[Footnotes]

[Footnotes]
1
Agnes Ullman, "Being around," in André Lwoff and Agnes Ullman, eds., Origins of molecular biology: A tribute to Jacques Monod (New York, 1979), 167.
The eighth day of crea- tion: The makers of the revolution in biology (New York, 1979).
2
Robert L. Baldwin, in Lwoff and Ullman, eds. (ref. 1), 203.
3
Henri Buc, "Mother nature and the design of a regulatory enzyme," in Lwoff and Ull- man, eds. (ref. 1), 218.
4
David Gooding, Experiment and the making of meaning: Human agency in scientific ob- servation and experiment (Boston, 1990).
5
Claire Salomon-Bayet, Pasteur et la revolution pastorienne (Paris, 1986).
6
Robert Kohler, "Systems of production: Drosophila, Neu- rospora, and biochemical genetics," HSPS, 22:1 (1991), 87–130
Hans-Jorg Rheinberger, "Ex- periment, difference, and writing: I. Tracing protein synthesis, II. The laboratory production of transfer RNA," Studies in history and philosophy of science, 23 (1992), 305-331, and 389- 422
Jean-Paul Gaudilliere, "Wie man Labormodelle fur Krebsentstehung konstruiert," in Ob- jeckte, Differenzen, Konjonkturen: Experimentalsysteme im historischen Kontext, eds. Michael Hagner, Hans-Jorg Rheinberger, and Bettina Wahrig-Schmidt (Berlin, 1994), 233–255.
Steven Shapin and Simon Schaffer, Leviathan and the air pump: Hobbes, Boyle, and the experimental life (Princeton, 1985)
David Gooding, Trevor Pinch, and Simon Schaffer, The uses of experiment: Studies in the natural sciences (Cambridge, 1988)
Adele Clarke and Joan Fujimura, eds., The right tools for the job: At work in twentieth-century sciences (Princeton, 1992).
Frederic L. Holmes, "Do we understand historically how experimental knowledge is acquired?," History of science, 30 (1992), 119–136.
7
Frederic Lawrence Holmes, Claude Bernard and animal chemistry: The emergence of a scientist (Cambridge, 1974)
Lavoisier and the chemistry of life: An exploration of scientific creativity (Madison, 1985)
Hans Krebs, vol. I, The formation of a scientific life, 1900–1933
vol. II: Architect of intermediary metabolism, 1933–1937 (New York, 1991, 1993).
Grmek, Raisonnement experimental et recherches toxicologiques chez Claude Bernard (Geneva, 1973).
David Gooding (ref. 4).
Gerald Geison's The private science of Louis Pasteur (Princeton, 1995)
8
Peter Medawar, The art of the soluble (London, 1967), 151.
9
Susan Leigh Star and James R. Griesemer, 4'Institutional ecology, 'translations' and boundary objects: Amateurs and professionals in Berkeley's Museum of Vertebrate Zoology." Social studies of science, 19 (1989), 387–420.
liana Lowy, "The strength of loose concepts—boundary concepts, federative experimental strategies and disciplinary growth: The case of immunology," History of science, 30 (1992), 371–396.
11
Jean-Paul Gaudilliere, "How biochemical regulation held: The practice and rhetoric of the Pajama experiment," paper presented at the ISHPSSB meeting, Leuven, July 1995.
"The Pajama experiment," in Lwoff and Ullman, eds. (ref. 1), 109–116.
12
Pardee on 2 Sep 1959
13
M. Rachmeler, J. Gerhart, and J. Rosner, "Limited thymidine uptake in E. coli due to an inducible thymidine phosphorylase," Biochimi- ca et Biophysica Acta, 49 (1961), 222–225.
15
Enzymes: Units of biological structure and function, Henry Ford Hospital International Symposium, ed. Oliver H. Gaebler (New York, 1956)
Ciba Foundation Symposium on the Regulation of Cell Metabolism, eds. G.E.W. Wolstenholme and Cecilia M. O'Connor (London, 1959).
Nicholas Mullins, "The development of a scientific specialty: The phage group and the origins of molecular biology," Minerva, 10 (1976), 51–82.
