[Footnotes]

[Footnotes]
1
Poor Richard, 1742. An Almanack for the Year of Christ 1742. By Richard Sanders, Philom. Philadelphia: Printed and sold by B. Franklin, in BFP, 2 (1960), 340.
2
Poor Richard, 1745. An Almanack for the Year of Christ 1745. By Richard Sanders, Philom. Philadelphia: Printed and sold by B. Franklin, in BFP, 3 (1961), 6.
3
Franklin to Peter Collinson, 1 Sep 1747 in LB. Cohen, ed., Benjamin Franklin's experiments (Cambridge, 1941), 181.
4
Franklin to Polly Stevenson, 14 Sep 1767, in BFP, 14, 251.
5
Alfred Owen Aldridge, Franklin and his French contemporaries (New York, 1957), 23.
6
Peter Gay, The Enlightenment: An interpretation (New York, 1969), 2, 164.
7
Elizabeth Fox-Genovese, The origins of physiocracy (Ithaca, 1976), 9.
8
I. Bernard Cohen, Franklin and Newton (Philadelphia, 1956)
Benjamin Franklin's science (Cambridge, 1990).
9
Cohen, Science and the founding fathers. Science in the political thought of Thomas Jefferson, Benjamin Franklin and James Madison (New York, 1995), 26–27, 150, 156–195.
10
J.L. Heilbron, "Franklin as an Enlightened natural philosopher," in J.A. Leo Lemay, ed., Reappraising Benjamin Franklin. A bicentennial perspective (Newark, 1993), 196–220, on 197.
11
Gerd Buchdahl, The image of Newton and Locke in the Age of Enlightenment (London, 1961), 2
Gay (ref. 6), 2, 134
Henry Guerlac, "Where the statue stood: Divergent loyalties to Newton in the eighteenth century," in Essays and papers in the history of modern science (Baltimore, 1977), 131–145, on 133
Paul Hazard, European thought in the eighteenth century, from Montesquieu to Lessing (London), 137.
12
Franklin to Peter Collinson, 14 Aug 1747, in BFP, 3, 171.
13
Cohen, Franklin's science (ref. 8), 96
Heilbron, "Franklin, Haller and Franklinist history," Isis, 68 (1977), 539–549, on 546–548.
14
Heilbron, The history of electricity in the 17th and 18th centuries (Berkeley, 1979), 346–352
Jacques Roger, Buffon: Un philosophe au Jardin du Roi (Paris, 1989), 281-282
Cohen, Franklin's science (ref. 8), 230n.
15
Georges Buffon, "Discours sur la nature des animaux" (1753)
Oeuvres philosophiques de Buffon, ed. Jean Piveteau (Paris, 1954), 317–350, on 347
De la maniire d'etudier et de traiter I'histoire naturelle [1749] (Paris, 1954), 19–20, 22, 65
Roger (ref. 14), 122–123, 125, 255–257, 317–320.
16
Heilbron (ref. 14), 346–347.
17
Jean Antoine Nollet, Lettres sur VElectriciti (Paris, 1760–1775), 2, 13–14;
"Conjectures sur les causes de rElectricity des corps," in MAS, 1745, 107–151, on 107–18, 110, 139, 151
"Examen de deux questions concernans 1'Electricity," MAS, 1753, 475–502, on 492.
18
Franklin, "Opinions and conjectures" (1750)
Cohen (ref. 3), 213–236, on 213–218
Franklin to Collinson, 29 Apr 1749, ibid., 187-200, on 188.
19
Buffon, Histoire naturelle, generate et particuliere (Paris, 1750), 2, 7–9, 15–19, 28, 154–156
John Turberville Needham, Nouvelles observations microscopiques (Paris, 1747), xi, 190–198.
20
Jean Torlais, Un esprit encyclopedique en dehors de V Encyclopedique. Reaumur d'apres des documents inedits (Paris, 1936), 238
Roger (ref. 14), 256
Joseph Adrien Lelarge de Lignac, Lettres d un Americain sur Vhistoire naturelle ge'ne'rale et particuliere de M. de Buffon (Hamburg, 1751).
21
Reaumur to Charles Bonnet, 14 Mar 1754 cited in Torlais (ref. 20), 243.
22
Buffon, Maniere (ref. 15), 17.
23
"Cabinet," in Denis Diderot and Jean le Rond d'Alembert, eds., Encyclopedie, ou Dictionnaire raisonie des sciences, des arts et des metiers (Paris, 1751), 2, 489–493, on 490.
