[Footnotes]

[Footnotes]
1
PRO DEFE 10/40. Minutes, DRPC, DRP/M(55)4, 1 Mar 1955.
2
PRO DEFE 10/36. Minutes, DRP(47)2nd meeting, 28 Jan 1947.
3
Michael Dockrill, British defence since 1945 (Oxford, 1988), 51.
4
Philip Gummett, Scientists in Whitehall (Manchester, 1980), 32.
5
John Krige, "Scientists as policymakers: British physicists 'advice' to their government on membership of CERN (1951–1952)," in Tore Frangsmyr, ed., Solomon's house revisited: The organisation and institutionalization of science (Canton, MA, 1990), 270–291.
6
Margaret Gowing, Independence and deterrence: Britain and atomic energy, 1945–52, Vol. 1 (2 vols., London, 1974).
7
PRO DEFE 10/40. Minutes, DRPC, DRP/M(55)7, 24 May 1955. Our emphasis.
8
Franklyn Johnson, Defence by ministry: The British Ministry of Defence, 1944–1974 (London, 1980)
W.P. Snyder, The politics of British defence policy, 1945–1962 (Columbus, 1964).
9
Dockrill (ref. 3).
10
Gummett (ref. 4), 31.
11
Ronald W. Clark, Tizard (London, 1965), 375.
Julian Lewis, Changing direction: British military planning for post-war strategic defence, 1942–1947 (London, 1988), 239.
12
PRO DEFE 7/269. Memorandum, "COS. Central direction of scientific effort," COS(45)611(0), by Tizard, 12 Oct 1945.
13
PRO DEFE 7/269. Memorandum, "COS. Central direction of scientific effort," COS(45)668(0), 20 Nov 1945.
14
PRO A VIA 54/952. Memorandum, "Cabinet. Defence Committee. Central direction of scientific effort. Report by the Chiefs of Staff," DO(46)82, by R.R. McGrigor and F.E.W. Simpson, 2 Jul 1946.
15
Clark (ref. 11), 378.
16
Gummett (ref. 4), 220
19
Lewis (ref. 11), 181.
20
Gowing (ref. 6), 7, 32–37.
21
PRO DEFE 10/36. Minutes, DRPC, DRP(47), 5th Meeting, 1947.
22
PRO DEFE 10/19. Memorandum, "DRPC. Future defence research policy. Report to the Minister of Defence," DRP(47)98, 30 Jul 1947.
23
PRO DEFE 10/18. Memorandum, "Future defence policy," 1 May 1947.
B. Balmer, "The drift of biological weapons policy in the UK 1945–65," Journal of strategic studies (forthcoming).
24
PRO DEFE 10/18. Memorandum, DRP(47)35, 7 Mar 1947.
25
PRO DEFE 10/19. Memorandum, "DRPC. Future Defence Policy. Report to the Minister of Defence," DRP(47)98, 30 Jul 1947.
26
B. ter Haar, The future of biological weapons, London, 1991), chapt. 1.
27
Ref. 25.
28
PRO DEFE 10/37. Minutes, DRP(49)10th meeting, 20 Jun 1949.
29
Gowing(ref. 6), 7, 32–37.
30
PRO DEFE 10/23. Memorandum, DRP(48)147, 19 Oct 1948.
31
PRO DEFE 10/37. Minutes, DRP(50)2nd meeting, 24 Jan 1950.
32
PRO DEFE 10/38. Minutes, DRP/M(51)9, 22 May 1951.
PRO DEFE 10/37. Minutes, DRP(50)23rd meeting, 17 Oct 1950.
33
PRO DEFE 10/32. Memorandum, "Atomic weapons trials," DRP/P(53)25, 20 May 1953.
34
PRO DEFE 10/39. Minutes, DRP/M(54)3, 2 Mar 1954.
35
PRO DEFE 10/18. DRP(47)35, 1947.
36
PRO DEFE 10/36. Minutes, DRP(47)21st meeting, 16 Dec 1947.
