[Footnotes]

[Footnotes]
1
A. Doak Barnett, China and the major powers in East Asia (Washington, D.C., 1977), 178
Harry Harding, A fragile relationship: The United States and China since 1972 (Washington, D.C., 1992), 33
Leo A. Orleans, Science in China and U.S.-China scientific exchanges: Assessment and prospects (Washington, D.C., 1976), 11
2
David M. Lampton, A relationship restored: Trends in U.S.-China educational exchanges, 1978-1984 (Washington, D.C., 1986)
Leo A. Orleans, Chinese students in America: Poli- cies, issues, and numbers (Washington, D.C., 1988).
Kathlin Smith, "The role of scientists in normalizing U.S.-China relations, 1965-1979,"
Richard R Suttmeier, "Sci- entific cooperation and conflict management in U.S.-China relations, 1978 to the present," unpublished papers, 1998
Denis Fred Simon, "The role of science and technology in Chinese foreign relations," in Samuel S. Kim, ed., China and the world: Chinese foreign policy in the post-Mao era (Boulder and London, 1984), 293-318.
3
Lawrence Badash, "British and American views of the German menace in World War I," Royal Society of London, Notes and records, 34 (1979), 91-121.
4
J.L. Heilbron, The dilemmas of an upright man: Max Planck as spokesman for German science (Berkeley, 1986), 104.
5
Ibid., 109
Paul Forman, "Scientific internationalism and the Weimar physicists: The ideology and its manipulation in Germany after World War I," Isis, 64 (1973), 151-180
Daniel Kevles, "'Into hostile political camps': The reorganization of international science in World War I," Isis, 62 (1971), 47-60.
6
Peter Neushul and Zuoyue Wang, "Between the devil and the deep sea: C.K. Tseng, ocean farming, and the politics of science in modern China," unpublished paper.
7
Eugene B. Skolnikoff to Jerome B. Wiesner, 13 Oct 1961 (National Archives, Office of Science and Technology Records (RG 359), box 87, folder "International—T[itle] F[older] 1961" ).
Gabor Pallo, "Internationalism in Soviet world-science: The Hungarian case," in Elisabeth Crawford et al., eds., Denationalizing science (Dordrecht, 1993), 209-232.
8
Hu Jimin et al., eds., Wang Gangchang he tade kexue gongxian (Wang Ganchang and his scientific contributions) (Beijing, 1987).
9
Mikhail A. Klochko, Soviet scientist in Red China, trans. Andrew Mac Andrew (New York, 1964).
10
Walter McDougall, The heavens and the earth: A political history of the space age (New York, 1985), 118-121
Robert A. Divine, The Sputnik challenge (New York, 1993).
11
Robert F. Byrnes, Soviet-American academic exchanges, 1958-1975 (Bloomington, 1976)
Glenn T. Seaborg, Kennedy, Khrushchev, and the test ban (Berkeley, 1981), 201- 203.
12
Walter Sullivan, Assault on the unknown: The International Geophysical Year (New York, 1961).
13
Yu Guangyuan, "Enshi he zhanyou" ("Beloved mentor and comrade in arms") in Kexue jujiang, shibiao liufang (A great scientist and teacher, a festschrift for Zhou Peiyuan on his 90th birthday) (Beijing, 1992), 80-86.
14
Gordon H. Chang, "JFK, China, and the bomb," Journal of American history, 74 (1988), 1287-1300.
15
Luis Alvarez to Claude T. Bissell, 9 Apr 1962 (National Archives, Office of Science and Technology Records (RG 359), box 141, folder "International—Title Folder 1962").
16
Walter G. Whitman to Harrison Brown, 10 May 1961 (National Archives, Office of Science and Technology Records (RG 359), box 87, folder "International—Chicom [Chi- nese Communists").
17
Neushul and Wang (ref. 6).
18
Henry Kissinger, White House years (Boston, 1982), 693, 705
Harding (ref. 1), 35-36, 394-395.