17
Davis to Monod, 1 Oct 1957, Fonds Monod, Archives de VInstitut Pasteur.
18
Robert E. Kohler, "Robert Schoenheimer, Isotopic tracers, and biochemistry in the 1930s," HSPS, 8 (1977), 257–298.
Lily E. Kay, "Selling pure science in wartime: The biochemical genetics of G.W. Beadle," JHB, 22 (1989), 73–101
Kohler (ref. 6).
19
Michel Morange, His- toire de la biologie moleculaire (Paris, 1994).
John Cairns, Gunther S. Stent, and James D. Watson, eds., Phage and the origins of molecular biology (Cold Spring Harbor, NY, 1966).
"The life cycles: The regulation of in- termediary metabolism," unpublished mss.
20
Aaron Novick and Leo Szilard ("Experiments with the chemostat on the rates of amino acid synthesis in bacteria," Dynamics of growth processes (Princeton, 1954), 21–32)
Philip Abelson and coworkers at Carnegie Institute (R.B. Roberts, D.B. Cowie, P.H. Abelson, E.T. Bolton, and R.J. Britten, "Studies of biosynthesis in Escherichia coli," Carnegie Institution of Washington, publication 607, 1955).
21
H.E. Umbarger. "Evidence for a negative-feedback mechanism in the biosynthesis of isoleucine," Science, 123 (1956), 848.
H.E. Umbarger, B. Brown, E.J. Eyring. "Acetolactate, an early intermediate in valine biosynthesis." Journal of the American Chemical Society, 79 (1957), 2980–2981.
22
Richard A. Yates and Arthur B. Pardee, "Control of pyrimidine biosynthesis in Escheri- chia coli by a feed-back mechanism," JBC, 221 (1956), 757–770.
23
"Cellular regulatory mechanisms," CSHSQB, 26(1961), 1–10.
25
Norbert Wiener, Cybernetics: Or control and communication in the animal and the machine (Cambridge, 1948, 1961).
Evelyn Fox Keller, "The body of a new machine: Situating the organism between telegraphs and computers," Perspectives on sci- ence, 2 (1994), 302–323.
Lily E. Kay, "Who wrote the book of life? Information and the transfor- mation of molecular biology, 1945–55," Science in context, 8 (1995), 609–34.
26
Sir Hans Krebs, "Chairman's introductory address: Rate-limiting factors in cell respira- tion," Ciba Foundation (ref. 15), 2.
27
Luigi Gorini's article of 1958, "Regulation en retour (feedback control) de la synthese de Targinine chez Escherichia coli,"
L. Gorini, BSCB, 40 (1958), 1939.
28
Umbarger and Barbara Brown, "Isoleucine and valine metabolism in Escherichia coli, VII. A negative feed- back mechanism controlling isoleucine biosynthesis," Journal of bacteriology, 233 (1958), 415–420.
29
Arthur Pardee, "Mechanisms for control of enzyme synthesis and enzyme activity in bacteria," Ciba Foundation (ref. 15), 295–304, on 298.
30
Jean-Paul Gaudilliere, "J. Monod, S. Spiegelman et l'adaptation enzymatique. Pro- grammes de recherche, cultures locales et traditions disciplinaires." History and philosophy of the life sciences, 14 (1992), 23–71.
31
Bruno Latour, "Give me a laboratory and I will raise the world," in Karin D. Knorr-Cetina and Michael Mulkay, eds., Science observed: Perspectives on the social study of science (Beverly Hills, 1983), 141–170
Science in action (Cambridge, 1987).
Pnina G. Abir-Am, "From multi-disciplinary collaboration to transnational objectivity: International space as constitutive of molecular biology," in E. Crawford, T. Shinn, and S. Sorlin, eds., Denationalizing science: The contexts of international scientific practice (Dor- drecht, 1992–93), 153–186.