Gradon B. Carter, "Biological warfare and biological defence in the United Kingdom 1940–1979," RUSI, Journal, 137:6 (1992), 67–74
Porton Down: 75 years of chemical and biological research (London, 1992)
Robert Bud, The uses of life (Cambridge, 1993), 111–116.
37
PRO DEFE 10/36. Minutes, DRP(48)17th meeting, 16 Nov 1948.
38
PRO DEFE 10/26. Memorandum, "BW Policy. Note by the Chairman, BW Sub- Committee," DRP(50)53, 11 May 1950.
40
PRO WOI88/668, AC11950/BRBM26, BRAB 26th Meeting, 12 Jul 1952.
PRO DEFE 10/33, Memorandum, "Review of Defence R&D," 10 Mar 1954.
41
PRO DEFE 10/25. Memorandum, "R&D policy in relation to intelligence on Russian development," DRP(49)133, 14 Nov 1949.
42
PRO DEFE 10/37. Minutes, DRP(49)6th meeting, 12 Apr 1949, and DRP(49)17th meeting, 22 Nov 1949.
43
PRO DEFE 10/38. Minutes, DRP/M(51)15, 4 Sep 1951.
44
PRO DEFE 10/38. Minutes, DRP/M(52)5, 4 Mar 1952.
45
PRO DEFE 10/34. Memorandum, DRP/P(55)16, 4 Apr 1955.
46
PRO AVIA 54/1749. Draft report, "DRPC Review," DRP/P(54)10, 10 Mar 1954.
47
PRO CAB 131/17. Minutes, DC(56)6, 10 Jul 1956.
48
PRO DEFE 10/278. Memorandum, "Report on BW and CW by the Committee's Working Party," DRP/P(58)29, 15 Apr 1958.
49
PRO DEFE 10/282. Memorandum, "Defence Research Policy Staff. Working Party on BW and CW. Note by the Secretary," DRP STAFF/P(57)19, 6 Feb 1957.
50
PRO DEFE 41/156. Memorandum, "Chiefs of Staff Committee, Joint Planning Staff. Biological and Chemical Warfare. Report by the Joint Planning Staff," JP(58)65(Final), 30 Jul 1958.
52
PRO DEFE 10/382. Memorandum, DRP/P(60)61, 20 Jul 1960.
53
PRO W0195/15287. SAC362/M51. BRAB 51st Meeting, 6 Dec 1961.
54
PRO DEFE 10/417. Minutes, DRP/M(62)11. 3 Jul 1962.
55
PRO DEFE 10/490. Memorandum, "Chemical and biological warfare," DRP/P(62)33, 10 May 1962.
56
PRO DEFE 13/440. "Chemical and biological warfare policy," note to the Minister, SZ/1177/62, 20 Dec 1962.
PRO CAB 131/28. Minutes, D(63)3, 3 May 1963.
57
David Edgerton, "Whatever happened to the British warfare state? The Ministry of Supply, 1945–1951," in H. Mercer, N. Rollings and J.D. Tomlinson, eds., Labour governments and private industry (Edinburgh, 1992), 91–116.
58
David Cassidy, "Controlling German science, I. US and Allied forces in Germany, 1945–1947," HSPS, 24:2 (1994), 197–235
"II. Bizonal occupation and the struggle over West German science policy, 1946–1949," HSPS, 26:2 (1996), 197–239.
59
PRO DEFE 10/26. Memorandum, "Employment of German scientists (final)," DRP(50)45, 27 Apr 1950.
PRO DEFE 10/37. Minutes, DRP(50)9th meeting, 18 Apr 1950.
60
PRO DEFE 10/19. Memorandum, "High polymer plant, Leverkusen," DRP(47)66, 16 May 1947.
61
PRO DEFE 7/1982. Gaertner to Tizard, 28 Dec 1946.
62
PRO DEFE 10/36. Minutes, DRP(48)18th Meeting, 30 Nov 1948.
63
PRO DEFE 10/38. Minutes, DRP(51)5th Meeting, 29 Mar 1951.
64
PRO DEFE 10/37. Minutes, DRP(49)7th Meeting, 3 May 1949.
65
PRO DEFE 10/19. Memorandum, "CACDS 1947 Meeting," DRP(47)97, 31 Jul 1947.