24
Lignac (ref. 20), Letter 10, 13, Utter 11, 12–14, Letter 12, 107, Letter 6, 6.
25
Andrew Baxter, An enquiry into the nature of the human soul [1737] (Bristol, 1990), 79–210
John W. Yolton, Locke and French materialism (Oxford, 1991), 163–164.
26
Franklin to Thomas Hopkinson?, 16 Oct 1746, in BFP, 5, 84–89.
27
Buffon (ref. 19), 2, 17, 156
Franklin (ref. 18), 213–215.
28
Buffon (ref. 19), 18, 72–73.
Diderot, "Art" (1751)
Alain Pons, ed., Encyclopedic, ou Dictionnaire raisonee des sciences, des arts et des metiers {articles choisis) (Paris, 1986), 7, 247–257, on 252–253.
29
Franklin to Jan Ingenhousz, 21 June 1782
Albert Henry Smyth, ed., The writings of Benjamin Franklin (New York, 1907), 7, 88–97, on 90–91.
30
Franklin to Cadwallader Colden, 14 May 1752, in BFP, 4, 310–312.
31
Heilbron ((ref. 14), 336–37)
ibid., 367.
32
Aristotle, On generation and corruption, II.8, 335a5–335al5.
33
Buffon, "Systemes sur la gdndration" [1749], in Oeuvres (ref. 15), 256–287, on 258.
34
Franklin to Collinson, 1 Sep 1747, in Cohen (ref. 3), 181.
35
Franklin (ref. 18), 213–214.
36
Ibid., 214.
37
Buffon (ref. 19), 2, 7, 154.
38
Lorraine Daston, Classical probability in the Enlightenment (Princeton, 1988), 56–57, 60
Barbara Shapiro, Probability and certainty: A study in the relationships between natural science, religion, history, law and literature (Princeton, 1983), 105, 32, 84, 4, 16, 31
Ian Hacking, The emergence of probability: A philosophical study of early ideas about probability, induction and statistical inference (Cambridge, 1975), 146.
39
Buffon, "Essai d'arithm&ique morale" (1777), in Oeuvres (ref. 15), 456–488, on 475–476, 484–486, 469.
40
Ibid., 457, 459–469.
41
Daston (ref. 38), 77.
42
Franklin, Autobiography, in Smyth (ref. 29), 7, 221–439, on 243.
43
Daston (ref. 38), 17–18, 39, 243.
44
Franklin to Joseph Priestley, 19 Sep 1772, in BFP, 19, 299–300.
45
Franklin to John Perkins, 4 Feb 1753, in BFP, 4, 429–442, on 442.
46
Franklin to Collinson, 1 Sep 1747, in Cohen (ref. 3), 189.
47
Franklin, "Thunder-gusts" (1749)
Cohen (ref. 3), 201–211, on 203
conjectures," ibid., 215
"Meteorological observations" (1751?), in BFP, 4, 235–243, on 235–236.
48
A Letter to Benjamin Franklin (Oxford, 1777)
Cohen (ref. 3), 422–435, on 435.
Franklin (ref. 3), 215–219.
49
Carl L. Becker, The heavenly city of the eighteenth century philosophers (New Haven, 1932), 49, 80.
50
Joseph Priestley, The history and present state of electricity (London, 1775; reprinted New York, 1966), l, xxvi [here Priestley is citing David Hartley], 192–193
51
Keith Baker describes a great "chorus in denunciation of the 'spirit of system* and in praise of.. .epistemological modesty," in Condorcet: From natural philosophy to social mathematics (Chicago, 1975), 87.
Gay (ref. 6), 138–139.
ibid., i, 143–144, 178–179
52
Franklin, Autobiography (1771–1788) (ref. 42), 169, 171, 244–245
Franklin to Collinson, 28 Mar 1747 and 11 Jul 1747
Cohen (ref. 3), 169, 171.
Franklin to Perkins, 13 Aug 1752, in BFP, 4y 340–341.
53
Franklin, "Dialogue between two Presbyterians [1735]," in BFP, 2, 27–33.
54
Franklin to Collinson, 14 Aug 1747, in Cohen (ref. 3), 171.
55
Diderot, "Encyclopedic [1755]," in Pons (ref. 28), 2, 40–67, on 51, 44–45, 64, 49.
56
Franklin, Autobiography (ref. 42), 298–299.
57
Roger (ref. 14)
Aristotle, De anima III.2, 425bl5–425b20
Buffon (ref. 15), 323.
