[Footnotes]

[Footnotes]
1
Ian Hacking, "Disunified science," in P. Galison and D. Stump, eds., The disunity of science (Stanford, 1996).
The growth of biological thought (Cambridge, MA, 1982), 60–62.
S. Sarkar, "Models of reduction and categories of reductionism," Synthese, 91 (1992), 167–194.
2
Anderson, "Are the big machines necessary?", in The new scientist and science journal (2 Sep 1971), 510
"Interview with Senator Bennett Johnston" PT (Jan 1996), 52
D. Kevles, "New foreword," The physicists, (Cambridge, MA, 1995)
S. Weinberg, "Newtonianism, reductionism and the art of congressional testimony," Nature, 330 (3 Dec 1987)
3
L. Hoddeson et al., eds., Out of the crystal maze (New York, 1992), 632.
4
ibid., 631, 628, 658, 658, resp.
5
E. Braun, "Mechanical properties of solids," in ibid., 317.
6
A.H. Cottrell, The mechanical properties of matter (New York, 1967).
7
W. Pauli to R. Peierls (1 Jul 1931), in Scientific correspondence II (Berlin, 1979), 85.
Hoddeson et al. (ref. 3), chapt. 2.
8
L. Hoddeson et al. (ref. 3)
L. Hoddeson, "Solid state physics," in J. Krige and D. Pestre, eds., Science in the twentieth century (Amsterdam, 1997).
9
M. Polanyi, "My time with x-ray diffraction," in P.P. Ewald, ed., Fifty years of x-ray diffraction (Utrecht, 1962).
10
M. Polanyi, Personal knowledge (New York, 1964), 394, original emphasis.
11
Polanyi, The tacit dimension (New York, 1966), 39.
12
Ibid., 38.
13
Ibid., 39, 44–45.
14
Personal knowledge, 382
Tacit dimension, 32–34.
15
M. Polanyi and E. Wigner, "Bildung und Zerfall von Molekulen," ZfP, 33 (1925), 429–434.
16
H. Weyl, The theory of groups and quantum mechanics (New York, 1929), introduction.
17
J. Mehra, "Eugene Paul Wigner. A biographical sketch," in A. Wightman, ed., The collected works of Eugene Wigner, vol. 1 (Berlin, 1979), 5.
18
E. Wigner, "On unitary representations of the inhomogeeous Lorentz Group," Annals of mathematics, 40:1 (Jul 1939), 140–204.
19
G. Mackey, "The mathematical papers," in A. Wightman, ed. (ref. 17), 1, 241–290.
20
E. Wigner, Group theory and its application to quantum mechanics of atomic spectra (New York, 1959).
21
Wigner, Symmetries and reflections (Woodbridge, CN, 1979), chapt. 4.
22
Wigner (ibid.), chapt. 3, 36.
23
Wightman, ed. (ref. 17), vols. 3 and 6.
24
Wigner's Collected works, pt. A, vol. 3, pt 2 (1996).
25
"The methodology of synthesis: Parts and wholes in low-energy physics" and "Some proposals concerning parts and wholes," in A. Shimony, Search for a naturalistic world view (New York, 1993), vol. 2, 191–217 and 218–227, resp.
H. Fröhlich, "The connection between macro- and microphyics," Nuovo cimento, 3:4 (1973), 490–534.
26
S.S. Schweber, QED and the men who made it (Princeton, 1996), 365.
28
P.W. Anderson, "Local moments and localized states," Science, 201 (28 Jul 1978), 307.
29
V.F. Weisskopf, "The connection between physics and other branches of science," Nuovo cimento, suppl., ser. 4 (1966), 465–473
Alvin Weinberg, "Criteria for scientific choice," PT, 17:3 (Mar 1964), 42–48, on 42.
30
Ibid., 471.
31
V.F. Weisskopf, "Nuclear structure and modern research," PT, 20:5 (May 1967), 24–25.
32
P.W. Anderson, "More is different," Science, 177:4047 (Aug 1972), 393–396.
33
Anderson, "Is complexity physics? Is it science? What is it?," PT, 44:7 (Jul 1991), 9.
T.S. Kuhn's Structure of science revolutions.
ref. 41, below.
34
Anderson (ref. 32), 393.
35
Ibid., 396.
36
Schweber, "Physics, community and the crisis in physical theory," PT, 46:11 (Nov 1993), 34–40, on 35.
38
Kevles, The physicists (ref. 2), xxv.
