[Footnotes]

[Footnotes]
1
J. Buchwald, From Maxwell to microphysics. Aspects of electromagnetic theory in the last quarter of the nineteenth century (Chicago, 1985)
The creation of scientific effects: Hein- rich Hertz and electric waves (Chicago, 1994)
B. Hunt, The Maxwellians (Cornell, 1991); D. Siegel, Innovation in Maxwell's electromagnetic theory: Molecular vortices, displacement current and light (Cambridge, 1991)
J. Stachel et al., ECP, 1 and ECP, 2
W. Kaiser, Theorien der Elektrodynamik im 19. Jahrhundert (Hildesheim, 1981)
C. Jungnickel and R. McCormmach, Intellectual mastery of nature: Theoretical physics from Ohm to Einstein (2 vols., Chicago, 1986)
F. Bali- bar et al., Albert Einstein, Oeuvres choisies (6 vols., 1985-1993).
2
Thematic origins of scientific thought: Kepler to Einstein (Cambridge, 1973)
T. Hirosige, "Electrodynamics before the theory of relativity," Japanese studies in the history of science, 5 (1966), 1-49
"The ether problem, the mechanis- tic worldview, and the origins of the theory of relativity," HSPS, 1 (1969), 151–209
McCorm- mach, "Einstein, Lorentz, and the electromagnetic view of nature," HSPS, 2 (1970), 41–87
L. Pyenson, "Physics in the shadow of mathematics: The Gottingen electron-theory seminar of 1905," AHES, 21 (1979), 55–89
The young Einstein: The advent of relativity (Bristol, 1985)
M. Paty, Einstein philosophe. La physique comme pratique philosophique (Paris, 1993)
A. Miller, Albert Einstein's special theory of relativity. Emergence (1905) and early interpretation (1905-1911) (Reading, 1981)
S. Goldberg, "Henri Poincare and Einstein's theory of relativi- ty," AJP, 35 (1967), 934–944
Understanding relativity: Origin and impact of a scientific re- volution (Boston, 1984).
3
D. Cassidy, "Understanding the history of special relativity," HSPS, 16 (1986), 187–195.
4
ECP, 2, 253–274, on 258.
5
M.A. Tonnelat, Histoire du principe de relativite (Paris, 1971)
Hirosige, "The ether problem" (ref. 2).
J. Stachel, "History of relativi- ty," in L. Brown, A. Pais, B. Pippard, eds., Twentieth century physics (New York, 1995), 249-356.
6
M. Klein, "Thermodynamics in Einstein's thought," Science, 157 (1967), 509–516
McCormmach (ref. 2)
S. Abiko, "On the chemico-thermal origins of Einstein's special rela- tivity," HSPS, 22:1 (1991), 1–24.
J. Renn, "Einstein as a disciple of Galileo: A com- parative study of concept development in physics," Science in context, 6 (1993), 311–341.
7
Pyenson, "Audacious entreprise: The Einsteins and electrotechnology in late ninenteenth-century Munich," HSPS, 12:2 (1982), 373–392
Miller, "Unipolar induction: A case study of the interaction between science and technology," Annals of science, 3 (1981), 155–189.
8
G. Holton (ref. 2); Hirosige, "The ether problem" (ref. 2)
Miller (ref. 2)
Goldberg (ref. 2)
Paty (ref. 2), 18.
Renn (ref. 6)
9
McCormmach, "Editor's foreword," HSPS, 7 (1976), xi-xxxv
Pyenson (ref. 2)
"Einstein's education: Mathematics and the laws of nature," Isis, 71 (1980), 399^125.
10
Darrigol, "The electrodynamic revolution in Germany as docu- mented by early German expositions of 'Maxwell's theory,'" AHES, 45 (1993), 189–280
"The electrodynamics of moving bodies from Faraday to Hertz," Centaurus, 36 (1993), 245– 360
Larmor and Lorentz: A comparative study," HSPS, 24 (1994), 265-336
"Helmholtz's electrodynamics and the comprehensibility of nature," in L. Kriiger, ed., Universalgenie Helmholtz. Ruckblick nach 100 Jahren (Berlin, 1994), 216–242
"Emil Cohn's electrodynamics of moving bodies," AJP, 63 (1995), 908–915.