32
Richard M. Burian, Jean Gayon, and Doris Zallen, "The singular fate of genetics in the history of French biology, 1900–1940," JHB, 21 (1988), 357–402
Richard M. Burian and Jean Gayon, "Un éolutionniste bernardien à l'Institut Pasteur? Morphologie des ciliés et évolution physiologique dans l'oevre d'André Lwoff," in Michel Morange, ed., L'lnstitut Pasteur (Paris, 1991), 165–185
Jean-Paul Gaudilliere, "Molecular biology in the French tradition? Redefining local traditions and disciplinary patterns,' JHB, 26 (1993), 473–498.
33
Henning Karstrom, Uber die Enzymbildung in Bakterien und iiber einige physiologische Eigenschaften der untersuchten Bakterienarten (Helsinki, 1930).
F. Dienert (c. 1900).
Thomas D. Brock, The emergence of bacterial genetics (Cold Spring Harbor, New York, 1990), 267 fif.
34
Gaudilliere (ref. 30).
35
Gaudilliere (ref. 30).
36
Judson (ref. 1).
37
Jean-Francois Picard. La Ripublique des Savants: la Recherche Francaise et le CNRS (Paris, 1990).
38
Robert Gilpin, La science et VEtat en France (Paris, 1970).
39
Pierre Piganiol and Louis Villecourt, Pour une politique scientifique (Paris, 1963).
40
Jean-Paul Gaudillière, "Chimie biologique ou biologie motéculaire: La biochimie au CNRS dans les années soixante," Cahiers pour l'Histoire du CNRS, 7 (1990), 91–147.
41
Jean-Pierre Changeux, "A Ph.D. with Jacques Monod: Prehistory of allosteric pro- teins," in Lwoff and Ullman, eds. (ref. 1), 194.
Jean-Pierre Changeux, "Allosteric proteins: From regulatory enzymes to receptors; Personal recollections," BioEssays, 15 (1993), 625–634
42
Henry Ford Hospital in Detroit, 1–3 Nov 1955
ref. 15
H.E. Umbarger, "The origin of a useful concept- Feedback inhibition," Protein science, 1 (1992), 1392–1395, on 1394.
43
Monod to Umbarger, 16 June 1959, Fonds Monod, Archives de l'Institut Pasteur.
44
Jean-Pierre Changeux, Cahiers, Volume III.
46
Jean-Pierre Changeux, Cahiers, Vol. I (henceforth as Cahier I), 20–25.
47
Changeux, Cahier I, 30
48
Changeux, Cahier I, 32–33.
49
Changeux, Cahier III, 43–44. No date, presumably late 1959.
50
Changeux, 1993 (ref. 41), 626.
52
Changeux, Cahier I, 88–99.
53
Changeux, Cahier I, 99.
54
Umbarger and Brown (ref. 28).
55
Changeux, Cahier II, 18.
56
Ibid., 30–45.
57
Ibid., 57.
58
Ibid., 57–76.
59
Ibid., 77.
60
Ibid., 84.
61
Ibid., 89.
62
Ibid., 82.
63
Changeux, 1993 (ref. 41), 627.
64
Jean-Paul Changeux. "The feedback control mechanism of biosynthetic L-threonine deaminase by L-isoleucine," CSHSQB, 26 (1961), 313–318, on 314–315.
65
Changeux, 1993 (ref. 40), 627.
66
Changeux (ref. 64), 317.
67
Changeux, 1993 (ref. 41), 627.
70
Jacques Monod to Roger Stanier, 18 Feb 1958, Fonds Monod, Archives de Hnstitut Pasteur.
71
Howard Schachman, 1977
Horace Judson, The eighth day of creation (ref. 1), 404
72
On Stanley's crystallization of TMV in 1935
Lily E. Kay, "W. M. Stanley's crystalli- zation of the tobacco mosaic virus," Isis, 77 (1986), 450–472.
Berkeley, Angela N.H. Creager, "Wendell Stanley and the dream of a free-standing Department of Biochemistry at U.C. Berkeley," JHB, 29 (1996), 331–360.
73
H.K. Schachman, A.B. Pardee, and R.Y. Stanier, "Studies on the macromolecular or- ganization of microbial cells," Archives of biochemistry and biophysics, 38 (1952), 245–260.
