[Footnotes]

[Footnotes]
1
Margaret Gowing, Britain and atomic energy 1939–1945 (London, 1964), 346–366
Martin J. Sherwin, A world destroyed: Hiroshima and the origins of the arms race (New York, 1973)
Richard Rhodes, The making of the atomic bomb (New York, 1988)
McGeorge Bundy, Danger and survival: Choices about the bomb in the first fifty years (New York, 1988), 113–129
Abraham Pais, Niels Bohr's times, in physics, philosophy, and polity (Ox- ford, 1991)
J. Robert Oppenheimer, "Niels Bohr and atomic weapons," New York review of books (17 Dec 1964), 6–8
Aage Bohr, "The war years and the prospects raised by the atomic weapons," in Stefan Rozental, ed., Niels Bohr: His life and work as seen by his friends and colleagues (Amsterdam, 1968), 191–214.
2
Pais (ref. 1), 473.
3
Pais (ref. 1)
Niels Blaedel, Harmony and unity: The life of Niels Bohr (Madison, 1985)
4
Henry Nielsen and Keld Nielsen, eds., Denmark and the Nobel Prize (Aarhus, forthcoming).
5
David Jens Adler, "Childhood and youth," in Rozental, ed. (ref. 1), 11–37, on 14.
6
"Tribute to the memory of Harald H0ffding" (1931), trans, in Niels Bohr collected works, Finn Aaserud, gen. ed., Vol. 10, Complementarity beyond physics (1928-1962%
David Favrholdt, ed. (Amsterdam, 1999), 319-322, on 319.
8
Kraks blaa Bog (Copenhagen, 1948)
Favrholdt, ed. (ref. 6), 223–236.
9
Pais (ref. 1), 98.
11
John L. Heilbron and Thomas S. Kuhn, "The genesis of the Bohr atom," HSPS, 1 (1969), 211–290.
12
David Wilson, Rutherford: Simple genius (London, 1983), 339–385.
13
Pais (ref. 1), 163–167.
16
Bohr to Rutherford, 24 Nov 1918 (BSC (6,3)).
17
Bohr to Owen Richardson, 25 Jan 1919 (BSC (6,1)).
18
Frank Greenaway, Science international: A history of the International Council of Scientific Unions (Cambridge, 1996), 19.
Daniel J. Kevles, '"Into hostile political camps': The reorganization of international science in World War I," Isis, 62 (1970), 47–60.
19
Peter Robertson, The early years: The Niels Bohr Institute 1921–1930 (Copenhagen, 1979), 19–28.
20
Pais (ref. 1), 166.
21
Finn Aaserud, Redirecting science: Niels Bohr, philanthropy and the rise of nuclear physics (Cambridge, 1990), 18–19.
22
Robertson (ref. 19)
23
Rask 0rsted Fondet: Beretning for 1919-20, Carlsberg Foundation Archive, Copenhagen.
Aaserud (ref. 21), 25.
24
Ibid., 21–28.
25
Otto Robert Frisch, "The interest is focussing on the atomic nucleus," in Rozental, ed. (ref. 1), 137–148, on 143.
26
Aaserud (ref. 21), 6–15.
27
Ibid.
28
Ibid.
29
Elisabeth Crawford, J.L. Heilbron, and Rebecca Ullrich, The Nobel population 1901–1937: A census of the nomina- tors and nominees for the prizes in physics and chemistry (Berkeley, 1987).
Nielsen and Nielsen, eds. (ref. 4).
30
Favrholdt, ed. (ref. 6), 250.
31
Aaserud(ref. 21), 36.
32
Kristof Glamann, Carlsbergfondet (Copenhagen, 1976), 165.
Aaserud (ref. 21), 11.
34
Aaserud (ref. 21), 105–164.
35
George Gamow, My world line (New York, 1970), 110–123.
36
Paul R. Josephson, Physics and politics in revolutionary Russia (Berkeley, 1991), 307.
37
Ibid., 282.
J.W. Boag, P.E. Rubinin, and D. Shoenberg, Kapitza in Cambridge and Moscow (Amsterdam, 1990)
Lawrence Badash, Kapitza, Rutherford, and the Kremlin (New Haven, 1985).