58
Francois Marie Arouet de Voltaire, "Sens cornmun," in Voltaire, Dictionnaire philosophique [1764]
RenE Pomeau (Paris, 1964), 351–353.
59
Diderot, "Bon-sens" [1751], in Diderot and d'Alembert, Encyclopedic (ref. 23), vol. 2, 320–329, on 329.
60
Bibliotheque de l'lnstitut de France, MSS 2222, 72–73.
61
Franklin to Perkins, 13 Aug 1752 in Smyth (ref. 29), 3, 96
Franklin to abte Soulavie, 22 Sep 1782, ibid., 8, 597–603, on 601
Franklin to unknown correspondent, 14 June 1783, ibid., 9, 52–53.
62
Franklin (ref. 18), 214.
63
Franklin to Collinson, 11 Jul 1747 in Cohen (ref. 3), 175.
64
Franklin to Collinson, Sep 1753, in Cohen (ref. 3), 271.
65
Franklin to Collinson, 11 Jul 1747 (ref. 63), 173.
Later Franklin ((ref. 3), 216)
66
Franklin to Collinson, 1 Sep 1747 (ref. 3), 183.
67
John Locke, An essay concerning human understanding [1689]
Peter H. Nidditch (Oxford, 1975), 665.
68
Buffon (ref. 39), 457, and Maniere (ref. 15), 62.
69
Simon-Nicolas-Henri Linguet, Annales politiques, 11 (1784), 370.
70
D'Alembert, Essai sur les elements de la philosophie de Newton [1759]
(Hildesheim, 1965), 90
John Pappas, "L'esprit de finesse contre l'esprit de géométrie: Un ddbat entre Diderot et d'Alembert," in Studies on Voltaire and the 18th Century, 89 (1972), 1229–1253.
71
Diderot, "EncyclopeW (ref. 55), 54–56.
72
Priestley (ref. 50), 2 13, 54–56.
73
Heilbron ((ref. 10), 196)
74
Franklin, "Thunder-gusts [1749]," in Cohen (ref. 3), 202–203
Franklin to Collinson, Sep 1753, ibid., 267–268.
75
Franklin, "Dissertation on liberty and necessity [1725]," in BFP, 1, 57–71.
76
Heilbron (ref. 10), 208.
77
Franklin (ref. 18), 214–215.
78
Nollet, Lettres (ref. 17), 2, 161–162.
79
Jean Torlais, Un physicien au siecle des lumieres. L'Abbé Nollet. 1700–1770 (Paris, 1954), 112–113
Nollet, Correspondance entre l'abbé Nollet et le physicien ge'nevois Jean Jallabert, ed. Isaac Benguigui (Geneva, n.d.), 216. See Heilbron (ref. 14), 351.
80
Jacques Romas, Oeuvres inedites de J. de Romas. ..avec une notice biographique et bibliographique par Paul Courteault, ed. J. Bergonie (Bordeaux, 1911), 289, 73, 183–185.
81
Cohen (ref. 3), 388–392, on 391.
82
Roderick Home, "Electricity in France in the post-Franklin era [1974]," in Congres International d'Histoire des Sciences, 1974. Actes, II (1975), 269–272.
83
Priestley (ref. 50), 7, 193; Heilbron (ref. 13), 548; Cohen, Franklin and Newton (ref. 8), 511.
84
Priestley (ref. 50), 7, 193.
85
Nollet, Lettres (ref. 17), 7, 10.
86
Joseph-Etienne Bertier to Franklin, 27 Feb 1769, in BFP, 16, 56.
87
Diderot, "De Tinterpretation de la nature [17531," in Paul Verniere, ed., Oeuvres philosophiques de Diderot (Paris, 1956), 165–245, on 217.
88
Ibid., 185, 198–214.
89
Heilbron (ref. 14), 288.
90
"Sur l'électricité" in MAS, 1753, 6.
91
Cohen (ref. 8), 387.
92
Ref. 11.
93
Aléxandre Koyré, "Newton et Descartes," in Etudes Newtoniennes (Paris, 1968), 85–242, on 103, 109. Guerlac ((ref. 11), 73)
Studies in the eighteenth century, IV: Papers presented at the fourth David Nichol Smith Memorial Seminar, Canberra, 1976
R.F. Bassenden and J.C. Eade (Canberra, 1979), 235–249.
94
Gay (ref. 6), 2, 147.
95
Koyré (ref. 93), 127.
96
David Hume, The history of England from the invasion of Julius Caesar to the abdication of James the Second, 1688 [1780] (Boston 1856), 6, 374.