11
E. Whittaker, A history of the theories of aether and electricity. I: The classical theories (Edinburgh, 1951)
Kaiser (ref. 1)
Jungnickel and McCormmach, ref. 1.
12
F. Neumann, "Allgemeine Gesetze der inducirten elektrischen Strome," BB (1845, pub. 1847)
"Uber ein allgemeines Princip der mathematischen Theorie inducirter elektrischer Strome," BB (1848).
Kaiser (ref. 1)
K. Caneva, "From galvanism to electrodynamics: The transformation of German physics and its social context," HSPS, 9:1 (1978), 63-159, on 119- 121
K. Olesko, Physics as a calling: Discipline and practice in the Konigsberg seminar for physics (Ithaca, 1991), 175–178.
14
W. Weber, Elektrodynamische Massbestimmungen. I: Uber ein allgemeines Grundgesetz der elektrischen Wirkung (Leipzig, 1846). Cf. Jungnickel and McCormmach (ref. 1), 1, 139– 146
Whittaker (ref. 11)
N. Wise, "German concepts of force, energy, and the electromagnetic ether," in G. Cantor and M. Hodge, Conceptions of ether (Cambridge, 1981), 269–307
A. Woodruff, "Action at a distance in nineteenth century electrodynamics," Isis, 59 (1968), 300– 311.
15
L. Boltzmann, "Uber die Unentbehrlichkeit der Atomistik in der Naturwissenschaften" (1897), in Populare Schriften (Leipzig, 1905), 141–157.
16
H. Helmholtz, Uber die Erhaltung der Kraft. Eine physikalische Abhandlung (Berlin, 1847).
F. Bevilacqua, "Helmholtz's Uber die Erhaltung der Kraft," in D. Cahan, ed., Her- mann von Helmholtz and the foundations of nineteenth century science (Berkeley, 1993), 291– 333.
17
Helmholtz (ref. 16), 61–65
H. Poincare, "L'etat actuel et l'avenir de la physique mathematique," Saint-Louis lecture (1904), Bulletin des sciences mathematiques, 28 (1904), 302–324
A. Einstein, "Time, space and gravitation," Times, London (28 Nov 1919), 13, com- mented in Paty (ref. 2), 446–450.
T. Archibald, "Energy and the mathematization of elec- trodynamics," Archives Internationales d'histoire des sciences, 39 (1989), 276–308
18
Helmholtz, "Uber die Theorie der Elektrodynamik. I. Uber die Bewegungsgleichungen der Elektricitat fur ruhende leitende Korper," Journal fiir reine und angewandte Mathematik, 72 (1870), 57–129.
Woodruff, "The contributions of Hermann von Helmholtz to electro- dynamics," Isis, 59 (1968), 300–311
G. Buchheim, "Hermann von Helmholtz und die klas- sische Elektrodynamik," NTM, 8 (1971), 26–36
Kaiser, "Helmholtz's instrumental role in the formation of classical electrodynamics," in Cahan (ref. 16), 374–402
Buchwald, The creation (ref. 1), 7–44, 375–404
"Electrodynamics in context: Object states, laboratory practice, and anti-romanticism," in Cahan (ref. 16), 334–373
Darrigol, "Helmholtz's electrodynamics" (ref. 10).
19
Helmholtz (ref. 18)
"Versuche uber die im ungeschlossenen Kreise durch Bewegung inducirten elektromotorischen Krafte," AP, 98 (1875), 87–105.
Buchwald, The creation (ref. 1), 75–78.
20
H. Hertz, "Uber die Beziehungen zwischen den Maxwell'schen Elektrodynamischen Grundgleichungen und den Grundgleichungen der gegnerischen Elektrodynamik," AP, 23 (1884), 84–103
Untersuchungen uber die Ausbreitung der elektrischen Kraft (Leipzig, 1892).
S. d'Agostino, "Hertz's researches on electromagnetic waves," HSPS, 6 (1975), 261–323
J. Cazenobe, "Les incertitudes d'une decouverte: L'onde de Hertz de 1888 a 1900," Archives internationales d'histoire des sciences, 32 (1982), 236–265
Buchwald, The creation (ref. 1)
Darrigol, "Revolution" (ref. 10), 243–250.
21
Kaiser (ref. 1).
