[Footnotes]

[Footnotes]
2
Paul Forman, "Behind quantum electronics: National security as basis for physical research in the United States, 1940–1960," HSPS, 18:1 (1985), 149–229.
3
Stuart W. Leslie, The Cold War and American science: The military-industrial-academic complex at M.LT. and Stanford (New York, 1993).
Rebecca Sue Lowen, "Exploiting a wonderful opportunity: Stanford University, industry and the federal government," (Ph.D. diss., Stanford University, 1990).
4
Roger Geiger, review of The Cold War and American science by Stuart W. Leslie, Tech- nology and culture, 35:3 (1994), 629–631
Daniel J. Kevles, "R&D powerhouses," review of The Cold War and American science by Stuart W. Leslie, Science, 260:5111 (May 21, 1993), 1161–1163.
Daniel J. Kevles, "Cold War and hot physics: Science, security, and the American state, 1945–1956," HSPS, 20:2 (1990), 239–264.
5
Seymour Melman's The defense economy: Conversion of industries and occupations to civilian needs (New York, 1970)
Our depleted society (New York, 1965)
Pentagon capi- talism: The political economy of war (New York, 1971)
The permanent war economy: American capitalism in decline (New York, 1974).
6
George Gilder, Microcosm (New York, 1989).
Otis T. Graham, Losing time: The industrial policy debate (Cambridge, MA, 1992)
Richard J. Samuels, Rich nation, strong army (Ithaca, 1994).
7
James Allen Smith, The idea brokers: Think tanks and the rise of the new policy elite (New York, 1991), xiv.
8
Ibid., 115–116.
9
40th year: The RAND Corporation (Santa Monica, CA, 1989), 3.
10
Albert Wohlstetter, "RAND's continuing program of broad policy study: Problems and incentives," 22 Feb 1960, attached to Wohlstetter to Management Committee, M-953, 22 Feb 1960, Robert Specht Papers, RAND Corporation Archives, Santa Monica, Cali- fornia.
11
Arthur E. Raymond, "Talking outline—RAND briefing of [the Army Air Forces] 4–21– 47,"
David R. Jardini, "Out of the blue yonder: The RAND Corporation's diversification into social welfare research, 1946–1968" (Ph.D. diss., Carnegie Mellon Univer- sity, 1996), 28.
12
Vannevar Bush, Science, the endless frontier: A report to the President on a program for postwar scientific research (Washington, D.C., 1945).
13
Max Golden, "Memorandum for Mr. Zuckert," 28 Apr 1962, General Curtis LeMay Papers, Box B-127, Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.
14
Ibid.
15
J.D. Williams to F.R. Collbohm, D-7, 1947
Jardini (ref. 11), 33.
16
Jardini (ref. 11), chapt. 2.
17
Ibid., 60–63.
18
Fred Kaplan, The wizards of Armageddon (New York, 1983), 89
Jardini (ref. 11), 63.
19
L.J. Henderson to H. Rowen Gaither, 25 Jan 1950
Jardini (ref. 11), 69.
20
Bruce L.R. Smith, The RAND Cor- poration: A case study of a nonprofit advisory corporation (Cambridge, MA, 1966)
Kaplan (ref. 18)
Gregg Herken, Counsels of war (New York, 1985)
Marc Trachtenberg, "Stra- tegic thought in America, 1952–1966," in idem., Writings on strategy, 1961–1964, and retros- pectives (New York, 1988), 443–484.
21
Jardini (ref. 11).
Davis Dyer, "The limits of technology transfer: Civil systems at TRW, 1965- 1975," paper delivered at conference on "The spread of the systems approach," Dibner Insti- tute, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 3-5 May 1996, forthcoming in Thomas P. Hughes and Agatha Hughes, eds., Systems, experts, and computers [tentative title] (Chicago, under review).
Jardini, "The transfer of systems thinking from the Pentagon to the Great Society."
23
SM-11827, 2 May 1946.
25
Merton E. Davies and William R. Harris, RAND's role in the evolution of balloon and satellite observa- tions systems and related U.S. space technology (Santa Monica, CA, 1988).
Albert D. Wheelon, "Corona: The first reconnaissance satellites," Physics today, 50:2 (Feb 1997), 24–30.
26
Herbert York, Race to oblivion (New York, 1970), chapt. 4.
Richard G. Hewlett and Francis Duncan, Atomic shield, 1947-1952 (University Park, PA, 1969), 71–74
W. Henry Lambright, Shooting down the nuclear plane (Indianapolis, 1967).
27
SM-21, 8 Feb 1954.
28
Jacob Neufeld, The development of ballistic missiles in the United States Air Force, 1945–1960 (Washington, D.C., 1990)
Edmund Beard, Developing the ICBM: A study in bureaucratic politics (New York, 1976).