39
Ref. 32, 394.
Anderson (ref. 33)
40
Ibid., 395.
Shimony (ref. 25).
J.R. Platt, "Properties of large molecules beyond the properties of their chemical sub-groups," Journal of theoretical biology, 1, 342.
41
Anderson, "Are the big machines necessary?," New scientist and science journal, 51 (Sep 1971), 510–521.
42
Ibid., 515.
43
Ibid., 512.
44
M. Dresden, "Reflections on 'fundamentally and complexity,"' in C.P. Enz and J. Mehra, eds., Physical reality and mathematical description (New York, 1974), 133, 137.
45
Ibid., 143.
46
Ibid., 135, original emphasis.
47
Ibid., 141.
48
Ibid., 140.
49
Ibid.
50
Ibid., 158–159.
51
Ibid., 148.
52
Ibid., 148.
53
Ibid., 146.
54
E. Mayr, The growth of biological thought (Cambridge, MA, 1982)
Mayr, "How biology differs from the physical sciences," in D.J. Depew and B.H. Weber, eds., Evolution at a crossroads: The new biology and the new philosophy of science (Cambridge, MA, 1985).
55
Mayr (1985), 44–45
Weinberg (1974), "Unified theories and elementary- particle interaction," in Scientific American, 231, 56.
56
Mayr (1982), 61, 63.
57
D. Campbell, Human evolution. An introduction to man's adaptation (Chicago, 1974), 182.
58
Ibid., 63.
H. Georgi, in "Effective quantum field theories," in P.W. Davies, ed., The new physics (New York, 1989), 448.
E. Heller and S. Tomsovic (1993), "Postmodern quantum mechanics," in PT, 46:7 (Jul 1993), 38.
59
A. Pickering, Constructing quarks (Edinburgh, 1984).
60
Schweber (ref. 36)
O. Neurath, Philosophical papers, 1913–1946 (Dordrecht, 1983), 140–141.
61
Anderson, "On the nature of physical laws," PT, 43:12 (Dec 1990), 9.
62
Ref. 2, "Crisis," 1a526–la557.
63
P.W. Anderson and D. Stein, "Broken symmetries, emergent properties, descriptive structures, life. Are they related?," in E. Yates et al., eds., Self-organizing systems. The emergence of order (New York, 1987), 454.
Y. Bouligand, "Symetries et brisures de symetrie en biologie," in N. Boccara, ed., Symmetries and broken symmetries in condensed matter physics (New York, 1981).
64
Anderson (ref. 33), 10.
65
Gell-Manns, "Concept of the institute," in D. Pines, ed., Emerging syntheses in science, Founding Workshops of the Santa Fe Institute (1985), Proceedings, 1–17.
Gell-Mann, The jaguar and the quark (San Francisco, 1994), 118–119.
Anderson (ref. 32), 10.
66
Anderson, "Spin glass Hamiltonians: A bridge between biology, statistical mechanics, and computer science," in D. Pines (ref. 65), 18.
Michael Gordin's "Ising on the cake: Spin glass physics and the unification of the sciences" (unpublished ms., Harvard University).
67
Anderson et al., "Anomalous low-temperature thermal properties of glasses and spin glasses," Philosophical magazine, 25 (1971), 1.
69
Anderson (ref. 66), 18.
70
L. Kadanoff, From order to chaos (Singapore, 1993), 7.
71
Kadanoff, "Scaling laws for Ising models near Tc," Physics, 2 (1966), 263.
Kadanoff and Hought, "Numerical evaluation of the critical properties of the two-dimensional Ising model," PR, B11 (1975), 377.
72
Ref. 2, "Crisis," 1b110.
73
Kadanoff, "Chaos: A view of complexity in the physical sciences," in Kadanoff (ref. 70), 403–404
ref. 2, "Crisis in science," 1b241, 1b317.
74
Ibid., 1b317.
75
Ibid,. 1b485.
76
Kadanoff, "Critical behavior. Universality and scaling," in Kadanoff (ref. 70), 225.
77
Ibid., lbl12
K. Wilson, "Renormalization group and critical phenomena. I. Renormalization group and the Kadanoff scaling picture," PR, 4:9 (1971), 3174–3205
K. Wilson, "The renormalization group and critical phenomena," RMP, 55 (Jul 1983), 583.
78
K. Wilson, "Nobel lecture" (ibid.), 591.
79
Wilson, "Problems in physics with many scales of length," Scientific American, 241 (Aug 1979), 158–179.