22
J.C. Maxwell, "On physical lines of force" (1861–1862)
W. Niven, ed., The scientific papers of James Clerk Maxwell (2 vols., Cambridge, 1890), 451–513
"A dynamical theory of the electromagnetic field" (1865), ibid., 526–597
A treatise on electricity and magnetism (Oxford, 1873).
Siegel (ref. 1)
Buchwald, From Maxwell (ref. 1)
23
Maxwell, Treatise (ref. 22), 2, chaps. 6–9.
24
Ibid., 7, §§ 59–62.
Buchwald, From Maxwell (ref. 1), chap. 3
Darrigol, "Revolu- tion" (ref. 10), 196–202.
25
Maxwell (ref. 24).
26
Maxwell, "A dynamical theory" (ref. 22)
Treatise (ref. 22), 2, § 828.
Siegel (ref. 1)
0. Knudsen, "The Faraday effect and physical theory, 1845–1873," AHES, 15 (1976), 235–281
Buchwald, From Maxwell (ref. 1), 111–112.
27
Buchwald (ref. 1)
Hunt (ref. 1).
28
Buchwald, "Oliver Heaviside, Maxwell's apostle and Maxwellian apostate," Cen- taurus, 28 (1985), 288–330
Hunt (ref. 1), chap. 5.
29
P. Heimann, "Maxwell, Hertz, and the nature of electricity," I sis, 62 (1971), 149– 157
Darrigol, "Revolution" (ref. 10), 251–257.
30
Darrigol, "Revolution" (ref. 10), 200–201.
31
Hertz, "Uber die Gleichungen der Elektrodynamik fur ruhende Korper," AP, 40 (1890), 577–624.
32
Helmholtz, "Das Prinzip der kleinsten Wirkung in der Elektrodynamik" (1892)
Helmholtz, Wissenschaftliche Abhandlungen (3 vols., Leipzig, 1882-1895), 3 (1895), 476–504.
Klein, "Mechanical explanation at the end of the nineteenth century," Centaurus, 17 (1972), 58–82
Darrigol, "Helmholtz's electrodynamics" (ref. 10).
33
L. Boltzmann, Vorlesungen tiber die Maxwellsche Theorie der Elektricitdt und des Lichtes (2 vols., Leipzig, 1891, 1893), 2, 23.
Kaiser, introduction to Boltzmann, Gesamt- ausgabe, (Graz, 1982), 2, 58–82
Darrigol, "Revolution" (ref. 10), 257–264.
34
P. Drude, Physik des Aethers auf elektromagnetischer Grundlage (Stuttgart, 1894), vii, vi, 9.
Darrigol, "Revolution" (ref. 10), 264–267.
35
A. Foppl, Einfiihrung in die Maxwell'sche Theorie der Elektricitdt (Leipzig, 1894).
J. Bromberg, "Foppl, August," in DSB, 5, 63–64
Holton, "Influences on Einstein's early works," in Holton (ref. 2), 197–218
Darrigol, "Revolution" (ref. 10), 267–271.
36
E. Cohn, Das elektromagnetische Feld. Vorlesungen iiber die Maxwell'sche Theorie (Leipzig, 1900).
"Zur Systematik der Elektricitatslehre," AP, 40 (1890), 625–639.
Hirosige, "Electrodynamics" (ref. 2)
Darri- gol (ref. 10), 271–276.
37
Boltzmann, "On statistical mechanics" (1904)
Theoretical physics and philosophi- cal problems (Dordrecht, 1974), 159–172, on 162.
38
Hertz, "On the relations between light and electricity" (1889)
Miscellaneous papers (London, 1896), 318.
39
E. Mach, Die Mechanik in ihrer Entwicklung. Historisch- Kritisch dargestellt (Leipzig, 1901), 241–242.
40
B. Jones, The life and letters of Faraday (London, 1870)
L. Pearce Williams, Michael Faraday (London, 1965)
D. Gooding, "In nature's school: Faraday as an experimen- talist," in D. Gooding and F. James, eds., Faraday rediscovered (London, 1985), 117–135
G. Cantor, Michael Faraday: Sandemanian and scientist (New York, 1991).
41
M. Faraday, Experimental researches in electricity (3 vols., London, 1839-1855), 3, §3075
Ibid. (London, 1839), 7, 223, 65.
Miller (ref. 7)
Darrigol, "Moving bodies" (ref. 10), 298-299.