38
Loren R. Graham, Science in Russia and the Soviet Union: A short history (Cambridge, 1993), 210.
39
Pais (ref. 1), 413–417.
41
Niels Bohr, "The quantum postulate and the recent development of atomic theory," Nature (Suppl.) 121 (1928), 580–590, on 590
Niels Bohr collected works, Erik Rudinger, gen. ed., Vol. 6, Foun- dations of quantum physics I (1926–1932), Jørgen Kalckar, ed. (Amsterdam, 1985), 3–186
42
Favrholdt, ed. (ref. 6).
43
Bohr's lecture, "Natural philosophy and human cultures" is reprinted in ibid., 240–249.
David Favrholdt in ibid., 220.
ibid., 238.
44
Niels Bohr collected works, Erik Riidinger, gen. ed., Vol. 9, Nuclear physics (1929–1952), Rudolf Peierls, ed. (Amsterdam, 1986).
45
Peierls, ed. (ref. 44).
46
Pais (ref. 1), 479.
48
Niels Bohr collected works, Erik Riidinger, gen. ed., Vol. 8, The penetration of charged particles through matter (1912-1955), Jens Thorsen, ed. (Amsterdam, 1987), 232-247
49
"Chapter XX, The presidency of Niels Bohr," 292-304 in Olaf Pedersen, Lovers of learning: A history of the Royal Danish Academy of Sciences and Letters 1742-1992 (Copenhagen, 1992).
50
Bohr MSS (16,4)
51
Danmarks Kultur vedAar 1940, eight vols. (Copenhagen, 1941–43), Vol. 1, 6.
52
Stefan Rozental, "The forties and the fifties," in Rozental, ed. (ref. 1), 149–-190, on 163–164.
53
Danmarks Kultur (ref. 51), Vol. 1, 9–17.
Favrholdt, ed. (ref. 6), 253–261
54
Thomas Powers, Heisenberg's war: The secret history of the German bomb (London, 1993), esp. 120–128
Paul Lawrence Rose, Heisenberg and the Nazi atomic bomb project: A study in German culture (Berkeley, 1998), 155–157, 271–282.
Michael Frayn, Copenhagen (London, 1998).
55
Chadwick to Bohr, 25 Jan 1943
Pais (ref. 1), 486.
R.V. Jones, Most secret war (London, 1978), 308.
56
ibid., "1.5"
Pais (ref. 1), 487.
57
ibid., "1.5"
58
Michael Perrin to Gorell Barnes, 26 Oct 1943 (CAB 126/39).
59
Ibid.
61
Bohr MSS (16,5).
62
Pais (ref. 1), 490–491.
64
Anderson to Lord Hankey, 12Aug 1941 (CAB 104/227).
65
Gowing (ref. 1), 95–97.
66
Lord Hankey to Moore-Brabazon, 27 Aug 1941
Moore-Brabazon to Lord Hankey, 27 Aug 1941
Lord Cherwell to Churchill, 27 Aug 1941 (all CAB 104/227).
67
Anderson to Lord Hankey, 6 Aug 1941 (CAB 104/227).
68
Gowing (ref. 1), 147–177.
69
Richard G. Hewlett and Oscar E. Anderson, Jr., The new world: A history of the United States Atomic Energy Commission, Vol. I, 1939–1946 (University Park, PA, 1962; reprinted Berkeley, 1990), 41.
70
Gowing (ref. 1), 439–440.
71
Andrew Brown, The neutron and the bomb: A biography of Sir James Chadwick (Oxford, 1997).
74
Ref. 58.
77
Llewellin to Anderson, 21 Nov 1943 (CAB 126/39).
78
Fosdick to Bohr, 26 Jan 1944 (folder 1763, box 143, R.G. 1.1 200D Institute for Ad- vanced Study—Bohr, 1943-1945, Rockefeller Archive Center, Pocantico Hills, New York).
79
Akers to Perrin, 27 Jan 1944, (CAB 126/39).
80
Edward Appleton to Bohr, 19 Oct 1943
81
John W. Wheeler-Bennett, John Anderson: Viscount Waverley (London, 1962), 14–15.
