[Footnotes]

[Footnotes]
1
Walther Nernst, The goals of physical chemistry, 1896,
S.S. Schweber and Jed Z. Buchwald, "Epilogue," in Jed Z. Buchwald, ed., Scientific practice: Theories and stories of doing physics (Chicago, 1995), 12.
2
S. Leigh Star and James R. Griesemer, "Institutional ecology, 'translations' and boun- dary objects: Amateurs and professionals in Berkeley's Museum of Vertebrate Zoology," So- cial studies of science, 19 (1988), 387–420, on 393.
3
Ilana Löwy, "The strength of loose concepts—Boundary concepts, federative experimen- tal strategies and disciplinary growth: The case of immunology," History of science, 30 (1992), 371–396, on 391.
5
D.W. Winnicott, Playing and reality (New York, 1971).
6
Robert Kohler, Lords of the fly (Chicago, 1994).
7
Alice Bull to the author, 29 Aug 1995.
8
T.H. Morgan et al, The mechanism of Mendelian heredity (London, 1915), 220.
9
T.H. Morgan, The physical basis of heredity (Philadelphia, 1919), on 226.
10
Charles Zeleny, "Genetics and embryology," Science, 77 (1933), 177–181, on 181.
11
Ernst Hadorn, Letalfaktoren in ihrer Bedeutung fiir Erbpathologie und Genphysiologie der Entwicklung (1955)
Developmental genetics and lethal factors (London, 1961), xvii.
12
George W. Beadle and Edward L. Tatum, "Genetic control of biochemical reactions in neurospora," PNAS, 27 (1941), 499–506.
14
Donald Poulson, "Chromosomal deficiencies and the embryonic development of Droso- phila melanogaster," PNAS, 23:3 (1937), 133–137
The embryonic development of Drosophila melanogaster (Paris, 1937).
Alfred Huettner, "The origin of the germ cells in Drosophila melanogaster," Journal of morphology, 39 (1923), 385–423
Alfred Huettner and Morris Rabinowitz, "Demonstration of the central body in the living cell," Science, 78 (1933), 367–8
Ruth B. Howland and George P. Child, "Experi- mental studies on development in Drosophila melanogaster I: Removal of protoplasmic materi- als during late cleavage and early embryonic stages," Journal of experimental zoology, 70 (1935), 415–424.
Ruth B. Howland and B.P. Sonnen- blick, "Experimental studies on development in Drosophila melanogaster. II. Regulation in the early egg," Journal of experimental zoology, 73 (1936), 109–125
15
Kohler (ref. 6), 244.
16
T.H. Morgan, The theory of the gene (New Haven, 1928), 25.
17
T.H. Morgan, Embryology and genetics (New York, 1934), 9–10.
18
"Causal Explanations of Hereditary Processes" presented at the Symposium on Causality, 1948, on 7 (Poulson papers, Biology Dept., Yale Univ.).
19
Sheila Counce, "The analysis of insect embryogenesis," Annual review of entomology, 6 (1961), 295–312
Theodore Wright, "The genetics of embryogenesis in Drosophila," Ad- vanced genetics, 15 (1970), 261–395.
21
Richard Lewontin, 19 Apr 1995.
22
Demerec on his behalf in 1936
Sturtevant to Demerec, 24 Apr 1936, Dem- erec Papers 3/D 394, American Philosophical Society.
25
Curt Stern, "Gene action,"
Benjamin Willier, Paul Weiss, and Viktor Hamburger eds., Analysis of development (Philadelphia, 1955), 151–169, on 156.
26
Hadorn, Developmental genetics and lethal factors, 1955 in German, and English trans, in 1961.
ibid., 105.
27
Michael Ashburner, "Epilogue" to The development of Drosophila melanogaster, ed. Alfonso Martinez Arias Bate (Plainview, NY, 1993), 1493–1506, on 1499.
28
E.F. Keller, "Genetics, em- bryology, and the discourse of gene action," Great ideas today (Chicago, 1994), 2–29
Keller, Refiguring life: Metaphors of 20th-century biology (New York, 1995), 1–42.
29
Wright (ref. 19), 354–355.
30
Karl Illmensee, "Transplantation of embryonic nuclei into unfertilized eggs of Droso- phila melanogaster," Nature, 219 (1968), 1268–69.
31
Madeleine Gans, Claudie Audit, and Michele Masson, "Isolation and characterization of sex-linked female-sterile mutants in Drosophila melanogaster," Genetics, 81 (1975), 683–704.
32
Alan Garen, "Looking for the homunculus in Drosophila" Genetics, 131:1 (1992), 5– 7.
34
Alan Garen and Walter Gehring, "Repair of the lethal developmental defect in deep orange embryos of Drosophila by injection of normal egg cytoplasm," PNAS, 69:10 (1972), 2982–85.