66
DEFE 10/23. Tizard to Minister of Defence, Oct 1947.
67
DEFE 10/37. Minutes, DRP(48)7th Meeting, 3 May 1949.
68
Gowing (ref. 6), 7, 337
Lorna Arnold, A very special relationship: British atomic weapon trials in Australia (London, 1987).
69
Richard J. Aldrich, "British intelligence and the Anglo-American 'Special Relationship' during the Cold War," Review of international studies, forthcoming [AUTHOR???].
[AU???] Gradon Carter and Graham S. Pearson, "North Atlantic chemical and biological research collaboration: 1916–1995," Journal of strategic studies 19 (1996), 74–103.
70
PRO DEFE 10/30. Memorandum, "Research on foot and mouth disease," DRP/P(51)62, 23 Aug 1951.
71
PRO DEFE 10/37. Minutes, DRP(50)3rd Meeting, 7 Feb 1950.
72
Ibid.
73
PRO DEFE 10/356. Memorandum, "Biological and chemical weapons," DRP/P(59)6, 28 Jan 1959.
74
PRO DEFE 10/37. Minutes, DRP(50)3rd Meeting, 7 Feb 1950.
75
PRO DEFE 10/38. Minutes, DRP/M(51)12, Jul 1951.
76
PRO DEFE 10/40. Minutes, DRP/M(56)5, 27 Mar 1956.
77
PRO DEFE 10/417. Minutes, DRP/M(61)8, 28 Jun 1961.
78
PRO DEFE 10/356. Memorandum, "Biological and chemical weapons," DRP/P(59)6, 28 Jan 1959.
79
PRO DEFE 10/382. Memorandum, "Proposlas for MWDP aid," DRP/P(60)96, 7 Dec 1960.
80
PRO DEFE 7/1756. Memorandum, "Record of a meeting held at the Pentagon on Monday, 28 January," 5 Feb 1957.
81
PRO DEFE 7/1756. Denny to Powell, 3 Sep 1957.
82
PRO DEFE 7/1756. Sandys to Powell, Brundrett, and Chiefs of Staff, 8 Oct 1957.
83
PRO DEFE 7/1756. Caccia to Foreign Office, 18 Oct 1957.
84
PRO DEFE 7/1756. Declaration of Common Purpose, Oct 1957.
85
PRO DEFE 10/277. Minutes, DRP/M(58)10, 9 Sep 1958.
86
PRO DEFE 10/277. Minutes, DRP/M(58)14, 1958.
87
PRO DEFE 10/277. Minutes, DRP/M(58)1, 14 Jan 1958.
88
PRO DEFE 10/278. Memorandum, "Collaboration with foreign countries on defence research and development," DRP/P(58)9, 21 Jan 1958.
89
PRO 10/417. Minutes, DRP/M(61)4, 12 Apr 1961.
90
PRO DEFE 10/39. Minutes, DRP/M(53)6, 21 Apr 1953.
PRO DEFE 10/37. Minutes, DRP(49)18th meeting, 6 Dec 1949.
91
PRO DEFE 10/37. Minutes, DRP(49)18th meeting, 6 Dec 1949.
92
PRO DEFE 10/39. Minutes, DRP/M(54)6, 27 Apr 1954.
93
Snyder (ref. 8), 164.
95
PRO DEFE 10/18. Memorandum, DRP(47)35, 7 Mar 1947.
98
Stephen Twigge, The early development of guided weapons in the United Kingdom, 1940-1960 (Reading, 1993).
99
PRO DEFE 10/21. DRP(48)47, 19 Oct 1948.
Twigge (ref. 96), 117.
100
"Defence policy and global strategy" paper, DO(50)34.
PRO DEFE 10/26. Memorandum, "Review of defence R&D policy," DRP(50)29, is the first report.
101
PRO DEFE 10/29. Memorandum, "Ministry of Defence. DRPC. Research and development effort for the Army. Draft report by the DRPC," 18 Jan 1951.
102
PRO DEFE 10/29. Memorandum, "Ministry of Defence. DRPC. Scientists for defence research and development. Note by Chairman," DRP(51)28, 9 Apr 1951.