Pardee, Schachman, and Stanier, "Chromatophores of Rhodospirillum rubrum" Nature, 169 (1952), 282–284.
74
J. Monod, M. Cohn, M.R. Pollock, S. Spiegelman, and R.Y. Stanier, "Terminol- ogy of enzyme formation," Nature, 172 (1953), 1096.
75
Richard A. Yates and Pardee, JBC, 221 (1956), 743–56.
E. H. Wormser and Pardee, "Regulation of threonine biosyn- thesis in E. coli," Archives of biochemistry and biophysics, 78 (1958), 416–432.
76
Yates and Pardee (ref. 22).
77
Ciba Foundation Symposium (ref. 15), 309–310).
78
Yates and Pardee, "Control by uracil of formation of enzymes required for orotate syn- thesis," JBC, 227 (1957), 677–692.
79
M. Riley, A.B. Pardee, F. Jacob, and J. Monod, "On the expression of a structural gene," JMB, 2 (1960), 216–225
A.C. Willson and A.B. Pardee, "Regulation of flavin syn- thesis by E. coli" Journal of general microbiology, 28 (1962), 283–303.
80
Margaret Shepherdson and Pardee, "Production and crystallization of aspartate transcar- bamylase," JBC, 235 (1960), 3233–3237.
82
John Gerhart, Notebook, 23 Sep 1960.
83
Gerhart, Notebook, 23 Sep 1960.
84
Gerhart, Notebook, 26 Sep 1960.
85
Ibid.
86
Gerhart, Notebook, 12 Oct 1960.
87
Gerhart, Notebook, 7 Dec 1960.
88
Gerhart, Notebook, 15 Dec 1960.
89
Gerhart, Notebook, 20 Dec 1960.
90
Gerhart, personal communication, 19 Oct 1995.
91
Gerhart, Notebook, "Notes" following experiment, 20 Dec 1960.
92
Gerhart and Pardee, "Separation of feedback inhibition from activity of aspartate tran- scarbamylase (ATCase)," Fed. Proc, 20 (1961), 224.
93
Gerhart, Notebook, 22 Mar 1961
94
Pardee to author, October 3, 1995.
95
Gerhart, Notebook, 24 Mar 1961.
96
Gerhart, Notebook, "List of ATCase Inhibitors," Mar 1961.
97
Gerhart, Notebook, 30 Mar 1961.
98
Gerhart, Notebook, 4 Apr 1961.
99
Gerhart, Notebook, 10 May 1961.
100
J.P. Changeux, "Effet des Analogues de la L-thréomine et de la L-isoleucine sur la L- Thréonine Déaminase." JMB, 4 (1962), 220-225.
101
Changeux, "Allosteric interactions on biosynthetic L-threonine deaminase from E. coli K12." CSHSQB, 28 (1963), 497–504.
Changeux (ref. 41), 1993, 628.
102
Gerhart and Pardee, "The enzymology of control by feedback inhibition," JBC, 237 (Mar 1962), 891–896.
103
Gerhart and Pardee (ref. 102), 893.
104
Gerhart and Pardee (ref. 102), 895.
107
Gerhart and Pardee (ref. 102), 893.
108
Changeux, 1993 (ref. 41), 628.
Gerhart and Pardee (ref. 102), 892.
109
Gerhart and Pardee (ref. 102), 895–896.
110
John Gerhart, The enzymology of feedback inhibition (Ph.D. dissertation, University of California, Berkeley, 1962).
111
Nathaniel C. Comfort, "Arc of a paradigm, The Cold Spring Harbor Symposium on Quantitative Biology, 1933–1953,"
Joint Atlantic Seminar in the History of Biology, 25 Mar 1995, Cold Spring Harbor, NY.
112
Jacques Monod and Francois Jacob, "General conclusions: Teleonomic mechanisms in cellular metabolism, growth, and differentiation," CSHSQB, 26, 389–401.
"On the regulation of gene activity," 193–212.
113
Ibid., 391.
114
Ibid.
116
Novick and Szilard (ref. 20).
