[Footnotes]

[Footnotes]
1
Gerald L. Geison, "Scientific change, emerging specialties, and research schools," His- tory of science, 19 (1981), 20–40
Russell H. Meier, The formation of a new interdisciplinary scientific specialty: The case of biophysics in the United States (Ph.D. dissertation, Southern Il- linois University, 1974).
2
A.V. Hill struggled to define biophysics in "Why biophysics," Science, 124 (21 Dec 1956), 1233–1237
Wallace O. Fenn, "Front seats for biologists," American Institute of Biological Sciences, Bulletin, 10:6 (1960), 13–14.
3
E.O. Lawrence to Ludwig Kast, 11 Nov 1933 (EOL, 2/29)
J.L. Heilbron and Robert W. Seidel, Lawrence and his laboratory: A history of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Vol. 1 (Berkeley, 1989), 219
Robert E. Kohler, Partners in science: Foundations and natural scien- tists 1900–1945 (Chicago, 1991), 371.
4
Heilbron and Seidel (ibid.), 389–395
J.H. Lawrence, "Some biological applications of neutrons and artificial radioactivity," Nature, 145 (1940), 125–127.
5
"UC scientists map new research plan," 1 Jul 1941
"UC science building started," 22 Jul 1941
"Donor of funds for UC science work revealed," 2 Aug 1941, UC press releases (Physics, 2/10)
Donner Laboratory of medical physics, biophysics, and nuclear medicine (Berkeley, 1961)
Tove Neville, "History of Donner Lab," Aug 1965 (JHL, 9/42)
Raymond T. Birge, History of the physics department, 4, 1966 (UC Berkeley, Physics Library), XVII:57–8.
6
Heilbron and Seidel (ref. 3), 230–233, 389—392
Birge (ref. 5), XII:5.
7
Heilbron and Seidel (ref. 3), 359–60.
8
J. Newell Stannard, Radioactivity and health: A history, Raymond W. Baalman, ed. (Springfield, VA, 1988), 299–311, 336–371.
9
J.G. Hamilton to W.B. Reynolds, 9 Mar 1943 (EOL, 5/8)
Hamilton, "A report of the past, present, and future research activities for Project 48-A-1," 1947 (EOL, 32/19).
10
C.A. Tobias, "Decompression sickness in actual flights," in J.E. Fulton, ed, Decompression sickness, caisson sickness, diver's and flier's bends and related syndromes (Philadelphia and London, 1951), 360–377
J.H. Lawrence et al., "A study of aero medical problems in a Liberator bomber at high altitude," Aviation medicine, 16 (1945), 286–310.
11
Tobias et al., "Studies on skin temperature and circulation in decompression sickness," American journal of physiology, 149 (1947), 627–633
12
J.H. Lawrence to W.J. Kerr, 27 Feb 1945 (JHL, 4/15)
Hamilton to J.W. Howland, 23 Apr 1946 (JHL, 4/31).
13
L. Russell to H. Coolidge (Met Lab), "Crocker personnel," 29 Jan 1945 (EOL, 5/10).
14
Robert W. Seidel, "Accelerating science: The postwar transformation of the Lawrence Radiation Laboratory," HSPS, 13:2 (1983), 375–400, on 384–385
Kenneth G. Scott, "Ra- dioisotope research in medicine," oral history transcript, Sally Smith Hughes, interviewer (TBL, Berkeley, 1986), 56.
15
University of California, General catalogue (1942–43).
16
"UC gives new medical physics course," UC press release, 15 Mar 1942 (Physics, 2/10).
17
"Inclosure for proposed course on Application of Nuclear Physics to Biological Sci- ence," n.d. (EOL, 2/29).
18
J.H. Lawrence to R.G. Sproul, 5 Jan 1943 (EOL, 2/29).
19
E.O. Lawrence to Sproul, 17 Jan 1944 (EOL, 2/29).
20
Birge to Sproul, 17 Jan 1944 (EOL, 2/29).
21
Birge (ref. 5), XI:26
"UC curriculum in Optometry, 1939–40" (Physics, 4/19).
22
A. Carl Helmholz, "Faculty governance and physics at the University of California, Berkeley, 1937–1990," oral history transcript, G. Hale and Ann Lage, interviewers (TBL, Berkeley, 1993), 117.