19
Kissinger (ref. 18), 1490-1492
20
"Israel will open liaison office in China," Los Angeles Times (11 June 1990), A7
Lena H. Sun, "China sets official ties with Israel," Washington Post (25 Jan 1992), A14.
21
Kissinger, Zhou, and others, Beijing, 13 Nov 1973, in William Burr, ed., The Kissinger transcripts: The top-secret talks with Beijing and Moscow (New York, 1998), 204.
22
Zhou Enlai, "Jiancheng shehuizhuyi qiangguo, guanjian zaiyu shixian kexue jishu xiandaihua" ("To build a strong socialist nation, the key is modernization in science and technology")
Shanghai on 29 Jan 1963, Zhou Enlai xuanji (Selected papers of Zhou Enlai) (2 vols., Beijing, 1984), 2, 412-416.
23
Zhou Enlai, "Zhuajin kexue jishu kaoca" ("Strengthen the study of [foreign] science and technology")
Chinese diplomats on 13 Feb 1966, Zhou Enlai waijiao wenxuan (Selected diplomatic papers of Zhou Enlai) (Beijing, 1990), 458-459.
24
Zhou Enlai, "Xiang sige xiandaihua de hongwei mubiao qianjin" ("March toward the grand goal of the four modernizations")
Fourth National People's Congress delivered on 13 Jan 1975, Zhou Enlai xuanji (ref. 22), 2, 412-416.
Renmin Ribao (People's daily) (21 Jan 1975).
25
Glenn T. Seaborg, "China journal: Report of a visit to the People's Republic of China," 22 May—10 June 1973
Profes- sor Seaborg, 29-39
Smith (ref. 2).
26
Seaborg (ref. 25), 39.
27
CSCPRC: Astronomy in China: Atrip report of the American Astronomy Delegation (1979)
Oceanography in China: A trip report of the American Oceanography Delegation (1980)
Pure and applied math- ematics in the People's Republic of China: A trip report of the American Pure and Applied Mathematics Delegation (1980)
Solid state physics in the People's Republic of China: A trip report of the American Solid State Physics Delegation (1976)
Nuclear science in China (1980).
28
Anne Keatley, ed., Reflections on scholarly exchange with the People's Republic of China, 1972-1976 (Washington, D.C., n.d.).
29
Richard Garwin, "China trip: Transcribed notes of a trip to the Chinese People's Re- public, March 18 to April 17, 1974," 21 June 1974
Garwin, "Discussion at Chinese People's Institute for Foreign Affairs, December 10-12, 1979," 17 Dec 1979
Laya Wiesner, "China notes: Jerome and Laya Wiesner's visit to People's Republic of China, October 1974" (Committee on Scholarly Communica- tion with China Archives, George Washington University Library, Washington, D.C.).
30
Yao Shuping, Luo Wei, Li Peishan, and Zhang Wei, Zhongguo kexueyuan (Chinese Academy of Sciences), Vol. 1 (3 vols., Beijing, 1994)
Zuoyue Wang, "Revolutionary utili- tarianism: Science and political ideology in China, 1949-1976,"
"Science and political ideology," Union College, Schenectady, NY, Aug 1997.
31
Wu Heng, Keji zhanxian wushinian (Fifty years on the scientific and techno- logical front) (Beijing, 1992), 362.
Zhu Kezhen, Zhu Kezhen riji (Zhu Kezhen diary), Vol. 5 (5 vols., Beijing, 1990), 553, entry for 14 Sep 1972.
32
Wu(ref. 31), 353-354.
33
Ibid., 346-356.
34
Neushul and Wang (ref. 6).
35
Seaborg (ref. 25), 39.
36
Glenn T. Seaborg, "China revisited: May 14 - June 11, 1978,"
37
Wu (ref. 31), 361.
Neushul and Wang (ref. 6).
38
Wang (ref. 30)
Richard Suttmeier, Research and revolution: Science policy and soci- etal change in China (Lexington, MA, 1974).
39
Zhu (ref. 31), entries for 6-14 Jan 1970.
40
Wu (ref. 31), 363.
41
Zhu (ref. 31), entries for 6-14 Jan 1970.
43
Wu (ref. 31), 347-349.