42
S. Tolver Preston, "On some electromagnetic experiments of Faraday and Pliicker," PM, 19 (1885), 131–140, on 134.
Miller (ref. 7)
Darrigol (ref. 10), 299–300.
43
Neumann, "Princip" (ref. 12), 22.
Darrigol, "Moving bodies" (ref. 10), 255–259.
44
Weber (ref. 14), 143.
Darrigol, "Moving bodies" (ref. 10), 259–262.
45
Darrigol, "Moving bodies" (ref. 10), 263–275.
46
Maxwell, "On physical lines of force" (ref. 23).
47
Maxwell, Treatise (ref. 22), 2, §600–601
J.J. Thomson, "On the electric and magnetic effects produced by the motion of electrified bodies," PM, 11 (1881), 229–249.
Darrigol, "Moving bodies" (ref. 10), 302–309.
48
O. Heaviside, "Electromagnetic induction and its propagation," The electrician (1885– 1887)
Heaviside, Electrical papers (2 vols., New York, 1892), 7, 429–560
2, 39–155.
Buchwald (ref. 28)
Hunt (ref. 1)
Darrigol, "Moving bodies" (ref. 10), 309–312.
49
Foppl (ref. 35), 321–330.
Darrigol, "Moving bodies" (ref. 10), 329–332.
50
Hertz, "Uber die Grundgleichungen der Elektrodynamik fur bewegte Korper," AP, 41 (1890), 369–399.
O. Knudsen, "Nineteenth century views on induction in moving conduc- tors," Centaurus, 24 (1980), 346–360.
51
Heaviside, "On the forces, stresses, and fluxes of energy in the electromagnetic field," PRS (1891, 1892)
Electrical papers (ref. 48), 2, 521–574.
Buchwald (ref. 28)
Dar- rigol, "Moving bodies" (ref. 10), 324–327.
52
Hertz (ref. 50), Gesammelte Werke (3 vols., Leipzig, 1894-1894), 2, 261–262.
53
Darrigol, "Moving bodies" (ref. 10), 333.
54
O. Heaviside, Electromagnetic theory (3 vols., New York, 1894–1912), 7, 43–44.
Darrigol, "Moving bodies" (ref. 10), 335–336.
55
H. Fizeau, "Sur les hypothese relatives a Tether lumineux, et sur une experience qui parait demontrer que le mouvement des corps change la vitesse avec laquelle la lumiere se propage dans leur interieur," Academie des sciences, Comptes rendus, 33 (1851), 349–355
A. Michelson and E. Morley, "Influence of motion of the medium on the velocity of light," American journal of science, 31 (1886), 377–386
Hertz, Gesammelte Werke (ref. 52), 2, 285
Heaviside to Hertz, 14 Aug 1889
J. O'Hara and W. Pricha, Hertz and the Maxwellians (London, 1987)
Hertz to Heaviside, 3 Sep 1889, ibid.
56
Hertz, Gesammelte Werke (ref. 52), 2, 284
Hertz to Heaviside, 3 Sep 1889
O'Hara (ref. 55)
Heaviside to Hertz, 13 Sep 1889, ibid.
Darrigol, "Moving bodies" (ref. 10), 323, 327.
57
Cohn (ref. 36), 536
H. Poincare, Electricite et optique. La lumiere et les theories electrodynamiques (Paris, 1901), 345–420
Drude (ref. 34), 219
Foppl (ref. 35), 307–330
Helmholtz, "Folgerungen aus Maxwell's Theorie iiber die Bewegung des reinen Aethers" (1893)
Helmholtz, Wissenschaftliche Abhandlungen, (4 vols., Leipzig, 1882-1895), 3, 526– 535
W. Wien, "Uber die Fragen, welche die translatorische Bewegung des Lichtathers betreffen," AP, 65 (1898), Beilage: i–xvii
"Uber mogliche Aether- bewegungen," PZ, 2 (1901) 148–150
G. Mie, "Uber mogliche Aetherbewegungen," AP, 68 (1899), 129–134
Wien: PZ, 2 (1901), 181–182
"Uber die Bewegungen eines als fliissig angenommenen Aether," PZ, 2 (1901), 318–325.