23
J.H. Lawrence to Sproul, 18 Jan 1944 (EOL, 2/29).
24
Sproul to Birge, 19 Jul 1944 (EOL, 2/29)
Robert M. Underhill to Birge, 26 Aug 1944 (Physics, 2/10)
Birge to Sproul, 11 Jan 1945 (Physics, 1/7)
J. Lawrence to Sproul, 9 Oct 1945 (EOL, 2/29)
"Announcements," Science, 103 (4 Jan 1946), 15.
25
J.H. Lawrence to E.O. Lawrence, 26 Sep 1945 (EOL, 2/29).
26
Birge to Sproul, 15 Dec 1945 (quote)
25 Nov 1946
11 Jan 1947
19 Jul 1949 (Physics, 1/7).
27
Paul Aebersold to E.O. Lawrence, 29 Aug 1944
Aebersold to J.H. Lawrence, 29 Oct 1945
J.H. Lawrence to Aebersold, 31 Oct 1945 (Physics, 4/7)
Richard G. Hewlett and Francis Duncan, Atomic shield, 1947–1952: A history of the United States Atomic Energy Commission, 2 (3 vols., University Park, 1969), 252–253.
28
"Tentative requirements for biophysics and medical physics degrees," n.d. (Physics, 2/10).
29
J.H. Lawrence to Sproul, three letters dated 11 Jan 1945 (Physics, 1/7)
Birge, vol. 5 (ref. 5), 56–76.
30
Birge to Sproul, 11 and 16 Jan 1947 (Physics, 1/7)
John Gofman, "Medical research and radiation politics," oral history transcript, Sally Smith Hughes, interviewer (TBL, Berke- ley, 1985), 42–60.
31
Ref. 15 for 1946–47 and 1947–48
"Course description for Medical Physics 125, 1946–47" (JHL, 4/34)
"Proposed course Physics 127 by Tobias for Fall 1947" (Physics, 2/10).
32
"Enrollment" (Physics, 2/17).
33
"Ph.D. degrees awarded in Biophysics 1945–60" (Physics, 2/10)
Birge, vol. 5 (ref. 5), 79, 81.
34
Maria M. Eakin, "Enrollment,"Verne Stadtman, ed., in The centennial record of the University of California (Berkeley, 1968), 211–212.
35
J.H. Lawrence to C. Nelson, 6 Sep 1945 (JHL, 4/18).
36
J.H. Lawrence to C. Gross [Lockheed Aircraft], 19 Jan 1945 (JHL, 4/16)
J.H. Lawrence to J.C. Hunsacker [NACA], 27 Jul 1945
G.W. Lewis to J.H. Lawrence, 30 Aug 1945 (JHL, 4/18)
K. Priestley to E.O. Lawrence, 2 Aug 1946 (EOL, 2/30).
37
Bill Dauben to J.H. Lawrence, 28 Jun 1946 (JHL, 4/28)
"UC men to aid atom bomb test," UC press release, 30 May 1946 (Physics, 2/10).
Hamilton to D. Cooksey, 29 Jun 1946 (EOL, 8/14)
38
Patricia W. Durbin, "Reminiscences of Crocker Laboratory," address to Health Physics Society, San Francisco, June 1976 (TBL), 12
Hamilton, "Report on Project 48-A-1 and the 60-inch cyclotron at Crocker for 1947," 25 Nov 1947 (EOL, 32/19)
Stannard (ref. 8), 312, 399–408.
39
Stuart M. Feffer, "Atoms, cancer, and politics: Supporting atomic science at the University of Chicago, 1944–1950," HSPS, 22:2 (1992), 233–261
Nicolas Rasmussen, "The midcentury biophysics bubble: Hiroshima and the biological revolution in America," History of science (in press).
40
"Cyclotron to convert to war against cancer," Los Angeles Times (3 Dec 1945), 1-2.
41
EOL, 2/29.
42
J.H. Lawrence, "Therapeutic use of artificial radioactivity," letter to the editor, Ameri- can Medical Association, Journal, 129:1 (1945), 91
"The use of isotopes in medical research," ibid., 134:3 (1947), 219–225, on 225.