44
Ibid., 349-352.
45
Ibid., 351
Chen Ning Yang, Selected papers, with commentary (San Francisco, 1983), 76-77.
46
Yang (ref. 45), 77-78.
47
Zhou Peiyuan, "'Sirenbang' pohuai jichu lilun yanjiu yongxin hezai" ("Why did the 'Gang of Four' sabotage basic theoretical research"), Renmin Rihao (People's daily) (13 Jan 1977)
Chedijianfapipan "sirenbang" cuanda duoquan de taotian zuixing (Thoroughly disclose and criticize the great crimes of the "Gang of Four" who wanted to seize the power of the party) (Beijing, 1977).
Zhou Ruling, "Fuqin" ("Father"), Kexue jujiang, shibiao liufang (A great scientist and teacher, a festschrift for Zhou Peiyuan on his 90th birthday), 274-307, on 284
Chi-Kung Jen, Recollections of a Chinese physicist (New York, 1991)
Yang (ref. 45), 77-78.
48
Zhou Enlai to Zhou Peiyuan, 23 Jul 1972
Wu (ref. 31), 364.
49
Mao Zedong, "Guanyu Bantian wenzhang de tanhua" ("A talk on the articles of Shoichi Sakata"), 24 Aug 1964, Mao Zedong Sixiang Wansui (Long live Mao Zedong thoughts) (n.p., n.d.), 561-567.
50
Yao et al. (ref. 30), 386.
51
Zhou Enlai xuanji (ref. 22), 2, 535, n368.
Ibid., 534, n366.
52
Peng Jichao, Dongfang jiuxiang: Zhongguo hewuqi shiyan jishi (China's nuclear weapon tests) (Beijing, 1995), 52-55, 146-150.
53
Qiu Zhaoming, "Li Zhengdao" ("T.D. Lee"), Lu Jiaxi, editor in chief, Zhongguo xiandai kexuejia zhuanji (Biographies of modern Chinese scientists) (Beijing, 1994), 153-178, on 154
"Zhu Guangya Li Zhengdao chuan ceng lai mei xue zao yuanzidan" ("Zhu Guangya and T.D. Lee reportedly came to the U.S. to learn how to make atomic bombs,") Shijie Ribao (World Journal) (7 June 1998), A9.
54
Zhou Enlai, "Zhongshi jichu kexue he lilun yanjiu" ("Take basic science and theoreti- cal research seriously")
Zhang Wenyu and Zhu Guangya on 21 Sep 1972, in Zhou Enlai xuanji (ref. 22), 2, 473.
55
Wu (ref. 31), 369-370.
56
Ibid., 370.
57
Ibid., 368-369.
58
Ibid., 368.
59
Ibid., 368-369
Zhu (ref. 31), 558-559, entry for 5 Oct 1972.
60
Wu (ref. 31), 370-371
Fan Dainian emails to Zuoyue Wang, 14 and 20 Mar 1998.
61
Wu (ref. 31), 371.
62
Ibid., 372.
63
Yao et al. (ref. 30), 414-415.
Roderick MacFarquhar, "The succession to Mao and the end of Maoism, 1969-82," MacFarquhar, ed., The politics of China: The eras of Mao and Deng (New York, 1997), 248-339, esp. 316-317.
64
Yao et al. (ref. 30), 414-415.
Wolfgang Panofsky to Ingrid H. Hoffmann, 12 Apr 1986
ref. 60
Liu Huaizu, Beijing zhengfu dianzi duizhuangji (Beijing electron positron collider) (Beijing, 1994), 36-45.
65
Yao et al. (ref. 30), 415-418
Liu (ref. 64).
66
Ts'ai-chien Chiang, Wu Chien-hsiung: wu li k'o hsueh ti ti ifu jen (C.S. Wu: The first lady of physical science) (T'ai-pei, 1996).
67
Yang (ref. 45), 57.
68
Iris Chang, Thread of the silkworm (New York, 1995), 143.
69
Ibid., 170.
70
Ibid., 196-198.