117
Umbarger, "Discussion" (ref. 23), 401.
118
(ref. 112), 391.
D.E. Koshland, Jr., "Enzyme flexibili- ty and enzyme action," JCCP, 54 (1959), 245–258.
Monod's paper of 1963, "Allosteric pro- teins and cellular control systems"
footnote 126
National Academy of Science, Proceedings, 44 (1958), 98–104
"The active site and enzyme action," Advances in enzymology, 22 (1960), 45–97
"Catalysis in life and in the test tube," Horizons in biochemistry (New York, 1962), 265.
119
Monod and Jacob (ref. 112), 396.
120
Ibid., 393.
121
Changeux, 1963 (ref. 101).
123
Monod to Pardee, 8 May 1962, Fonds Monod, Archives de l'Institut Pasteur.
124
Pardee to Monod, 12 May 1962, Fonds Monod, Archives de l'Institut Pasteur.
125
Monod and Jacob (ref. 112).
126
Monod, Changeux and Jacob, "Allosteric proteins and cellular control systems," JMB, 6 (1963), 306–329.
128
Monod, Changeux, and Jacob (ref. 126), 306
129
(ref. 112), 318.
ATCase (ref. 109), 65–70.
130
Monod, Changeux, and Jacob (ref. 126), 322.
131
Ibid.
132
John T. Edsall, "Hemo- globin and the origins of the concept of allosterism," Fed. Proc, 39 (1980), 226–235.
Soraya de Chadarevian, "Following molecules: molecular biology and medicine, 1950s–60s" in Molecularising biology and medicine, Soraya de Chadarevian and Harmke Kamminga, eds. (Harvard University Press, forthcoming).
Textbook of physiology and biochemistry by George H. Bell, J. Norman Davidson, and Harold Scarborough (Baltimore, 1959), 563.
133
Lily E. Kay, The molecular vision of life: Caltech, The Rockefeller Foundation, and the rise of the new biology (New York, 1993), chapt. 5
Daniel J. Kevles, "Blood, big science, and biochemistry," in In the name of eugenics: Genetics and the uses of human heredity (Cambridge, MA:, 1985, 1995), chapt 15.
134
Soraya de Chadarevian, "Sequences, conformation, information: Biochemists and molecular biologists in the 1950s," JHB, 29 (1996), 361–386.
135
M.F. Perutz, M.G. Rossman, Ann F. Cullis, Hilary Muirhead, Georg Will, and C.T. North, "Structure of haemoglobin: A three-dimensional Fourier synthesis at 5.5 A resolution, obtained by x-ray analysis," Nature, 185 (1960), 416–422
M.F. Perutz, "The hemoglobin molecule," Scientific American, 211 (1963), 64–76.
136
Jean-Paul Gaudilliere, "Biochimistes et biomldecine dans l'apres-guerre: Deux itin&aires entre laboratoire et hdpital," Sciences Sociales et Sante, 10 (1992), 107–147
idem., "Molecular biologists, biochemists and messenger RNA: The making of a scientific network," JHB, 29 (1996), 417–445.
137
DGRST, "Comtes-Rendu du Sdminaire de Biologie Moteculaire, by Max Perutz, Structure of Proteins, 18 Mai 1962."
138
M.F. Perutz et al. (ref. 135), 421.
139
H. Muirhead, M.F. Perutz, "Structure of human reduced hemoglobin," CSHSQB, 28 (1963), 455.
140
Changeux, 1993 (ref. 41).
141
Monod, Changeux, and Jacob (ref. 126), 322.
142
John V. Kilmartin, "Interac- tion of haemoglobin with protons, CO2, and 2, 3-diphosphoglycerate," British medical bulletin, 32 (1976), 209–212.
143
The eighth day of creation (ref. 1), 603.
144
Gerhart's thesis of 1962
(ref. 110), 55–58.
145
Gerhart and Pardee, "The effect of the feedback inhibitor, CTP, on subunit interac- tions in aspartate transcarbamoylase" CSHSQB, 28 (1963), 491–496.