58
W. von Sellmeier, "Uber die durch Aetherverschiebungen erregten Korpertheilchen und deren Ruckwirkung auf die Ersten, besonders zur Erklarung der Dispersion und ihrer Anomalien," AP, 145 (1872), 520–549; 147 (1872), 386–408, 525–544
Helmholtz, "Zur Theorie der anomalen Dispersion," AP, 154 (1875), 582–596
"On the modern development of Faraday's conception of electricity," Journal of the chemical society, 39 (1881), 277–304.
Buchwald, From Maxwell (ref. 1), 233–237.
59
Lorentz, "Over de theorie der terugkaatsing en breking van het licht," Academisch Proefschrift (Leiden, 1875)
"Sur la theorie de la reflexion et de la refraction de la lumiere," in LCP1, 193–383.
. Hirosige, "Origins of Lorentz' theory of electrons and the concept of the electromagnetic field," HSPS, 1 (1969), 151–209.
60
Lorentz, "La theorie electromagnetique de Maxwell et son application aux corps mouvants" (1892), LCP4, 219–223.
Hirosige (ref. 59)
Darrigol, "The electron theories" (ref. 10).
61
Lorentz, "Over het verband tusschen de voortplantings snelheid en de dichtheid en samestelling der middenstofen" (1878)
"Concerning the relation between the velocity of propagation of light and the density and composition of media," LCP2, 3–119
Lorentz (ret. 60)
"De l'influence du mouvement de la terre sur les phenomenes lumineux" (1886), LCP4, 153–214.
62
A. Fresnel, "Sur l'influence du mouvement terrestre dans quelques phenomenes d'optique" (1818), in Oeuvre completes (1868), 2, 627–636
W. Veltmann, "Fresnel's Hy- pothese zur Erklarung der Aberrationserscheinungen," Astronomische Nachrichten, 75 (1870), 145-160
"Uber die Fortpflanzung des Lichtes in bewegten Medien," ibid., 76 (1870), 129– 144
AP, 150 (1873), 497–535
E. Mascart, "Sur les modifications qu'eprouve la lumiere par suite du mouvement de la source et du mouvement de l'observateur," Annales de I'Ecole nor- male, 1 (1872), 157–214; 3 (1874), 363–420.
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K. Schaffner, Nineteenth-century aether theories (New York, 1972)
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63
Lorentz, "On the reflection of light by moving bodies," (1892), LCP4, 215–218
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LCP5, 1–139, on 85.
64
Lorentz, "The relative motion of the earth and the ether (1892), LCP4, 219–223.
65
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Lorentz, "De l'influence" (ref. 61)
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66
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67
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Buchwald, From Maxwell (ref. 1).
68
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R. Reiff, "Zur dispersionstheorie," AP, 55 (1895), 82–94
"Neuere Deutung der mag- netischen Drehung der Polarisationsebene," AP, 57 (1896), 281–289
C. Wind, "On the theory of magneto-optic phenomena," Physical review, 6 (1898), 43–51, 98–113
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Buchwald, From Maxwell (ref. 1), part 5.
69
P. Zeeman, "On the influence of magnetism on the nature of light emitted by a sub- stance," PM, 43 (1897), 226–239
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JJ Thomson, "Cathode rays," PM, 44 (1897), 293–316.
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70
Buchwald (ref. 1), part III
Hunt (ref. 1), chapt. 9
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Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Aertze, Verhandlungen (1898), 49–65
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E. Riecke, "Zur Theorie des Galvanismus und der Warme," AP, 66 (1898), 353–389, 545–581
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"Zur Elek- tronentheorie der Metalle," AP, 1 (1900), 566–613
AP, 3 (1900), 369–402
J.J. Thom- son, "Indications relatives a la constitution de la matiere fournie par les recherches recentes sur le passage de l'electricite a travers les gaz," in Rapports (1900) (ref. 68), 138–151.
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74
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76
Darrigol, "Revolution" and "Poincare's criticism" (ref. 10).
77
Poincare, Theorie mathematique de la lumiere (Paris, 1889), introduction; Poincare (ref. 57), 345–420.
78
Poincare, "A propos de la theorie de M. Larmor" (1895), PO 9, 369–426, on 395–413
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79
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80
Poincare, Electricite et optique. La lumiere et les theories electrodynamiques (Paris, 1901), 536
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84
Poincare (ref. 79), 272
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85
JJ. Thomson (ref. 48)
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W. Kaufmann, "Die mag- netische und die elektrische Ablenkbarkeit der Becquerelstrahlen und die scheinbare Masse des Elektrons," Gottinger Nachrichten (1901), 143–155.
