[Footnotes]

[Footnotes]
1
D. Cassidy, "Controlling German science, I: U.S. and Allied forces in Germany, 1945- 1947," HSPS, 24:1 (1994), 197–235.
2
O. Keck, "West German science policy since the early 1960s: Trends and objectives," Research Policy, 5 (1976), 116–157.
3
D. Cassidy, Uncertainty: The life and science of Werner Heisenberg (New York, 1992)
M. Eckert: "Primacy doomed to failure: Heisenberg's role as scientific advisor for nuclear policy in the FRG," HSPS, 21 (1990), 29–58
"Neutrons and politics: Maier-Leibniz and the emergence of pile neutron research in the FRG," HSPS, 19 (1988), 81–113
"Die Anfange der Atompolitik in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland," Vierteljahreshefte fiir Zeitgeschichte, 37 (1989), 115–143.
4
M. Eckert, ibid.
M. Cioc, Pax Atomica: The nuclear defense debate in West Germany during the Adenauer era (NewYork, 1988)
D. Nelkin and M. Pollak, The atom besieged: Ex- traparliamentary dissent in France and Germany (Cambridge, Mass., 1981)
J. Radkau, Aufs- tieg und Krise der deutschen Atomwirtschaft, 1945-1975: Verdrdngte Alternativen in der Kerntechnik und der Vrsprung der nuklearen Kontroverse (Reinbek bei Hamburg, 1983)
H.K. Rupp, Ausserparlamentarische Opposition in der Ara Adenauer: Der Kampf gegen die Atom- bewajfnung in den fiinfziger Jahren (Koln, 1980)
C.M. Kelleher, Germany and the politics of nuclear weapons (New York, 1975)
P. Fischer, Atomenergie und Staatliches Interesse (Baden-Baden, 1994).
5
R.G. Stokes, Divide and prosper: The heirs of I.G. Farben under Allied authority, 1945–1951 (Berkeley, 1988)
M. Eckert and M. Osietzki, W is sense haft fur Macht und Markt: Kernforschung und Mikroelektronik in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland (Munich, 1989)
M. Eckert and H. Schubert, Kristalle, Elektronen, Transistoren: Von der Gelehrtenstube zur Indu- strieforschung (Reinbek bei Hamburg, 1986).
6
C. Carson, "Particle physics and cultural politics: Werner Heisenberg and the shaping of a role for the physicist in postwar West Germany," doctoral thesis, Harvard University, 1995.
S.S. Schweber, QED and the men who made it: Dyson, Feynman, Schwinger, and Tomonaga (Princeton, 1994)
Schweber, "Some reflections on the history of particle phy- sics in the 1950s," in L.M. Brown et al., eds. Pions and quarks: Particle physics in the 1950s, (Cambridge, 1989), 668–693
A. Pais, Inward bound: Of matter and forces in the physical world (Oxford, 1991).
A. Pickering, Constructing quarks: A sociological history of particle physics (Chicago, 1984).
7
T. Stamm, Zwischen Staat und Selbstverwaltung: Die deutsche Forschung im Wiederaufbau 1945–1965 (Koln, 1981)
M. Osietzki, Wissenschaftsorganisation und Restaura- tion: Der Aufbau ausseruniversitarer Forschungseinrichtungen und die Grundung des west- deutschen Staates 1945–1952 (Koln, 1984).
Stamm, "New opportunities—old tradi- tions: The struggle for autonomy of postwar German science," in M. de Maria, et al., eds., The restructuring of physical sciences in Europe and the United States 1945–1960 (Singapore, 1989), 228–246.
8
Cassidy (ref. 1)
J. Gimbel, The American occupation of Germany: Politics and the mili- tary 1945–1949 (Stanford, 1968)
E.N. Peterson, The American occupation of Germany: Re- treat to victory (Detroit, 1978)
C.F. Latour and T. Vogelsang, Okkupation und Wiederaufbau: Die Tdtigkeit der Militarregierung in der amerikanischen Besatzungszone Deutschlands 1944– 1947 (Stuttgart, 1973)
W. Benz, Die Grundung der Bundesrepublik: von der Bizone zum Souveranen Staat (Munich, 1984).
H. Zink, The United States in Germany 1944–1955 (Princeton, 1957).
9
"Directive to Commander in Chief of United States Forces of Occupation regarding mili- tary government of Germany," Apr 1945, in Story, 22–33.
10
"Protocol of the proceedings of the Berlin [Potsdam] conference, 17 July-2 August 1945," in Story, 47–57, on 48.
11
Ibid., 49–50.
12
Eisenhower, "Proclamation No. 2," 19 Sep 1945, in OMGUS, Military Government Gazette, U.S. area of control, Issue A (1945), 2–3.
13
L.W. Fuller, "The problem of German political revival," U.S. Department of State, Bulletin, 14 (1946), 547–552, 573–576, on 551, dated 7 Apr 1946.
A.J. and R.L. Merritt, eds., Public opinion in occupied Germany: The OMGUS surveys, 1945–1949 (Ur- bana, 1970), 71, 75–76.
V. Botzenhart-Viehe, "The German reac- tion to the American occupation, 1944–1947" (doctoral thesis, University of California, Santa Barbara, 1980).
14
J.K. Pollock and J.H. Meisel, eds., Germany under occupation (Ann Arbor, 1947), 101–102.
15
Ibid., 102.