82
Bohr to Anderson, 16 Feb 1944 (CAB 126/39)
83
ref. 76.
85
Andrew Roberts, The holy fox: A biography of Lord Halifax (London, 1991).
87
Halifax to Anderson, 18Feb 1944 (CAB 126/39).
89
Ref. 79.
91
Roosevelt and Frankfurter: Their correspondence 1928-1945, annotated by Max Freed- man (Boston, 1967), ix–x.
92
Ref. 79.
93
Ref. 82.
94
Gowing (ref. 1), 106–107.
95
Hewlett and Anderson (ref. 69), 310.
96
New York review of books, 17 Dec 1964.
97
Anderson to Halifax, 25 Feb 1944 (CAB 126/39).
98
Anderson to Halifax, 2 Mar 1944 (CAB 126/39).
99
Frankfurter, ref. 90.
100
Halifax to Anderson, 4 Mar 1944 (CAB 126/39).
101
Anderson to Churchill, 21 Mar 1944 (PREM 3/139–2).
102
Frankfurter, ref. 90.
103
Bohr, ref. 90.
104
Halifax to Anderson, 6 Apr 1944
Anderson to Halifax, 7 Apr 1944, ibid.
Halifax to Anderson, 8 Apr 1944
Campbell to Barnes, 8 Apr 1944
Barnes to Anderson, 11 Apr 1944 (all CAB 126/39).
107
Ibid. ("7.1").
110
Barnes to Anderson, 1 May 1944 (CAB 126/39).
112
Barnes to Anderson, 25 Apr 1944 (CAB 126/39).
113
Anderson to Barnes, 26 Apr 1944 (CAB 126/39).
115
Anderson to Churchill, 27 Apr 1944 (PREM 3/139–2)
116
Ref. 108 ("9.4–5").
117
Ref. 110.
121
Bohr to Anderson, 9 May 1944, ref. 82 ("2.2").
123
Gowing (ref. 1), 335.
Jones (ref. 55), 475–477.
124
Bohr to Churchill, 22 May 1944, "2.1 Letter to Churchill" (BPP)
Cherwell to Churchill, 24 May 1944 (PREM 3/139-11 A).
125
Barnes to Anderson, 2 June 1944 (CAB 126/39).
126
"General remarks on the prob- lem of control," 30 May 1944 (CAB 126/39).
127
Ref. 125.
128
Aage Bohr to Barnes, 8 June 1944
129
Barnes of 10 June 1944, CAB 126/ 39.
130
Barnes to Bohr, 17 June 1944 (ref. 128).
131
Bohr to Barnes, 21 June 1944 (CAB 126/39).
132
Anderson to Churchill, 15 June 1944
Smuts to Churchill, n.d.
Cherwell to Churchill 30 June 1944 (all PREM 3/139–11).
133
Churchill to Anderson, 16 Jul 1944 (PREM 3/139–11 A)
Anderson to Bohr, 21 Jul 1944, ref. 82 ("2.2").
134
Kauffmann to Roosevelt, 26 June 1944 ("Frankfurter, Felix—Bohr Papers," container 34, J. Robert Oppenheimer Papers, Library of Congress).
135
Rozental, ed. (ref. 1), 340–352, on 342–343.
ref. 179.
136
Bohr to Frankfurter, 5 Jul 1944 ("4.1 Correspondence with Justice Felix Frankfurter," BPP).
137
Bohr to Frankfurter, 6 Jul 1944, ibid.
138
Frankfurter to Bohr, 10 Jul 1944, ibid.
Roosevelt (ref. 91), 728.
139
Ref. 101,725.
140
Campbell to Anderson, 15 Jul 1944 (CAB 126/39).
141
Frankfurter to Bohr, 23 Aug 1944 ("4.1 Correspondence with Justice Felix Frank- furter," BPP).
143
Halifax to Anderson, 27 Aug 1944 (CAB 126/39).
Anderson, 12 Sep 1944 (CAB 126/39, carbon copy inref. 82 ("2.2")).
144
Anderson to Halifax, 1 Sep 1944 (CAB 126/39).
145
Bohr to Anderson, 12 Sep 1944 (CAB 126/39).