97
Voltaire, Letters concerning the English nation [1733]
Nicholas Cronk (Oxford, 1994), 61–66, 74.
98
Gay (ref. 6), 2, 133–136.
99
Koyré, (ref. 93), 88, 115, 361–362.
100
Joseph Aignan Sigaud de la Fond, Precis historique et experimental des phenomenes electriques, depuis Vorigine jusqu' a ce jour (Paris, 1788), xii, 115.
101
Abbé Durand, Le Franklinisme refute, ou remarques sur la theorie de Velectricite Voccasion du systeme de plusieurs physiciens sur ce sujet (Paris, 1788), 9–10.
102
Nollet, Lecons de physique experimental, 5th edn. (Paris, 1759–66), 1, xx–xxi
Essai sur Velectricite des corps (Paris, 1746), 67–80.
Joseph C. Pitt, ed., Change and progress in modern science (University of Western Ontario Series in Philosophy of Science, 27 (1985)), 107–131, on 111.
"Nollet and Boerhaave: A note on eighteenth century ideas about electricity and fire," in Annals of science, 36 (1979), 171–176
Heilbron (ref. 14), 276–77.
Heilbron, ibid., 283.
103
Franklin to Collinson, 1 Sep 1747 and 29 Apr 1749, in Cohen (ref. 3), 185, 189
"Franklin's electrical atmospheres," in British journal for the history of science, 6 (1972), 131–151, on 133
Heilbron (ref. 14), 336–37, 366–367.
104
Diderot (ref. 87).
105
Priestley (ref. 50), 15, 16, 18.
106
Nollet, "Examen" (ref. 17), 487.
107
Nollet, "Réponse au supplément d'un mémoire 1û á l'académie par M. le Roy," MAS, 1753, 503–14, on 511.
108
Nollet, "Examen" (ref. 17), 486.
109
Nollet, Lettres (ref. 17), 3, 159–60, 243.
110
Nollet, "Examen" (ref. 17), 481.
111
Heilbron (ref. 14), 337.
112
Heilbron (ibid.), 388–89 and (ref. 13), 548–49.
113
Jean-Baptiste Le Roy, "Memoire sur l'dectriciteV' MAS, 1753, 447–74, on 449–50.
114
Franklin to C. Colden, 6 Dec 1753, in BFP, 5, 144–47, on 145.
115
Ebeneezer Kinnersley to Franklin, 12 Mar 1761
Cohen (ref. 3), 349–50.
116
Franklin to Kinnersley, 20 Feb 1762
Cohen (ref. 3), 365–366.
117
Franklin to Collinson, 11 Jul 1747
Cohen (ref. 3), 175.
120
Le Roy (ref. 113), 455–466.
121
Nollet, "Examen" (ref. 17), 500, 487.
122
Le Roy (ref. 113), 450.
123
Nollet, "Examen" (ref. 17), 492.
124
Mathurin Jacques Brisson, Dictionnaire raisonni de physique (Paris, an viii (1799–1800)), 87.
125
Even Franklin ((ref. 18), 219)
126
W.D. Hackman, Electricity from glass: The history of the frictional electrical machine 1600–1850 (Alphen aan den Rijn, 1978), chapt. 5.
127
Franklin to Collinson, 29 Apr 1749 (ref. 18), 188, and 1 Sep 1747 (ref. 3), 181.
128
Nollet, Lettres (ref. 17), 2, 57
"Examen" (ref. 17), 494–495.
129
Nollet, Lettres (ref. 17), 2, 214–215.
130
Nollet, "Examen" (ref. 17), 489–490.
131
Nollet, Lettres (ref. 17), 3, 172–173.
132
Nollet, Lettres (ref. 17), 7, 71.
133
Franklin (ref. 18), 230.
134
Franklin to Dr. L???, 18 Mar 1755
Cohen (ref. 3), 333
Romas (ref. 80), 138.
135
Franklin to Collinson, 29 Apr 1749 (ref. 18), 190–191.
136
Franklin to Collinson, 1 Sep 1747 (ref. 3), 181.
137
David Colden, "Remarks on the Abte Nollet's letters," in Cohen (ref. 3), 285–286, 290.
138
Sigaud de la Fond (ref. 100), x, 302.
139
Nollet, Lecons (ref. 102), 7, xxiii.
140
Heilbron (ref. 14), 312–316.
141
Priestley (ref. 50), 2, 20; 7, xv, 192–193.
142
Charles Henry, ed., Correspondence inedite de Condorcet et Turgot (Paris, 1882), 172–173.