80
L. Brown, ed., Renormalization (New York, 1993).
Stiickelberg and Peterman, "La normalisation des Constances dans la theorie des quanta" Helvetica Physica Acta, 26 (1953), 499–520
Gell-Mann and Low, "Quantum electrodynamics at small distances," PR, 95:5(1954), 1300–1312.
81
K. Wilson (ref. 77), 596.
82
Weinberg (ref. 2), 434.
83
J. Kumhansl, "Unity in the science of physics," PT, 44:3 (Mar 1991), 33.
84
Ibid.
85
Ibid., 35–36.
86
A. Scott, "Solitons in biological molecules," in D. Pines (ref. 65), 194.
87
W. Heisenberg, ZfP, 77 (1932), 1.
88
S.S. Schweber (ref. 26)
89
R. Marshak, "The multiplicity of particles," Scientific American, 186:1 (1951), 22–27.
90
E. Fermi and C.N. Yang, "Are mesons elementary particles?" PR, 76:12 (1949), 1739–1743
S. Sakata "On a composite model for the new particles," Progress of theoretical physics, 16 (1956), 686–688.
91
Pickering (ref. 59), 161.
92
C.N. Yang, Selected papers (San Francisco, 1983), 5.
93
E. Fermi and Yang (ref. 90), 1739.
94
C.N. Yang and R.L. Mills, "Conservation of isotopic spin and isotopic gauge invariance," PR, 96:1 (1954), 191–195.
96
M. Gell-Mann, "The eightfold way: A theory of strong interaction symmetry," Caltech Synchroton Laboratory Report CTSL–20 (1961)
Y. Ne'eman, "Derivation of strong interactions from a gauge invariance," Nuclear physics, 26 (1961), 222–229
Gell-Mann and Ne'eman, eds., The eightfold way (New York, 1964).
97
Gell-Mann (1988) "Particle-theory from S-matrix to quarks" in M. Docel et al., eds., Symmetries in physics (Singapore, 1988), 475–497
Ne'eman, "Hadron symmetry, classification and compositeness," in ibid., 500–540.
J. Slater in his "The theory of complex spectra," PR, 34 (1929), 1293–1322
The theory of atomic spectra (Cambridge, 1935)
G. Mackey (ref. 19), 269.
98
S. Sakata (ref. 90)
Y. Ne'eman, "Patterns, structure and then dynamics: Discovering unitary symmetry and conceiving quarks," Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities, Section of Sciences, Proceedings, 21 (1983), 8.
99
Ibid., 7.
100
Gell-Mann (ref. 97), 481–482
Pickering (ref. 59), 74.
101
David Kaiser, "Do Feynman diagrams endorse a particle ontology? The roles of Feynman diagrams in S-matrix theory," (Harvard University ms., 1996)
David Kaiser, "Stick-figure realism: Conventions, reification, and the persistence of Feynman diagrams, 1948–64," Paper presented at the Office for History of Science and Technology, Berkeley, Apr 1998.
102
Gell-Mann (ref. 97), 493.
103
Pickering (ref. 59)
104
Feynman and Gell-Mann, "Theory of the Fermi interaction," PR, 109 (1958), 743–773
E.C.G. Sudarshan and R. Marshak, "Chirality invariance and the universal Fermi interaction," PR, 109 (1958), 1860–1862.
105
J. Schwinger, "A theory of the fundamental interactions," Annals of physics, 2 (1957), 407–434.
106
S. Glashow, "Partial symmetries of weak interactions" Nuclear physics, 10 (1961), 107–117
"Towards a unified theory: Threads in a tapestry," RMP, 52 (1980), 3, 540
A. Salam and J.C. Ward, "Gauge unification of fundamental forces," RMP, 52 (1961), 525–538.
107
S. Weinberg, "A model of leptons," Physical review letters, 19 (1967), 1264–1266
A. Salam, "Weak and electromagnetic interactions," in N. Svartholm, ed., Elementary pariicle physics: Relativistic groups and analyticity (Stockholm, 1968), 367–377.
108
Weinberg (ibid.), 1264.
Weinberg, "Why renormalization is a good thing," in A. Guth et al., eds., Asymptotic realms in physics (Cambridge, MA, 1983), 1–19.
109
Weinberg, "Conceptual foundations of the unified theory of weak and electromagnetic interactions," RMP, 52 (1980), 515, 519.