146
Anderson, 10 Sep 1944 (CAB 126/39).
Bohr to Roosevelt, 7 Sep 1944
147
Ref. 145.
148
Gowing (ref. 1), 447
149
Gowing (ref. 1), 358.
152
Halifax to Churchill, 9 Sep 1944 (folder 11, box 4, reel 1, Halifax Papers, Churchill Archives Centre, Cambridge, England).
153
ref. 150
ref. 104
Bohr (ref. 90)
ref. 150
154
Gowing (ref. 1), 359.
Barnes to Anderson, 28 Sep 1944 (CAB 126/39)
Churchill, 23 Sep 1944, ibid.
Anderson, 17 Oct 1944
ref. 82 ("2.2").
155
Spencer R. Weart and Gertrud Weiss Szilard, eds., Leo Szilard: His version of the facts (Cambridge, 1978), 94–96.
156
Szilard to Bush, 15 Jan 1944, ibid., 161–163.
157
James G. Hershberg, James B. Conant: Harvard to Hiroshima and the making of the nuclear age (New York, 1993), 198–199.
158
Ibid., 204–205
159
G. Pascal Zachary, Endless frontier: Vannevar Bush, engineer of the American Cen- tury (New York, 1997), 217.
160
Bohr to Anderson, 17 Oct 1944
ref. 82 ("2.2").
161
Ref. 153 ("6.6").
163
Ref. 150.
164
Bohr to Bush, unsent draft, 16 Oct 1944
165
Ref. 151.
168
Ref. 151.
169
Ref. 79.
170
Ref. 168.
173
Ref. 151.
Halifax to Anderson, 18 Jan 1945
175
Ref. 173 ("2.7").
176
Campbell to Anderson, 21 Dec 1944
Anderson to Campbell, 22 Dec 1944 (both CAB 126/39)
Campbell to Anderson, 21 Jan 1945 (CAB 126/40, PRO.
177
Barnes to Anderson, 13 Feb 1945
Chadwick to Anderson, 20 Feb 1945.
McMillan to Perrin, 5 Mar 1945
178
Ref. 151.
179
Bohr's "Open letter," ref. 135, 344–346.
180
Barnes to Anderson, 22 Mar 1945
Anderson to Halifax, 28 Mar 1945
181
Anderson to Chadwick, 3 Apr 1945 (folder 11, box 2, Chad4, James Chadwick Papers, Churchill Archives Centre, Cambridge, England).
182
Halifax to Anderson, 18 Apr (CAB 126/183).
183
Anderson to Halifax, 19 Apr 1945 (CAB 126/183).
185
Halifax to Anderson, 20 Apr 1945 (CAB 126/183)
Bohr, ref. 90.
186
Hewlett and Anderson (ref. 69), 344–345.
Zachary (ref. 159), 242–243.
187
Hewlett and Anderson (ref. 69), 344.
189
Zachary (ref. 159), 206.
191
Bohr to Anderson, 27 Apr 1945
ref. 82 ("2.2")
192
Wilson to Anderson, 30 Apr 1945 (CAB 126/183).
196
Akers to Chadwick, 24 May 1945 (CAB 126/40).
197
Makins to Rickett, 25 May 1945 (CAB 126/40).
ref. 195.
199
Makins to Rickett, 23 June 1945 (folder 65, box 12, Chad4, Chadwick Papers, Churchill Archives Centre, Cambridge, England).
200
Makins to Rickett, n.d., ibid.
202
Pen-in to Rickett, 26 June 1945 (CAB 126/40).
203
Rickett to Anderson, 9 Jul 1945 (CAB 126/40).
206
Rickett to Anderson, 16 Jul 1945
Makins to Rickett, 13 Jul 1945
207
Perrin to Welsh, 15 Jul 1945
209
Anderson to Halifax, 25 Jul 1945, CAB 126/40, PRO.
210
Aage Bohr, ref. 187.
212
"White Paper," Statements relating to the atomic bombs (H.M.S.O., 1945)
Gowing (ref. 1), 365.
214
Ref.61("1.4").
215
Ref. 162 ("6.5").
216
Hershberg (ref. 157), 206.
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