John Clayton Lonnquest, "The face of At- las: General Bernard Schriever and the development of the Atlas intercontinental ballistic mis- sile, 1953–1960" (Ph.D. diss., Duke University, 1996)
Donald MacKenzie, Inventing ac- curacy: A historical sociology of nuclear missile guidance (Cambridge, MA, 1993).
York (ref. 26)
29
Herman Kahn, On thermonuclear war (Princeton, NJ, 1960).
30
Berkeley, 1962
Proceed- ings, S-69, 27–29 May 1957
31
Sharon Helsel, "The comic reason of Herman Kahn: Conceiving the limits to strategic uncertainty in 1960" (Ph.D. diss., University of California, Santa Cruz, 1993).
Peter Galison, "Computer simulations and the trading zone," in Peter Galison and David J. Stump, eds., The disunity of science: Boundaries, contexts, and power (Stanford, CA, 1996), 142–143.
Monte Carlo method, "Application of Monte Carlo," RM-1237-AEC, 19 Apr 1954, revised 27 Apr 1956, RAND Corporation.
32
Larry Owens,"Mathematicians at war: Warren Weaver and the Applied Mathematics Panel, 1942– 1945," in David E. Rowe and John McCleary, eds., The history of modern mathematics, Volume II: Institutions and applications (Boston, 1989), 287-305.
W. Allen Wallis, "The statistical research group, 1942–1945," Journal of the Ameri- can Statistical Association, 75 (1980), 320–330.
33
Dictionary of scientific biography, s.v., Wilks, Samuel.
Contemporary authors, v. 19–20, s.v. Mosteller, Frederick.
35
Who's who in America, 1980–1981, s.v. Dantzig, George B.
George B. Dantzig, "Reminiscences about the origins of linear programming," Operations research letters, 1:2 (1981), 43–48
Dantzig, Origins of the simplex method, Technical Report SOL 87–5 (Systems Optimization Laboratory, 1987).
36
Richard Bellman, Eye of the hurricane: An autobiography (Singapore, 1984), 142.
37
Bellman (ibid.), "Guilt by association," chapt. 15, 238–248.
38
Bellman's book, Dynamic programming (Princeton, 1957)
Index of selected publications of the RAND Corporation, 1946–1962 (Santa Monica, CA, 1962)
Selected RAND abstracts, 1963–1972 (Santa Monica, CA, 1973).
Bellman (ref. 36), 173–226.
39
Robert J. Leonard, "From parlor games to so- cial science: Von Neumann, Morgenstern, and the creation of game theory 1928–1944," Jour- nal of economic literature, 32 (1995), 730–761.
40
Project RAND publications index (2 vols., Santa Monica, CA, 1963)
Games and decisions: Introduction and critical survey (New York, 1957)
41
New York, 1954
42
Philip Mirowski's "When games grow deadly serious: The military influence on the evolution of game theory," in Craufurd D. Goodwin, ed., Economics and national security: A history of their interaction, annual supplement to volume 23, History of political economy (Durham, 1991)
Robert XJ. Leonard, "Creating a context for game theory," in E. Roy Weintraub, ed., Toward a history of game theory, annual supplement to volume 24, History of political economy (Durham, 1992).
43
William Poundstone, Prisoners' dilemma (New York, 1992), 168.
44
Carl F. Christ, "The Cowles Commission's contribu- tions to econometrics at Chicago, 1939-1955," Journal of economic literature, 32 (1994), 30– 59.
45
Herbert A. Simon, Models of my life (New York, 1991), 116.
46
Economic theory and measurement: A twenty year research report, 1932–1952 (Chi- cago, 1952), 46–47.
47
George R. Feiwel, "Oral history I: An interview [with] Kenneth J. Arrow," in Feiwel, Arrow and the ascent of modern economic theory (New York, 1987), 193.
48
C. Daniel Vencill, "Kenneth J. Arrow, 1972" in Bernard S. Katz, ed., Nobel laureates in economic sciences: A biographical dictionary (New York, 1989), 9–30, on 12
Kenneth J. Arrow, Social choice and individual values (New York, 1951) [Cowles Commission Mono- graph No. 12].
50
Charles J. Hitch and Roland N. NcKean, The economics of defense in the nuclear age (Cambridge, 1960).
51
Burton Klein, "A radical proposal for R. and D.," Fortune, 57 (May 1958), 112–113, 218, 222, 224, 228.
52
Richard R. Nelson, 'The simple economics of basic scientific research," Journal of political economy, 67 (1959), 297–306
Kenneth J. Arrow, "Economic welfare and the al- location of resources for invention," in Richard R. Nelson, ed., The rate and direction of in- ventive activity: Economic and social factors (Princeton, 1962).
53
David A. Hounshell, "The medium is the message, or how context matters: The RAND Corporation builds an economics of innovation, 1946–1962," forthcoming in Hughes and Hughes, eds. (ref. 21).