Cold Spring Harbor meeting in 1963, entitled "Synthesis and structure of macromolecules,"
Gerhart and Pardee, "Aspartate transcarbamylase, an enzyme designed for feedback inhibition," Fed. Proc, 23
146
John Gerhart, 24 Jul 1992.
148
CA. Dekker and H.K. Schachman, "On the macromolecular structure of deoxyribonu- cleic acid: An interrupted two-strand model," National Academy of Sciences, Proceedings, 40 (1954), 894–908.
149
For the love of en- zymes: The odyssey of a biochemist (Cambridge, MA, 1989).
151
H.K. Schachman, Ultracentrifugation in biochemistry (New York, 1959)
ibid., "The ultracentrifuge: Problems and prospects," Biochemistry, 2 (1963), 887–905.
152
Schachman, Ultracentrifugation (ref. 151), 1.
153
Gerhart and Schachman, "Distinct subunits for the regulation and catalytic activity of aspartate transcarbamylase," Biochemistry, 4 (1965), 1054–1062.
154
Gerhart and Schachman (ref. 153), 1061–1062.
156
F.H.C. Crick and L.E. Orgel, 'The theory of inter-allelic complementation," JMB, 8 (1964) , 161–165.
David Perrin, "Complementation between products of ß- galactosidase structural gene of Escherichia coli" CSHSQB, 28 (1963), 529–532.
157
Agnes Ullman, "Being around," in Lwoff and Ullman, eds. (ref. 1), 167.
158
Changeux, 1963 (ref. 101).
159
"I.—Méthodes d'étude de la L-thréonine désaminase de biosynthèse," BSCB, 46 (1964), 927– 945
"II.—Cinétiques d'action de la L-thréonine désaminase de biosynthese vis-a-vis du sub- strat et de rinhibiteur naturels," BSCB, 46 (1964), 947–961
"III.—Interpretation de l'effet in- hibiteur de la L-isoleucine, empdchement stenque or effet allosterique," BSCB, 46 (1964), 1151–1173
"IV—Le phenomene de desensibilisation," BSCB, 47 (1965), 115–139
"V.—La transition allostenque," BSCB, 47 (1965), 267–279
"VI.—Discussion gemerale," BSCB, 47 (1965) , 281–300.
160
Robert Baldwin, "Discussions about proteins," in Lwoff and Ullman, eds. (ref. 1), 203.
161
A. Ullman, P.R. Vagelos, and J. Monod, "The effect of 5'-adenylic acid upon the association between bromthymol blue and muscle phosphorylase b," Biochemical and biophysical research communications, 17 (1964), 86–92.
162
Jacques Monod, "On the nature of allosteric interactions: A plausible model," undated draft manuscript, Fonds Monod, Archives de l'lnstitut Pasteur.
Changeux, Ullmann, and Monod, "Un modele plausible de la transition allost^rique," Colloque International du C.N.R.S., Mar- seille (1963), 285–295.
163
Monod, Unpublished manuscript, ibid., 7.
164
Ibid., 2.
165
Ibid., 9.
166
Jeffries Wyman, "Recollections of Jacques Monod," in Lwoff and Ullman, eds. (ref. 1), 221–224.
168
Wyman to Monod, 10 Jan 1963, Fonds Monod, Archives de l'Institut Pasteur.
169
Monod to Wyman, 24 Apr 1964, Fonds Monod, Archives de l'lnstitut Pasteur.
170
Monod, "Notes sur les conformations allosteriques." Incomplete manuscript, no date, presumably early 1964, Fonds Monod, Archives de l'lnstitut Pasteur, original in French (translated by the authors).
171
Ibid., 20, original in French (translated by the authors).
172
Monod, Wyman and Changeux, "On the nature of allosteric transitions, a plausible model," JMB, 12 (1965), 88–118.
Claude De- bru, Philosophie moliculaire: Monod, Wyman, Changeux (Paris, 1987).
173
Wyman, "Heme proteins," Advances in protein chemistry, 4 (1948), 407–531
"The problem of the heme interactions in hemoglobin and the basis of the Bohr effect," Jour- nal of polymer science, 7 (1951), 499–518
"Allosteric effects in hemoglobin," CSHSQB, 26 (1963), 483–489.