McCormmach (ref. 2)
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86
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Miller (ref. 2), 55–61.
87
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McCormmach (ref. 2)
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89
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90
Lorentz, "Theorie simplifiee des phenomenes electriques et optiques dans les corps en mouvement" (1899), LCP5, 139–155.
91
Miller (ref. 2), 75–79.
92
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"Sur la dynamique de l'electron" (1906), PO 9, 494-550.
Miller (ref. 2)
Paty (ref. 2)
Darrigol, "Poincare's criticism" (ref. 10).
93
PO 9, 495
Poincare (ref. 81)
ref. 17
"Les limites de la loi de Newton" (Sorbonne lectures of 1906–1907, ed. by H. Vergne)
Bulletin astronomique publie par Vobservatoire de Paris, 17 (1953), 121–365, chap. 11: "Dynamique de l'electron."
94
Abraham, Theorie der Elektrizitat: Elektromagnetische Theorie der Strahlung (Leipzig, 1905), 389
Lorentz (ref. 91), 1009
Lorentz to Poincare (reaction to Kaufmann) (8 Mar 1906)
Miller, "On some other approaches to electrodynamics in 1905," in H. Woolf, ed., Some strangeness in the proportion. A centennial symposium to celebrate the achievements of Albert Einstein (Reading, 1980), 66-91, on 83–84.
95
PO 9, 497, 572.
96
Wien, Uber Elektronen (Leipzig, 1905), 24.
97
Cohn, "Uber die Gleichungen der Elektrodynamik fur bewegte Kbrper," in Recueil (ref. 71), 516–523
"Uber die Gleichungen des elektromagnetischen Feldes fur bewegte Kbrper," AP, 7 (1902), 29–56.
Hirosige, "Electrodynamics" (ref. 2)
Darrigol, "Cohn's electrodynamics" (ref. 10).
98
Cohn, "Zur Elektrodynamik bewegter Systeme," Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Ber- lin, mathematische-physikalische Klasse, Sitzungsberichte (1904), 1294–1303, 1404–1416, on 1299–1300.
99
Ibid., 1408.
100
Wien, "Uber einen Versuch zur Entscheidung der Frage, ob sich der Lichtather mit der Erde bewegt oder nicht," PZ, 5 (1904), 585–586
Cohn (ref. 98), 1408–1409.
101
Lorentz, "Weiterbildung der Maxwellschen Theorie. Elektronentheorie," in Encyklopddie der mathematischen Wissenschaften mit Einschluss ihrer Anwendungen (6 vols., Leipzig, 1898–1935), 5, 145–280, 274–275
Cohn (ref. 98), 1302
Abraham (ref. 94), 389–391.
102
A. Bucherer, "Uber den Einfluss der Erdbewegung auf die Intensitat des Lichtes," AP, 11 (1903), 270–283
Bucherer to Lorentz (15 Feb, 6 Aug, 8 Dec, 1902), AHQP
P. Nord- meyer, "Uber den Einfluss der Erdbewegung auf die Verteilung der Intensitat der Licht- und Warmestrahlung," AP, 11 (1903), 421-441.
Goldberg, "Bucherer, Alfred Heinrich," DSB, 2, 559-560.
103
Bucherer (ref. 102), 282
Mathematische Einfiihrung in die Elektronentheorie (Leipzig, 1904), 131.
104
Bucherer (ref. 102), 282-283
Bucherer (ref. 103), 131.
105
Bucherer (ref. 103), 57-59.
106
Bucherer, "Das deformierte Elektron und die Theorie des Elektromagnetismus," PZ, 6 (1905) , 833-834
Bucherer, discussion of M. Planck, "Die Kaufmannschen Messungen der Ablenkbarkeit der j3-Strahlen in ihrer Bedeutung fiir die Dynamik der Elektronen," PZ, 7 (1906) , 753-759, on 760.
107
Bucherer, "Ein Versuch, den Elektromagnetismus auf Grund der Relativbewegung dar- zustellen," PZ, 7 (1906), 553-557
"On a new principle of relativity in electromagnetism," PM, 13 (1907), 413-420, on 414.
109
Bucherer, "On the principle of relativity and on the electromagnetic mass of the elec- tron. A reply to Mr. Cunningham," PM, 15 (1908), 316-318, on 316.