43
Birge to Sproul, 22 Nov 1947 (Physics, 1/7)
Hamilton to J.H. Lawrence, 18 Jan 1947 (EOL, 8/15)
J.H. Lawrence to Sproul, 13 Jun 1947 (JHL, 5/20).
44
"Minutes, Cancer Research Committee," 22 Sep 1947 (JHL, 5/22)
Sproul to Birge, 3 Nov 1947 (Physics, 4/4)
"Application for cancer funds," for 1948–49 ($82,289), 1950–51 ($56,510), 1952–3 ($48,700), 1953–4 ($54,846), all in (Physics, 1/33).
45
J.H. Lawrence to Birge, 11 Nov 1947 (JHL, 5/5)
Birge to Sproul, 22 Nov 1947 (Phy- sics, 1/7).
46
Lawrence to Luis Alvarez, 9 Jan 1947 (JHL, 5/4)
Lawrence to Birge, 23 Jul 1948 (JHL, 5/25)
Tobias to Lawrence, 16 Jan 1948 (JHL, 6/4)
Birge, vol. 5 (ref. 5), 69–72
Shields Warren to E.O. Lawrence, 22 Aug 1957 (EOL, 8/24).
47
Birge to Sproul, 11 and 16 Jan 1947 (Physics, 1/7).
Gofman (ref. 30), 60–62
48
Gofman to J.H. Lawrence, 8 Jul 1949 (JHL, 6/7)
Gofman (ref. 30), 98.
49
"Atomic medicine: The great search for cures on a new frontier," Time (7 Apr 1952), 64–66.
50
Roger L. Geiger, Research and relevant knowledge: American research universities since World War II (New York and Oxford, 1993), 73–82.
51
Russell H. Fitzgibbon, The Academic Senate of the University of California (Berkeley, 1968), 64–70, on 64–65
Arthur E. Hutson, "Faculty government," in Stadtman (ref. 34), 288–291.
52
Martin D. Kamen, Radiant science, dark politics: A memoir of the nuclear age (Berke- ley, 1985), 73
Heilbron and Seidel (ref. 3), 237–239
Feffer (ref. 39), 252.
53
J.H. Lawrence, "Early experiences in nuclear medicine," Northwest medicine, 55 (1956), 527–533.
54
Heilbron and Seidel (ref. 3), 456–464.
55
Sproul to Birge, 19 Jun 1948 (Physics, 1/7)
Birge to Sproul, 20 Jul 1949 (Physics, 1/10).
56
L. Van Middlesworth to Hamilton, 17 May 1947 (EOL, 8/14).
57
University of California Academic Senate, Record, 1:7 (1955), iii
Fitzgibbon (ref. 51), 64.
58
W.B. Reynolds to Clark Kerr, 22 Apr 1954 (Chancellor, 44/59)
K.S. Pitzer to Kerr, 28 Jun 1955 (Chancellor, 21/44).
59
Birge to [Dean] A.R. Davis, 12 Jul 1950 (Physics, 1/11).
60
Birge to Sproul, "Non-academic employees" and "Expense and equipment," 22 Nov 1947 (Physics, 1/7).
61
"Report of Committee on Courses" to Birge, 18 Mar 1949 (EOL, 20/6).
62
Birge to Sproul, 22 Nov 1947 (Physics, 1/7).
63
Ibid.
Helmholz (ref. 22), 117-8.
64
"Draft of item for Budget Committee minutes," circa 1948 (Physics, 1/8).
65
Birge, vol. 4 (ref. 5), XIII:5
Helmholz (ref. 22), 115.
66
H. Poillon to E.O. Lawrence, 25 Feb 1936
Heilbron and Seidel (ref. 3), 391.
67
Fitzgibbon (ref. 51), 36–37
Hutson (ref. 51), 290.
68
"Preliminary report on the committee appointed to study administrative organization of Medical Physics," 10 May 1944 (EOL, 2/29).
69
Birge, vol. 4 (ref. 5), XVII:53.
70
J.H. Lawrence, "Note to be attached to preliminary report...," 23 May 1944 (EOL, 2/29)
Birge to Sproul, 10 Jul 1944 (EOL, 2/29).
