3 Jul 1947, box 162, folder F 22 advisory board, and Emery, Tracey, and Ladd (ref. 1), 1-159.
Revelle to Harry S. Ladd, 12 Sep 1949, SIOD (Revelle), box 1, folder correspondence series Sep 1949.
Matthew W. Klingle, "Plying atomic waters: Loren R. Donaldson and the 'Fern Lake Concept' of fisheries management," Journal of the history of biology, 31 (1998), 1-32.
51
Joint Chiefs of Staff, 18 Apr 1947, RG 374, DNA, entry 47B, box 156, folder A3-1.
52
[Revelle] (ref. 49).
[Revelle] (ref. 47).
53
Roger Revelle, "The age of innocence and war in oceanography," Oceans magazine, 1:3 (1969), 5-16
Gary Weir, comments at Maury II workshop on the History of Oceanog- raphy, 18 June 1999, WHOI, Woods Hole, MA
Spencer Weart, comments at Maury I Work- shop on the History of Oceanography, 11 June 1997, WHOI, transcript, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D.C.
54
Commander Roger Revelle (ref. 46).
Revelle as broker, E.H. Colpitts to Roger Revelle, 26 Dec 1944
RG 227, NDRC, entry 79, box 7, folder Navy Department (Revelle), 13 Nov 1943-1944
Elmer Hutchisson to G.P. Harnwell, 28 Dec 1944, RG 227, NDRC, entry 79, box 6, folder Harnwell.
55
Emery, Tracey, and Ladd (ref. 1), 8.
56
Menard(ref. 13), 71-72.
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