Claude De- bru, L'esprit des protiines: Histoire et philosophie biochimiques (Paris, 1983)
John T. Edsall, "Jeffries Wyman and myself: A story of two interacting lives," Comprehensive biochemistry, 36 (1985), 99–195, esp. 143–144, 158–167.
174
Monod to Wyman, 3 Sep 1964, Fonds Monod, Archives de I'lnstitut Pasteur.
176
D.E. Koshland, Jr., G. N6methy, and D. Filmer, "Comparison of experimental binding data and theoretical models in proteins containing subunits," Biochemistry, 5 (1966), 365–385.
180
Jean-Pierre Changeux, unpublished letter to the Editor of Nature (20 Apr 1968) (cour- tesy of the author).
Gerhart and Schachman, Changeux, Gerhart, and Schachman, "Allosteric interactions in aspartate transcar- bamylase. I. Binding of specific ligands to the native enzyme and its isolated subunits," Biochemistry, 7(1968), 531–538.
181
Henri Buc, "Mother nature and the design of a regulatory enzyme," in Lwoff and Ull- man, eds. (ref. 1), 218.
183
Gerhart and Schachman, "Allosteric interactions in aspartate transcarbamylase. II. Evi- dence for different conformational states of the protein in the presence and absence of specific ligands," Biochemistry, 7(1968), 538–552, on 539.
184
Changeux and Merry M. Rubin, "Interpretation of experimental data in terms of the model of Monod, Wyman, and Changeux," Biochemistry, 7 (1968), 553–561.
Monod-Wymann-Changeux paper, entitled, "On the na- ture of allosteric transitions: Implications of non-exclusive ligand binding," JMB, 21 (1966), 265–274
ref. 172.
185
Gerhart and Schachman (ref. 183), 541.
186
Schachman (ref. 155), 6.
187
Lubert Stryer, Biochemistry, 3rd edn. (New York, 1988), 239–242.
188
Changeux (ref. 41), 625.
189
Malcolm Dixon and Edwin C. Webb, Enzymes, 2nd edn. (New York, 1964), 522.
Changeux referred, was published in 1958.
190
John C. Gerhart, Application for Research Grant to the Department of Health, Educa- tion, and Welfare, Public Health Service, renewal of PHS Grant No. CA 07410-03, 15 Mar 1966, 6
Howard K. Schachman, "Anatomy and physiology of a regu- latory enzyme—aspartate transcarbamylase," Harvey Lectures, 68 (1972), 67–113.
191
Changeux (ref. 41), 632.
192
Changeux, 1974, Contract 67 01.091, Archives de l'lnstitut Pasteur.
193
Gerhart, Application for Research Grant to the U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Public Health Service, 24 May 1963, 6
194
Ibid., 8.
195
Gerhart, PHS renewal grant, 15 Mar 1966 (ref. 190).
196
Ibid., 4.
197
John C. Gerhart, "How regulative is early amphibian development?," Perspectives on cellular regulation, from bacteria to cancer, essays in honor of Arthur B. Pardee (New York, 1991), 185-200, on 187.
198
Monod wrote of Gerhart in 1965
Monod to John T. Edsall, 23 Nov 1965, Fonds Monod, Archives de PInstitut Pasteur.
199
D. Blangy, H. Buc and J. Monod, "Kinetics of the allosteric interactions of phosphofructokinase from Escherichia colt," JMB, 31 (1968), 13–35.
200
Monod, Wyman, and Changeux (ref. 172), 89.
201
Clarke and Fujimura (ref. 6)
M. Norton Wise, ed., The values of precision (Princeton, 1995)
J.P. Gaudilliere and I. Lowy, eds., The invisible industrialist: Manufacturers and the production of scientific knowledge (London, forthcoming).
202
Jon Beckwith, "Genetics at the Institut Pasteur, substance and style," ASM news, 53 (1987), 551–55.
203
Monod to Jacob, 29 June 1961, Fonds Monod, Archives de l'Institut Pasteur.
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