71
J.H. Lawrence, "The use of isotopes in medical research," American Medical Associa- tion, Journal, 134 (1947), 219–225
Tobias, Anger, and J. Lawrence, "Radiological use of high energy deuterons and alpha particles," American journal of roentgenology, radium thera- py, and nuclear medicine"67 (1952), 1–27
Birge, vol. 4 (ref. 5), XVII:67–77.
72
J.H. Lawrence to Sproul, 6 Mar 1947 (JHL, 5/20)
73
M.E. Deutsch to Birge, 26 Mar 1947 (Physics, 2/10).
74
Patricia W. Durbin, "Plutonium in man: A twenty-five year review," LBL report UCRL-20850 (June 1971)
Stannard (ref. 8), 350–355
Scott (ref. 14), 44–49.
Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments, Final report (Washington, DC, 1995), 249-252, 256–258.
75
Sproul to J.H. Lawrence, 23 Oct 1946
Lawrence to Sproul, 20 Nov 1946 (JHL, 9/39).
J.H. Lawrence to Sproul, 1 Mar 1947
"Chart showing use of radioactive isotopes in the University," 1 Jul 1949 (JHL, 9/39)
J.H. Lawrence to Sproul, 1 Mar 1947
Committee for the Safe Use of Radioisotopes to Sproul, 21 May 1948
E.O. Lawrence to A.P. Pollman (AEC), 14 May 1947 (JHL, 9/39).
76
H. Jones to J.H. Lawrence, 11 and 16 Apr 1947
Lawrence to J.M.D. Olmsted, 5 Apr 1947 (JHL, 5/22)
Jones to Sproul, 18 Feb 1947 (EOL, 20/17).
77
"Report of the Committee to Consider the Proposed Memorial," 22 Apr 1947 (JHL, 5/22).
78
Gofman to Lawrence, 23 Apr and 8 Jul 1949
Lawrence to Birge, 14 Nov 1949 (JHL, 6/7).
79
Birge, vol. 4 (ref. 5), XVII: 56–57
Gofman (ref. 30), 63–72.
80
D.M. Greenberg, "The program of cancer research in the University," n.d. [circa mid- 1947] (JHL, 5/22).
81
C.H. Kempe et al., "The lipoproteins of serum in infancy and childhood," Journal of pediatrics, 40 (1952), 11–23
J.H. Lawrence et al., "Chronic lymphatic leukemia: A study of 100 patients treated with radioactive phosphorous," AMA, Journal, 140 (1949), 585–588
Lawrence et al., "The physiology and treatment of polycthemia studies on 260 patients," UCRL-2001 (10 Nov 1952)
W. Garrison and Hamilton, "Production and isolation of carrier- free radioisotopes," Chemical reviews, 49 (1951), 237–272
Lawrence to Kerr, 8 Jan and 10 Dec 1947
M.P. Mellars, 13 Nov 1946 (JHL, 5/14)
Lawrence to V.O. Knudson, 26 Jun 1946 (JHL, 4/32).
82
Barton C. Hacker, The dragon's tail: Radiation safety in the Manhattan Project, 1942- 1946 (Berkeley, 1987), 29–30
Richard G. Hewlett and Oscar E. Anderson, Jr., The new world: A history of the United States Atomic Energy Commission, 1 (3 vols., Berkeley, 1990), 206– 207
Stone, ed., Industrial medicine on the Plutonium Project (New York, 1951).
83
Stone to N. Hilberry, 6 Dec 1945 (EOL, 8/14)
"UC scientists turn cyclotron to medical use again," San Francisco Chronicle (2 Dec 1945), 10.
84
Stone, "Neutron therapy and specific ionization," American journal of roentgenology and radium therapy, 59 (1948), 771–785
Tobias, Anger, and Lawrence (ref. 71)
Gofman (ref. 30), 63–72.
85
Scott (ref. 14), 61.
86
Hamilton to C.H. Copp, 1 Dec 1950 (EOL, 8/17).
87
Advisory Committee on Inter-Campus Medical Teaching and Research to Sproul, 11 Mar 1952 (Physics, 2/10)
"Revised memorandum of agreement concerning operation of the proposed Cowell Metabolic Unit" to Sproul, 19 Jan 1949 (EOL, 8/16).