K. Illmensee, and A.P. Mahowald, "Transplanta- tion of posterior polar plasma in Drosophila: Induction of germ cells at the anterior pole of the egg," PNAS, 71 (1974), 1016–1020.
35
Walter J. Gehring, "The Homeobox in perspective," Trends in biochemical sciences, 17 (1992), 277–280.
36
Ashburner (ref. 27), 1503.
38
Ashburner (ref. 27), 1500.
39
Ibid., 1501.
40
Keller, Refiguring life (ref. 28).
41
E.F. Keller, "Histo- ry of Developmental Biology Lecture Notes," International History of Science Summer School, Berkeley, Ca, 1992 [unpublished]
42
Klaus Sander, "The role of genes in ontogenesis—evolving concepts from 1883 to 1983
insect embryologist," in T.J. Horder, J.A. Witkowski, and C.C. Wylie, ed., History of embryology (Cambridge, 1986), 363–395.
43
Scott Gilbert, et al., "The importance of feminist critique for contemporary cell biology," Hypatia, 3:1 (1988), 61–76
Scott Gilbert, "Cellular politics: Just, Goldsch- midt, and the attempts to reconcile embryology and genetics," in R. Rainger et al., eds., The American development of biology (Philadelphia, 1988), 311-346.
44
Keller, Refiguring life (ref. 28).
Scott Gilbert, "Induction and the origin of developmental genetics," in Scott Gilbert, ed., A concep- tual history of modern embryology (Baltimore, 1991), 181–206, on 200.
47
Christiane Nusslein-Volhard, "Antrittsrede," 14 Jul 1990
49
M. Goulian and P. Hanawalt, eds., DNA synthesis and its regulation (Menlo Park, 1975
50
Alfred Kiihn, Vorlesungen iiber Entwicklungsphysiologie (Berlin, 1955).
51
Wright (ref. 19).
52
L.N. Chan and Walter Gehring, "Determination of blastoderm cells in Drosophila tnelanogaster," PNAS, 68:9 (1991), 2217–21.
53
Alan Garen and Walter Gehring, "Repair of the lethal developmental defect in deep orange embryos of Drosophila by injection of normal egg cytoplasm," PNAS, 69:10 (1972), 2982–85.
54
22 Jul 1974 (NVP).
55
Alice Bull, "An embryonic lethal with reversed polarity in Drosophila melanogaster," 11th International Congress of Genetics, Proceedings, 1 (1963), 10–11
Bull, "Bicaudal, a genetic factor which affects the polarity of the embryo in Drosophila melanogaster," Journal of experimental zoology, 161 (1965), 221–242.
56
Christiane Nusslein-Volhard, "A rapid method for screening eggs from single Droso- phila females," Drosophila Information Service, 52 (1977), 166.
58
John Kendrew to Nusslein-Volhard, 9 Nov 1976 (NVP).
60
Wright to Niisslein-Volhard, 9 Apr 1980 (NVP).
61
Niisslein-Volhard and Eric Wieschaus, "Mutations affecting segment number and polar- ity," Nature, 287 (30 Oct 1980), 798–801.
62
C. Niisslein- Volhard, E. Wieschaus and H. Kluding, "Mutations affecting the pattern of the larval cuticle in Drosophila melanogaster I: Zygotic loci on the second chromosome," Wilhelm Roux's ar- chives of developmental biology, 193 (1984), 267–282
Gerd Jiirgens et al., "Mutations affecting the pattern of the larval cuticle in Drosophila melanogaster II: Zygotic loci on the third chromosome," ibid., 283–295
Wieschaus, Nusslein-Volhard, and Jiirgens, "Muta- tions affecting the pattern of the larval cuticle in Drosophila melanogaster III: Zygotic loci on the X-chromosome and fourth chromospme," ibid., 296–308.
65
Awarded on 9 Oct 1995 (see ref. 4).
66
Nusslein-Volhard to the author, 4 Oct 1992.
67
Sheila Counce, conversation with the author, January 1995.
68
Herskowitz to Niisslein- Volhard and Wieschaus, 6 May 1980 (NVP)
71
Nancy Cott, The grounding of modern feminism (New Haven, 1987
75
Christiane Nusslein-Volhard, "Genetic analysis of pattern-formation in the embryo of Drosophila melanogaster. Characterization of the maternal effect mutant bicaudal" Wilhelm Roux's archives of developmental biology, 183 (1977), 249–268.
76
Wright to Nusslein-Volhard, 20 Sept 1977 (NVP).
77
Bull to Nusslein-Volhard, 4 Dec 1977 (NVP).
78
In D.M. Glover and B.D. Harris, eds., Genes and embryos (Oxford, 1989), 1–37.
79
K. Anderson, 28 Jul 1992.
"Developmental biology as a feminist cause?," Osiris, in press.
80
Lynn Manseau and Trudi Schupbach, "The egg came first, Of course!," Trends in genetics, 5:12 (1989), 400–405.
81
Nusslein-Volhard to the author, 9 Oct 1995.
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