Miller (ref. 2), 267.
110
Planck to Wien, 29 Nov 1906, AHQP,
Pyenson, The young Einstein (ref. 2), 201
E. Cunningham, "Electromagnetic mass of a moving electron," PM, 14 (1907), 538- 547
"Principle of relativity and electromagnetic mass of electrons," PM, 16 (1908), 423^128
W. Ritz, "Recherches critiques sur l'electrodynamique generate," Annales de chimie et de physique, 13 (1908), 145-275, on 204
Bucherer, "Messungen an Becquerelstrahlen. Die ex- perimentelle Bestatigung der Lorentz-Einsteinschen Theorie," PZ, 9 (1908), 755-762.
Miller (ref. 2), 345-349.
Stachel et al., ECP, 2, on 272.
111
Einstein, "Uber die Untersuchung des Aetherzustandes im magnetischen Felde," in ECP, 7, 6-9.
Pyenson (ref. 7).
112
Einstein, "Autobiographisches," in P.A. Schilpp, ed., Albert Einstein: Philosopher- scientist (Evanston, 1949), 1-94, on 52-53.
113
Einstein to Marie, Apr 1898, ECP, 1, 213.
114
Einstein to Marie, Aug 1899, ECP, 1, 225-227.
115
Hertz, Untersuchungen (ref. 20), 211-212
Ibid., 285.
Boltzmann's (ref. 33), 2, 13-14.
116
Helmholtz (ref. 58)
ref. 68
Einstein to Mar- ie (Aug 1899) (ref. 114), 226.
117
ECP, 1, 148-210.
118
Einstein to Marie (ref. 114), 227
"How I created the theory of relativi- ty?" Physics today, 35:8 (1982), 45-47.
119
Einstein to Marie, 10 Sep 1899, in ECP, I, 229-230.
120
Einstein to Marie, 28? Sep 1899, ECP, 7, 233-235
Einstein to Grossmann, 6? Sep 1901, ECP, 7, 315-316
121
Einstein to Marie, 10 Sep 1899, ECP, 7, 230
note 8
Hume's Treatise of human nature
Einstein to Schlick, 14 Dec 1915
ECP, 2, xxiv, note 37.
122
Einstein, "Zur Elektrodynamik bewegter Korper," AP, 17 (1905), 891-921, on 891
"Uber das Relativitatsprinzip und die aus dem- selben gezogenen Folgerungen," Jahrbuch der Radioaktivitdt und Elektronik, 4 (1907), 411- 462, on 412
"Le principe de relativite et ses consequences," Archives des sciences physiques et naturelles, 29 (1910), 5-28, 125-144, on 11-13
Poincare, "Uber die Beziehungen zwischen der experimentellen und der mathematischen Physik," PZ, 2 (1901), 166-171, 182-186, 196- 201.
123
Einstein, "Zur Elektrodynamik" (ref. 122), 891.
Paty (ref. 2, 54-55)
124
Foppl (ref. 35), 311.
Holton, "Influences on Einstein's early work," in Thematic origins (ref. 2), 197-217
Darrigol, "Moving bodies" (ref. 10), 329-330.
125
Wien (ref. 57)
Verhandlungen (ref. 73), 55
Lorentz (ibid.), 59.
126
Einstein (ref. 112), 52
Hertz (ref. 20), 30.
127
Einstein (ref. 118)
Einstein to Marie, 17 Dec 1901, ECP, 1, 325-326.
128
Einstein to Ehrenfest, 25 Apr 1912
ECP, 2, 263
ECP, 2, on 264, note 64
ref. 118
R. Shankland, "Conversations with Albert Einstein," AJP, 31 (1963), 47- 57
Stachel, "Einstein and Michelson: The context of discovery and the context of justification," Astronomische Nachrichten, 33 (1982), 47-53.
129
Shankland (ref. 128).
Einstein to Ehrenfest, 20 Jun 1912, Einstein Estate, Jerusalem.
130
Einstein to Marie, 4 Apr 1901, ECP, 1, 284.
Abiko (ref. 6).
131
McCormmach (ref. 9)
Pyenson, The young Einstein (ref. 2).
132
Klein (ref. 6)
McCormmach (ref. 6).