88
"Donner Lab," report to UC president, Nov 1962 (JHL, 9/42).
89
University of California Medical Center, San Francisco, Announcement (1951–1952), 82–83
William E. Siri, "Biophysical research at Donner Laboratory, 1945–1975," oral history transcript, Sally Smith Hughes, interviewer (TBL, Berkeley, 1987), 94–106.
90
Tobias to Committee on Academic Planning, 2 May 1966 (HBJ, box 11/folder "To- bias").
91
Hamilton to Morris Stewart, 8 May 1956, and to Lincoln Constance, 23 May 1956 (EOL, 8/23).
92
Birge to A.R. Davis, 15 Jun 1954 (Physics, 1/18).
93
Stewart to Hamilton, 18 May 1956
Constance to Hamilton, 28 May 1956 (EOL, 8/23).
"Biology and Physics" starting in 1954
Ref. 15 for 1954–1955.
94
Eakin (ref. 34), 222–224
"Enrollment" (Physics, 2/17)
Birge to Davis, 19 Jan 1953 (Physics, 1/13).
95
University of California Academic Senate, Record, 1:5 (1955), iv
A.C. Helmholz to G. Seaborg, 18 Mar 1959 (Physics, 1/29)
Geiger (ref. 50), 218–221, 225.
96
Stewart to Hamilton, 18 Jun 1956 (EOL, 8/23).
97
Hamilton to Stewart, 25 Jun and 10 Aug 1956 (EOL, 8/23).
98
"Report of the advisors in biophysics," 23 May 1960 (Physics, 2/10).
"Report of the Executive Committee to the membership of the Group in Biophysics and the Groups in Medical Physics and Bioradiology," 5 May 1960 (Physics, 2/10).
99
Gofman et al., "Atherosclerosis, lipoproteins, and coronary artery disease," Wisconsin medical journal (1952), 1–3
Gofman, "Diet and lipotrophic agents in atherosclerosis," New York Academy of Medicine, Bulletin, 28 (1952), 279–293.
100
Committee on Educational Policy to Vice Chancellor R.G. Bressler, 31 May 1963 (Chancellor, 75/33)
Stadtman (ref. 34), 80–81, 86, 92, 97–98.
101
Geiger (ref. 50), 47–58, 73–82.
Wendell M. Stanley to Lawrence, 11 Nov 1947 (WMS, 2/35)
Lawrence to Stanley, 20 Nov 1947 (WMS, 10/"Lawrence, J.H.")
Stanley to R.J. Evans, 23 Mar 1948 (WMS, 2/39)
Stanley to Sproul, 17 Aug 1948 (WMS, 2/44)
Angela N.H. Creager, "Wendell Stanley's dream of a free- standing Department of Biochemistry at the University of California, Berkeley," Journal of the history of biology, 29 (1996), 331–360.
102
A.C. Helmholz to Clark Kerr, 9 Mar 1957 (Physics, 1/21)
Helmholz (ref. 22), 118.
103
Lincoln Constance to [Chancellor] Glenn Seaborg, 17 Dec 1959 (Chancellor, 38/24).
Academic Advisory Committee, "Medical physics: Origin and development," 23 Dec 1959 (Chancellor, 38/24).
104
Academic Advisory Committee, minutes, 29 Jan 1960 (Chancellor, 38/24).
105
Academic Advisory Committee, minutes, 8 Feb 1961 (Chancellor, 38/24).
106
J.H. Lawrence to Jones, Tobias, and Gofman, 16 and 17 Mar 1960 (HBJ, box 6/folder "Lawrence, John H.").
107
Seaborg to Academic Advisory Committee, 8 Feb 1961 (Chancellor, 38/24).
108
Constance to [Chancellor] E.W. Strong, 28 Jun 1961 (Chancellor, 38/24).
109
Strong to Robley Williams, 5 Apr 1962
Strong to Kerr, 15 May 1962
"Report of Committee to plan the scope and alternatives of a new department concerned with relating biology and physical sciences," 22 Oct 1962 (all in Chancellor, 44/75)
Committee on Budget and Interdepartmental Relations to R.G. Bressler, 1 Apr 1963
Committee on Educational Policy to Bressler, 31 May 1963 (Chancellor, 75/33).