71
Li Peishan, "Science and technology: U.S. impact on China," Beijing review, 34 (18 Nov 1991), 35-37.
72
Yang (ref. 45), 56-57.
73
William Wei, The Asian American movement (Philadelphia, 1993).
74
Shih-Shan Henry Tsai, review of The Asian American movement by William Wei, Pa- cific historical review, 64 (1995), 154-155.
75
Chi-Kung Jen, Recollections of a Chinese physicist (Los Alamos, 1991).
76
Yang (ref. 45), 56-57.
Yang, "My reflections on some social problems,"
Yang, Dushu jiaoxue sishi nian (Forty years of studying and teaching) (Hong Kong, 1985), 55-61.
77
Yang, "My reflections" (ref. 76)
Ruan Beikang and Ouyang Yingzi, "Zhongmei de huagong yanjiu he yingyong: Fang Wei Qianguang jiaoshou" ("Research and applications of chemical engineering in China and the United States: An interview with Professor James Wei" on 21 Aug 1978), Ruan and Ouyang, Xueren Zhuanfang Lu (Interviews with scholars) (Hong Kong, 1980), 124.
78
Tu Wei-ming, "Cultural China: The periphery as center," Daedalus, 120 (Spring 1991), 1-32
79
Ibid., 16.
80
Jen (ref. 75)
Elizabeth Venant, "A position of prominence," Los Angeles times (27 Aug 1990), El-3, on E3.
81
C.N. Yang, Dushu jiaoxue zhai shinian (Ten more years of learning and teaching) (Taipei, 1995)
82
T.D. Lee, "Broken parity," T.D. Lee selected papers, G. Feinberg, ed. (3 vols., Boston, 1986), vol. 3, 487-509.
83
Zhu (ref. 31), 544, entry for 4 Aug 1972.
84
C.N. Yang, "Tantan wulixue yanjiu he jiaoxue: zai beijing zhongguo kexue jishu daxue yanjiushengyuan de wuci tanhua" ("On research and teaching in physics: Five talks at the Graduate School of the University of Science and Technology of China in Beijing," 27 May-12 June 1986), Yang Zhenning Yanjiang Ji (Speeches of Chen Ning Yang) (Tianjin, China, 1989), 145-160, on 149.
85
Burkhard Bilger, "Holding pattern: Chinese science has arrived, but the fate of dissi- dent scientists is still up in the air," Sciences, 36:4 (Jul-Aug 1996), 10-11.
86
Zhou Enlai, "Zhongxue biyesheng keyi zhijie shang daxue" ("Middle school students can go directly to univer- sity"), Zhou Enlai xuanji (ref. 22), 2, 473-474.
87
William Sweet, "Future of Chinese students in US at issue; CUSPEA program nears its end," Physics today, 41 (June 1988), 67-71
Robert Novick, ed., Thirty years since parity nonconservation: A symposium for T.D. Lee (Boston, 1988), 169
88
T.D. Lee, Li Zhengdao wenji (Essays of Lee Tsung-Dao) (Hangzhou, China, 1999).
Lee in Zuji (Footprints: C.N. Yang's, T.D. Lee's, Samuel Ting's, and Yuan T Lee's routes to successes) (Beijing, 1989), 95-166.
89
T.D. Lee, "Wulixue ji qita" ("Physics and beyond"), a talk with graduate students at the graduate school of the University of Science and Technology of China, Beijing," 12 May 1979, in Zuji (ref. 88), 98-102, on 101.
90
Yang (ref. 84).
91
Fang Lizhi, Bringing down the Great Wall: Writings on science, culture, and de- mocracy in China, ed. James H. Williams (New York, 1991)
H. Lyman Miller, Science and dissent in Post-Mao China: The politics of knowledge (Seattle, 1996).
92
Chen Ning Yang, "Fahui qiaoliang zuoyong, cujin zhongguo fazhan" ("Playing the role of a bridge, and promoting Chinese development"),Ning Zhiping, Tang Xianmin, and Zhang Qinhua, eds., Yang Zhenning Yanjiangji (Collected speeches by Chen Ning Yang), 195-197.