54
Wesley Cohen, "Em- pirical studies of innovative activity," in Paul Stoneman, ed., Handbook of the economics of innovation and technological change (Oxford, 1995), 182–264.
Alfonso Gambardella, Science and innovation: The US pharmaceutical industry during the 1980s (New York, 1995), 1–16
Partha Dasgupta and Paul A. David, "Information disclosure and the economics of sci- ence and technology," in George R. Feiwel (ref. 47), 519–542
Partha Dasgupta and Paul A. David, "Toward a new economics of science," Center for Economic Policy Research, Stan- ford University, Publication No. 320
David C. Mowery, "Economic theory and government technology policy," Policy sciences, 16 (1983), 27–43
David C. Mowery and Nathan Rosen- berg, Technology and the pursuit of economic growth (New York, 1989), 3–17
Nathan Rosenberg, "Why do firms do basic research (with their own money)?" Research policy, 19 (1990), 165–174
Paula E. Stephan, "The economics of science," Journal of economic literature, 34 (1996), 1199–1235.
55
Allen Newell and Herbert A. Simon, "Historical addendum" in Simon, Human problem solving (Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1972)
Pamela McCorduck, Machines who think (San Francisco, 1979)
James Fleck, "Development and establishment in artificial intelligence," in Norbert Elias et al., Scientific establishments and hierarchies, Vol. 6, Sociology of the sciences: A yearbook (Bos- ton, 1982); Simon (ref. 45)
Daniel Crevier, AI: The tumultuous history of the search for artificial intelligence (New York, 1991).
57
McCorduck (ref. 54).
58
"Steps toward artificial intelligence," Institute of Radio Engineers, Proceedings, 49 (1961), 8–29.
59
"Development and establishment" (ref. 54), 181.
60
F.J. Gruenberger, "History of the Johnniac," Annals of the history of computing, 1 (1979), 49–64.
C.L. Baker, "JOSS Johnniac Open-Shop System," in R.L. Wexel- blat, ed., History of programming languages (New York, 1981)
Shirley L. Marks, "JOSS: Conversational computing for the nonprogrammer," Annals of the history of computing, 4 (1982), 35–42.
61
Robert E. Gleeson and Steven Schlossman, "The many faces of the new look: The University of Virginia, Carnegie Tech, and the reform of American management education in the postwar era," in Steven Schlossman et al., The beginnings of graduate management education in the United States (Santa Monica, 1994).
62
Simon's autobiography (ref. 45)
RAND RM's and P's and Human problem solving (ref. 55).
Simon and Yale-educated James March (Ph.D., 1953)
Organizations (New York, 1958)
A behavioral theory of the firm (Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1963).
63
Claude Shannon, "Automatic chess player," Scientific American, 182:2 (1950), 48–51 and Shannon, "Programming a computer for playing chess," Philosophical magazine, 41 (1950), 256–275.
64
Hubert L. Dreyfus, What computers can't do: A critique of artificial reason (New York, 1972)
65
Newell and Simon (ref. 55)
Simon (ref. 45).
Dreyfus (ibid.)
Joseph Weizenbaum, Computer power and human reason (San Francisco, 1976).
66
R.L. Chapman, W.C. Biel, J.L. Kennedy, and A. Newell, "The Systems Research La- boratory and its program," RM-890, 7 Jan 1952, RAND Corporation.
67
Claude Baum, The systems builders: The story of SDC (San- ta Monica, CA, 1981).
68
Charles Thomas O'Connell, "Social structure and science: Soviet studies at Harvard," (Ph.D. diss., UCLA, 1990).
72
The language of politics: Studies in quantitative se- mantics (New York, 1949).
73
Nathan C. Leites, The operational code of the Politburo (New York, 1951), xi, xiv.
74
Ibid., 13.
75
Ibid., 66.
76
Mr. X [George F. Kennan], "The sources of Soviet conduct," Foreign affairs, 25 (Jul 1947), 566–582.
Ernest May, American Cold War strategy: Interpreting NSC 68 (Boston, 1993).
John Lewis Gaddis, Strategies of containment: A critical appraisal of American national secu- rity policy (New York, 1982).
77
Atomic energy in the Soviet Union (Stanford, 1959).
78
Smith (ref. 7)
79
Robert J. Leonard, "War as a 'simple economic prob- lem': The rise of an economics of defense," in Craufurd D. Goodwin, ed., Economics and na- tional security: A history of their interaction, annual supplement to Volume 23, History of pol- itical economy (Durham, 1991).
80
David Loweel Hay, "Bomber businessmen: The Army Air Forces and the rise of statistical control" (Ph.D. diss., University of Nortre Dame, 1994) and John A. Byrne, The whiz kids: Ten founding fathers of American business and the legacy they left us (New York, 1993).
Jardini (ref. 11).
81
ref. 11
82
"The Ford Foundation evaluation of the New York City-RAND Institute and its research to date" (5 Nov 1971)
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