110
UC press release, 30 Jun 1962 (JHL, 9/42).
111
Gofman (ref. 30), 107–108
Herbert Childs, An American genius: The life of Ernest Orlando Lawrence (New York, 1968), 532.
112
Melvin Calvin, "Chemistry and chemical biodynamics at Berkeley, 1937–1980," oral history transcript, Arthur Norberg, interviewer (TBL, Berkeley, 1984), 199.
R.A. Connick conference with [Dean] W.B. Fretter, 2 Feb 1966 (Chancellor, 76/4)
Gofman (ref. 30)
113
Tobias, "History of the Medical Physics Division," Aug 1965 (JHL, 9/43).
114
Tobias to Committee (ref. 90)
Comments of Academic Planning Committee re Medi- cal Physics, in Tobias to members of Medical Physics Division, 16 Jan 1968 (HBJ, box 11/folder "Tobias").
115
Tobias to members (ibid.).
116
ibid.
117
Ibid.
118
Ibid.
Helmholz (ref. 22), 119.
119
Birge to Davis, 12 Jun 1954 (Physics 1/8)
Helmholz to G. Seaborg, 18 Mar 1959 (Physics, 1/29).
120
"Report of the Review Committee for the Division of Medical Physics," in R.K. Mor- timer to Jones, 5 May 1976 (HBJ, carton 1/folder "Division of Medical Physics").
121
Gofman (ref. 30), 109–114
Siri (ref. 89), 94–106.
122
Gofman (ref. 30), 148
Hacker, Elements of controversy: The Atomic Energy Commis- sion and radiation safety in nuclear weapons testing, 1947–1974 (Berkeley, 1994), 253–254.
123
Birge to Sproul (ref. 62)
"Draft" (ref. 64).
124
Ref. 120
Mortimer to Medical Physics faculty, 19 June 1974 (HBJ, carton 2/folder "Group in Biophysics and Medical Physics").
125
Ref. 120.
126
Stadtman (ref. 34), 206–207
ref. 15, for years 1968–9, 1981–2, 1991–-2.
127
Pnina Abir-Am, 'Themes, genres, and orders of legitimation in the consolidation of new scientific disciplines: Deconstructing the historiography of molecular biology," History of science, 23 (1985), 73–117
Evelyn Fox Keller, "Physics and the emergence of molecular biol- ogy: A history of cognitive and political synergy," Journal of the history of biology, 23:3 (1990), 389–409
E.J. Yoxen, "Where does Schroedinger's What is life? belong in the history of molecular biology?" History of science, 17 (1979), 17–52
Donald Fleming, "Emigré physi- cists and the biological revolution," Perspectives in American history, 2 (1968), 152–189
Max Delbriick, "A physicist looks at biology," in John Cairns, Gunther Stent, and James D. Wat- son, eds., Phage and the origins of molecular biology (Cold Spring Harbor, 1992), 9–22.
128
Robert E. Kohler, "Medical reform and biomedical science: Biochemistry—a case study," in Morris J. Vogel and Charles E. Rosenberg, eds., The therapeutic revolution: Essays in the social history of American medicine (Philadelphia, 1979), 27–66
From medical chemistry to biochemistry (Cambridge, 1982), 158–193.
129
Alfred D. Chandler, Strategy and structure: Chapters in the history of the industrial enterprise (Cambridge, 1962), 13–17, on 14.
130
Geiger (ref. 50), 73–82.
131.
Rosenberg, "Toward an ecology of knowledge: On discipline, context, and history,' in Alexandra Oleson and John Voss, eds., The organization of knowledge in modern America 1860-1920 (Baltimore, 1979), 440–455, on 442.
132
Rasmussen (ref. 39)
Feffer (ref. 39)
Hacker (ref. 82), 49–52, 128–153
Stadtman (ref. 34), 92
Creager (ref. 101).
133
Larry Randies Lagerstrom, "Metaphors of origins: A preliminary report on the cen- tripetal emergence of biophysics," unpublished paper, Berkeley, Oct 1992.
Tobias to Committee on Academic Planning, 2 May 1966 (HBJ, Box 11/"Tobias").
134
Siri (ref. 89), 33.
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