93
Qishi Niandai (The seventies journal), Liumei huayi xuezhe chongfa zhongguo guangan ji (Reflections on revisiting China by Chinese American scholars) (Hong Kong, 1974).
94
Edward David, Jr. to Henry Kissinger, 22 Sep 1971, on "Visit of U.S. physicist, C.N. Yang, to the People's Republic of China" (National Archives, Nixon Presi- dential Materials, White House Central Files, Subject Files, FG 6-9, box 1, folder "[EX] FG 6-9 Office of Science and Technology 1/1/71-").
95
Yang (ref. 92), 197.
96
Nie Huatong, "Wo suo zhidao de Yang Zhenning" ("The Chen Ning Yang that I know")
Pan Guoju and Han Chuanyuan, eds., Ning zhuo wu qiao: Yang Zhenning fangtai lu (Interviews with C.N Yang) (Singapore, 1988), 101-119.
97
Wang Xi, "Dalu lumei xueren ziyuan yu ershiyi shiji zhongguo de fazhan" ("Mainland scholarly personnel in the United States and China's development in the twenty-first cen- tury"), Shijie Ribao (Chinese daily) (9 Nov 1997), A5.
98
AIP to Zuoyue Wang, 5 Mar 1998.
99
Yang (ref. 76), 89.
100
Tung-Mow Yan, "Professor C.N. Yang's impact on physics," C.S. Liu and S.-T. Yau, eds., Chen Ning Yang, A great physicist of the twentieth century (Boston, 1995), 451-456.
101
Ted Plafker, "Physics meeting unites the two Chinas—briefly," Science, 269 (18 Aug 1995), 916.
102
Shih-shan Henry Tsai, The Chinese experience in America (Bloomington, 1986).
103
Tu (ref. 78).
104
Richard Suttmeier, Science, technology, and Chinas drive for modernization (Stanford, 1980), 67-94.
105
David Holloway, Stalin and the bomb: The Soviet Union and atomic energy, 1939-56 (New Haven, 1994).
Miller (ref. 91).
106
Luo Yuru, Zeng Chengkui, and C.K. Tseng, eds., Dangdai Zhongguo de haiyang shiyan (Oceanography in Contemporary China) (Beijing, 1985), 416-418.
107
John P. McTague, 20 June 1985
House of Represen- tatives, 99th Congress, 1st session, Hearings, 7 (Washington, D.C., 1985), 235-236.
108
Ibid., 249.
109
James C. Wang, "U.S. scientists and China," letter to the editor, Science, 246 (22 Dec 1989), 1547.
110
T.D. Lee, "U.S.-Chinarelations," letter to the editor, Science, 246 (17 Nov 1989), 873.
111
Eric Lichtblau, "Physicist admits passing laser secrets to Chinese scientists," Los Angeles Times (9 Dec 1997), B1.
Wang Ganchang et al. is published in Renmin Ribao (People's Daily), overseas edition (11 Feb 1998), 4.
Rone Tem- pest, "Chinese scientists defend southland spy," Los Angeles Times (11 Feb 1998), A4
James Brook, "An earlier China spy case points up post-Cold War ambiguities," New York Times (13 Mar 1999)
Jeff Gerth and James Risen, "Reports show scientist gave U.S. radar secrets to China," New York Times (10 May 1999).
112
U.S. national security and military/commercial concerns with the People's Republic of China (the "Cox Report"), U.S. House of Representatives, 106th Congress, 1st session (Washington, DC, 1999).
http://www.house.gov/coxreport/.
113
James Brooke, "Senator tells nuclear bomb labs to end foreign scientists' visits," New York Times (13 Apr 1999), A14.
114
Linda L. Lubrano, "National and international politics in U.S.-U.S.S.R. scientific cooperation," Social sudies of science, 11 (1981), 451-480; Byrnes (ref. 11).
115
U.S. National Academy of Sciences Panel on Global Climate Change Sciences in China, China and global change: Opportunities for collaboration (Washing- ton, D.C., 1992).
http://www2.nas.edu/oia/24ca.html.
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