143
Pierre Samuel Dupont de Nemours, "De l'origine et du progrds d'une science nouvelle" [1768] in Oeuvres politiques et economiques (Nendeln, 1979), 7, 523–611, on 536.
144
Ibid., 566, 577.
145
Anonymous, "De l'&at actuel des Sciences et des Arts," in Les ephemerides du citoyen, Ou bibliotheque raisonnee des sciences morales et politiques (Paris, 1765), 2, t. 2, 220–221, 238
"Sur la prosperity des arts et du commerce," in ibid., 3, t. 2, 266
ibid. (1767), 7, 143.
146
Francois Quesnay, "Grains" [1757]
Francois Quesnay et la physiocratie, Vol. 2, Textes annotes (Paris, 1958), 459–510, on 472.
147
Dupont de Nemours (ref. 143), 550, 575–576.
148
Fox-Genovese (ref. 7), 58.
149
Georges Weulersse, Le mouvement physiocratique en France (Paris, 1910), 2, 120.
150
Steven Kaplan, Bread, politics and political economy in the reign of Louis XV (The Hague, 1976), 2, 682.
151
Quesnay, "Philosophie rurale" [1764]
Quesnay (ref. 146), 2, 687–728, on 727.
152
Dupont de Nemours, "De 1'exportation et de 1'importation des grains, memoire 10 a la Société royale d'agriculture de Soissons [1764]," in (ref. 143), l, 61–246, on 162.
153
Franklin to William Franklin, 28 Aug 1767, in BFP, 14, 242–244, on 244.
154
Thomas-Fracois Dalibard to Franklin, 14 June 1768, in BFP, 15, 141–142.
155
Franklin to Bertier, 31 Jan 1768, in BFP, 5, 33
Franklin to Dalibard, 31 Jan 1768, ibid., 35
156
Jacques Barbeu-Dubourg, ed., Oeuvres de M. Franklin (Paris, 1773)
Aldridge (ref. 5), 22
BFP, 15, 112–113
Dalibard to Franklin, 31 Mar 1754, in BFP, 5, 253–254.
157
Dupont de Nemours to Franklin, 10 May 1768
BFP, 15, 118–119.
Proces-verbaux, 1761.
158
Dalibard to Franklin, 14 June 1768, in BFP, 15, 140.
159
Franklin to Le Roy, 31 Jan 1769, in BFP, 16, 34–35.
160
Franklin to Barbeu-Dubourg, 22 Sep 1769, in BFP, 16, 205.
161
Ref. 145(1768), 7, 32.
162
"The examination of Doctor Benjamin Franklin &c, in the British House of Commons, relative to the repeal of the American Stamp Act, in 1766,"
BFP, 13, 129–159.
163
Turgot to Dupont de Nemours, 5 Aug 1768
Oeuvres de Turgot et documents le concernant, ed. Gustave Schelle (Paris, 1913), 3, 13.
164
Text of 29 Nov 1766, in BFP, 13, 510–516.
165
Text of April 1768, in BFPR, 15, 103–107.
166
Aldridge (ref. 5), 15.
167
Franklin, "Positions to be examined," 4 Apr 1769, in BFP, 16, 107–109.
168
Aldridge (ref. 5), 86–87
Quesnay, "Maximes generates du gouvemement £conomique d'un royaume agricoles," November 1767
Quesnay (ref. 146), 2, 949–976, on 949
Turgot to Dupont de Nemours, 10 May 1771, in Oeuvres (ref. 163), 3, 486–487.
169
Condorcet, "On the influence of the American Revolution on Europe [1786],"
Keith Baker, ed., Condorcet: Selected writings (Indianapolis, 1976), 71–83, on 80.
170
Aldridge (ref. 5), 86–87.
171
Condorcet, "Eloge de Franklin," 13 Nov 1790
Gilbert Chinard, L'Apotheose de Franklin (Paris, 1955), 129–143, on 137
La Rochefoucauld, "Discours" [1790], ibid., 96.
172
Chinard (ibid.), 171–172.
173
Le Due Alexandre de La Rochefoucauld, "Discours [1790]," in Chinard (ref. 171), 93–100, on 93
Le Roy, "Note [1790]," ibid., 113–122, on 121–122
Felix Vicq d'Azyr, "Eloge [1790]," ibid., 144–161, on 159.
174
Chinard (ref. 171), 13–14, 18–19, 23, 25, 27.
175
Condorcet (ref. 171), 140–141.
176
Dupont de Nemours, "Grains" (ref. 146), 120–121.
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