133
Wien, "Uber die Differentialgleichungen der Elektrodynamik fur bewegte Korper," AP, 13 (1904), 641-668, on 652, 657, 665
"Zur Elektronentheorie," PZ, 5 (1904), 392-395
Bucherer (ref. 103), 229.
"Die Grundhypothesen der Elektronentheorie," PZ, 5 (1904), 576-579
Lorentz of 1899 (ref. 90)
Larmor's Aether and matter (Cambridge, 1900).
134
Poincare, La science (ref. 78), 92-93.
M. Solovine, ed., Albert Einstein: Lettres a Maurice Solovine (Paris, 1956), vii-viii
Ein- stein to Besso, 6 Mar 1952
P. Speziali, ed., Albert Einstein-Michele Besso. Correspondance 1903-1955 (Paris, 1972), 464.
135
Einstein, "Das Prinzip von der Erhaltung des Schwerpunktsbewegung und die Tragheit der Energie," AP, 20 (1906), 627-633, on 627
Darrigol, "Poincare's criticism" (ref. 10).
136
Cohn (ref. 98), 1299-1300
Abraham (ref. 94), 366-379.
Abraham (ref. 94), 368-369
137
Einstein, "Relativitatsprinzip" (1907) (ref. 122), 413n
138
Einstein, "Zur Elektrodynamik" (ref. 122), 892-903.
ref. 118
139
Einstein (ref. 112), 52-53.
140
Einstein, "Zur Elektrodynamik" (ref. 122), 916.
141
Einstein to Seelig, 19 Feb 1955
C. Seelig, Albert Einstein (Zurich, 1960), 114
Ein- stein, "Relativitatsprinzip" (ref. 122), 413.
A. Pais, "Subtle is the Lord..." The science and life of Albert Einstein (Oxford, 1982), 169-172.
142
Scribner (ref. 80)
Cuvaj (ref. 80), 77-78
Stachel et al, ECP, 2, 308n.
143
Einstein (ref. 112), 34-36.
144
ECP, 3, 445
Cohn published Physikalisches tiber Raum und Zeit (Leipzig, 1913)
Miller (ref. 2), 182.
145
M. Laue, in "Die Mitfuhrung des Lichtes durch bewegte Korper in der Relativitatstheorie," AP, 23 (1907), 989-990
Ein- stein (ref. 122)
"Relativitatsprinzip" (1907), 426.
Miller (ref. 2), 278-280.
146
R. Gans, "Zur Elektrodynamik bewegter Medien," AP, 16 (1905), 516-534
18 (1905), 172-186.
Darrigol, "Cohn's electrodynamics" (ref. 10), note 37.
147
Foundations (ref. 84)
(Saint Louis lecture, 1904), 301
148
Einstein to Zangger, 15 Nov 1991
Miller (ref. 2), 255
149
Poincare, "La dynamique de l'electron" (1908), PO 9, 567.
150
Einstein, "Zur Elektrodynamik" (ref. 122), 892
151
ref. 149 (1908), PO 9, 586
152
Paty (ref. 2), 264-271.
153
Abraham (ref. 94).
154
PZ, 7 (1906), 759-761
Jungnickel and McCormmach (ref. 1), 2, 250.
155
(ref. 149) (1908), PO 9, 572.
156
Einstein, "Uber das Relativitatsprinzip" (ref. 122), (1907), 439
157
Einstein, "Uber einen die Erzeugung und Verwandlung des Lichtes betreffenden heu- ristischen Gesichtspunkt," AP, 17 (1905), 132-148.
Hrn. Paul Ehrenfest: 'Die Translation deformierbarer Elektronen und der Flachensatz'," AP, 23 (1907), 206-208.
159
Planck, "Die Kaufmannschen Messungen der Ablenkbarkeit der /3-Strahlen in ihrer Bedeutung fur die Dynamik der Elektronen," PZ, 7 (1906), 753-761.
160
ref. 89 (1904).
Das Relativitatsprinzip (Leipzig, 1920), 23
Pais (ref. 141), 166
161
Whittaker (ref. 11), 2, chapt. 2.
Holton, Miller, and Paty (ref. 2)
Planck (ref. 106)
162
Maxwell (ref. 29)
Energy and empire: A biographical study of Lord Kelvin (Cambridge, 1989
ref. 1
M. Klein, "Gibbs on Clausius," HSPS, 1 (1969), 127-149
Maxwell (ref. 28).
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