103
PRO DEFE 10 29. Memorandum, "Ministry of Defence. DRPC. Supply of scientists for research and development. Note by Chairman," DRP/P(51)41, 1 Jun 1951.
104
PRO DEFE 11 15.[AU: STYLE?] Memorandum, "ACSP. Review of civil research programs. Note by Chairman," SP(51)22, 26 Jul 1951
105
PRO DEFE 11 15. Memorandum, "Ministry of Defence. DRPC. Transfer of civil scientific effort to defence," DRP/P(52)20, 17 Mar 1952.
106
Snyder (ref. 8), 215.
107
Clark (ref. 11), 399.
108
Guy Hartcup and T.E. Allibone, Cockcroft and the atom (Bristol, 1984), 170.
109
Gowing (ref. 6), 229.
110
PRO DEFE 10/29. Memorandum, "Future research and development policy. Note by the Chairman," DRP(51)32, 27 Apr 1951.
112
Hartcup and Allibone (ref. 107), 173–174, 179.
113
Ibid., 169.
114
PRO DEFE 10/39. Minutes, DRP/M(53)1, 8 Jan 1953.
115
PRO DEFE 10/39. Minutes, DRP/M(53)6, 21 Apr 1953.
118
PRO DEFE 7/300. Minutes, SCI/M(54)1, 5 Jan 1954.
120
PRO DEFE 10/39. Minutes, DRP/M(54)10, 12 Oct 1954.
121
PRO AVIA 54/1922. Report, "MoD. DRPC. Review of defence research and development. Report to the Minister of Defence," DRP/P(55)50, 23 Jan 1956.
124
PRO DEFE 10/40. Minutes, DRP/M(55)4, 1 Mar 1955.
125
PRO DEFE 10/40. Minutes, DRP/M(55)10, 19 Jul 1955.
126
Dockrill (ref. 3), 66.
127
Simon J. Ball, "Harold Macmillan and the politics of defence: the market for strategic ideas during the Sandys Era revisited," Twentieth century British history, 6(1), 1995, 78–100.
129
PRO DEFE 10/276. "MoD. DRPC. Review of research and development," DRP/P(57)30, 31 Jul 1957, our italics.
132
PRO DEFE 7/1394. Chilver to Powell, 16 Jan 1958.
133
PRO DEFE 7/1394. Chilver to Powell, 1 May 1958.
134
PRO DEFE 7/1394. Makins to Powell, 21 Apr 1958.
135
PRO DEFE 7/1394. HCB to Powell, 28 Aug 1957.
136
PRO DEFE 7/1394. Makins to Powell, 4 Dec 1957.
137
PRO DEFE 7/1394. Chilver to Musgrave, 5 Jun 1958.
138
PRO DEFE 7/1394. Powell to Brundrett, 10 Jul 1958.
139
PRO DEFE 10/277. Minutes, DRP/M(58)8, 17 June 1958.
140
PRO DEFE 7/301. Macmillan to Watkinson, 14 Sep 1960.
141
PRO DEFE 7/301. Draft, Watkinson to Macmillan, 10 Oct 1960.
142
PRO DEFE 7/1853. Cornford to Wood, 26 Jan 1962.
143
PRO DEFE 7/271. Zuckerman to Secretary, COS, 14 Feb 1961, our emphasis.
144
PRO DEFE 10/417. Minutes, DRP/M(61)7, 14 Jun 1961.
146
PRO DEFE 10 10/417. Minutes, DRP/M(62)15, 10 Oct 1962.
147
PRO DEFE 7/1853. Thorneycroft to Watkinson, 9 Aug 1961.
148
PRO DEFE 7/1853. Kent to Chilver, 28 Aug 1961.
149
PRO DEFE 7/1854. Thorneycroft to Zuckerman, 8 Nov 1962.
150
PRO DEFE 10/453. Minutes, DRP/M(63)5, 13 Mar 1963.
151
PRO DEFE 7/1910. Memorandum, "Scientific and technical components of the central core," 24 Apr 1963.
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