110
Salam, "Gauge unification of fundamental forces," RMP, 52 (1980), 526.
ibid.
111
L. O'Raifeartaigh, Group structures of gauge theories (Cambridge, 1986).
112
Weinberg, "Unified theories of elementary-particle interactions," Scientific American, 231 (1974), 50.
113
Weinberg, "The search for unity: Notes for a history of quantum field theory," Deadalus (Fall 1977), 17–35.
114
R.G. Sachs, "A five-year outlook," PT, 32:12 (Dec 1979), 27.
115
M. Turner, "Cosmology and elementary particle physics," PT, 32:9 (Sep 1979), 43–48, on 48.
116
F. Dyson, The origin of life (New York, 1991)
K. Schaffner, Discovery and explanation in biology and medicine (Chicago, 1993)
S. Sarkar, Genetics and reductionism (New York, 1998).
117
S. Weinberg, "Newtonianism, reductionism and the art of congressional testimony," Nature, 330 (3 Dec 1987), 433.
Dreams of a final theory: The search for the fundamental laws of nature (New York, 1993)
Peter Galison "Metaphysics and Texas," New Republic (6 Sep 1993), 40.
S. Glashow and L. Lederman, "The SSC: A machine for the nineties," PT, 38:3 (Mar 1985), 28
L. Lederman, "1986 Richtmyer lecture: Unification, grand unification, and the unity of physics," American journal of physics, 54:7 (Jul 1986), 594
R. Wilson (1986) "The sentiment of the unity of physics," PT, 39:7 (Jul 1986), 26
S. Glashow, "The death of science?" in R. Elvee, ed., The end of science? (Nobel Conference XXV, 1992).
118
Glashow and Lederman (ref. 117), 32–33.
119
Lederman (ref. 117), 597.
120
Lederman (ref. 117), 597–600.
121
Glashow, Letter to the editor, PT, 39:12 (Dec 1986), 13
Glashow (ref. 117), 31.
122
Glashow, Letter to the editor, PT, 39:2 (Feb 1986), 11.
123
Glashow (ibid.), 14–15.
124
Anderson, Letter to the editor, PT, 40:8 (Aug 1987), 90.
125
R. Wilson (ref. 117), 29.
126
Ibid.
127
Weinberg (ref. 2), 433–444
ref. 2, "Crisis," lal77.
128
Ibid.
129
Weinberg, "Reductionism redux," New York Times review of books (Oct 1995), 39.
130
Weinberg (ref. 127), 436.
131
Weinberg (ref. 129).
132
Weinberg (ref. 127), 437
(ref. 117), 42
(ref. 129), 39.
133
Weinberg (ref. 117), 192
(ref. 2), "Summary and outlook," in S.C. Loken, ed., XXIII International Conference on High Energy Physics, 16–23 July 1986, Proceedings, Berkeley, California, 282.
134
Ibid.
135
Weinberg (ref. 117), 192.
136
Ibid., 436.
137
Weinberg (ref. 117)
(ref. 2) esp. chapts. 3 and 6
ref. 129
138
Weinberg (ref. 129), 39.
139
Ibid., 40.
140
Weinberg (ref. 117), 46, 113
ref. 2, "Crisis,"
141
Ibid.
Asim Yildiz, "From Gell-Mann-Low to unification," in A. Guth, K. Huang, and R.L. Jaffe, eds., Asymptotic realms of physics: Essays in honor of Francis E. Low (Cambridge, MA, 1983), 91.
142
Weinberg (ref. 117), 282.
M.B. Green, "Unification of forces and particles in superstring theories," Nature, 314 (1985), 409-414
A. de Rújula, "Superstrings and supersymmetries," Nature, 320 (1986), 678–679.
143
Galison, "Theory bound and unbound: Superstrings and experiment," in Weinert, Friedel, eds., The laws of nature: Philosophy and science (New York, 1995).
144
Georgi, "Effective quantum field theory," in P. Davies, ed., The new physics (New York, 1989), 456.
145
Ibid., 457.
146
Weinberg (ref. 2), 435.
147
Ibid., 434.
148
Ibid.
149
Weinberg (ref. 129), 40.
150
Mayr, "The limits of reductionism," Letter to the Editor, Nature, 331 (11 Feb 1988), 475.
151
Weinberg (ref. 2), 433.
152
Weinberg (ref. 129), 40.
ref. 117
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