16
L. Hartel, Der Ldnderrat des amerikanischen Besatzungsgebietes (Stuttgart, 1951), 208.
17
Karl Loewenstein, "Political reconstruction in Germany, zonal and interzonal," in J.K. Pollock, ed., Change and crisis in European govern- ment-(New York, 1947), 35–43, on 36.
18
Hartel (ref. 16)
M.E. Foelz-Schroeter, Fdderalistische Politik und nationale Reprdsentation 1945–1947: Landesregierungen, zonale Burokratien und politische Parteien im Widerstreit (Stuttgart, 1974)
R. W. Miller, "The South German Landerrat: The origins of postwar German federalism" (doctoral thesis, University of Michigan, 1960).
19
Hartel (ref. 16)
Pollock and Meisel (ref. 14).
20
Cassidy (ref. 1).
21
"Directorate responsibility for the control of scientific research and technical develop- ment," CORC/P(46)182, 28 May 1946, in Control Council, Enactments and approved papers of the Control Council and Coordinating Committee (9 vols., Berlin, 1944–1948), 3, 150–151.
22
OMGUS, Economics Division Memorandum 15, to Lander offices of military govern- ment, economics divisions, 1 Mar 1946 (NA, box 73, folder "Econ. Div. Memos").
23
"Control Council Law No. 25—Control of scientific research," CONL/P(46)29 (final), dated 29 April 1946, to come into force May 7, 1946 (HI, Box 30, Control Council, Official Gazette), reprinted without appendices in Documents, 131–134.
24
Ludwig Preller to the LR General Secretary, 6 May 1946 (BA Zl/1009, 24); minutes of the internal LR meetings (BA Zl/18, vol. 1).
25
"Preller, Ludwig," Wer ist Wer (Berlin, 1956).
26
Hartel (ref. 16), 36–37.
27
Byrnes and Bevin, "Memorandum on agreement," 2 Dec 1946, reprinted in Pollock and Meisel (ref. 14), 240–243
Peterson (ref. 8)
E.H. Litchfield (an architect of the fu- sion), "Emergence of German governments," in Litchfield, ed., Governing postwar Germany, 1 (Ithaca, NY, 1953), 19–54.
28
"Special Committee Research Control," 24 Jul 1946 (NA, box 86, folder "research control").
30
Pollock to Clay, 23 Jul 1946 (NA, box 104, folder "Education").
32
F. Glum, Zwischen Wissenschaft, Wirtschaft and Politik: Erlebtes and Erdachtes in vier Reichen (Bonn, 1964), 595
Hartel (ref. 16), 41.
33
Minutes of sixth meeting of LR, 6 Aug 1946 (BA Zl/18, vol. 1, 214–221)
Geiler to LR, 22 Jul 1946 (ibid., 228).
35
Minutes of meeting of Cultural Policy Committee, 27–28 Sep 1946 (BA Zl/1009, 197– 209)
E. Rossmann, Ein Lebenfiir Sozialismus and Demokratie (Stuttgart, 1947).
36
Heinz Guradze, report of Cultural Policy Committee meeting, 27-28 Sep 1946 (NA, box 103).
38
Ibid.
39
English summary of minutes of meeting of Research Control Committee, 28 Oct 1946 (NA, box 86, folder "research control").
42
Moller to Eickemeyer, 20 Feb 1947 (BA Zl/581, 72–74).
43
Preller to Rossmann, Gen. Sec, 22 Jan 1947 (BA Zl/423, 54–56).
44
Eickemeyer to Rossmann, 9 Jan 1947 (BA Zl/581)
Eickemeyer to Rossmann over Moller, 14 Feb 1947 (BA Zl/423).
45
Ibid.
46
Ref. 22.
47
"Bericht iiber die 1. Sitzung des Beirates der FUS beim Wirtschaftsministerium Wiirttemberg-Baden vom 21. November 1946" dated 25 Nov 1946 (BA Zl/581, 272–277).
48
Ibid.
49
English summary of meeting minutes, 25 Nov 1947 (NA, box 86).
50
"Bericht iiber die 5. Sitzung des Verwaltungsrats fiir Wirtschaft (VRW) in Frankfurt/M am 13./14.11.46" (BA Zl/423)
51
Ref. 49.
52
Allied Control Authority, Directorate of Internal Affairs and Communications, "Draft Law on the Dissolution of the Kaiser Wilhelm Society for the Promotion of Scientific Research," 18 Oct 1946
K. Macrakis, Surviving the swastika: Scientific research in Nazi Germany (New York, 1993).
53
Minutes of Cultural Policy Committee meeting, 6–7 Dec 1946 (BA Zl/1009).
"Bericht" (ref. 50).
54
James F. Byrnes, "Restatement of U.S. policy on Germany," in Story, 3–8, on 5.
55
Ibid., 7–8.
56
Lt. Col. G.H. Garde, directive of 30 Sep 1946, reprinted in Story, 155-157.
57
Clay and Robertson, Appendix A to British Military Government Ordinance No. 88, 29 May 1947, in Documents, 227–231.
58
Litchfield (ref. 27), 30.
59
Peterson (ref. 8), 184–188.
60
British Military Government Ordinance No. 126, 9 Feb 1948, in Documents, 268–275.
61
Clay, "Proclamation No. 5," 2 Jun 1947, in OMGUS, Military Gazette Germany: US Area of Control, issue E (1 Aug 1947), 1-2.
62
"Directive to Commander in Chief of United States Forces of Occupation regarding the Military Government of Germany [JCS 1779]," 11 Jul 1947, in Story, 33–41, on 38, 40.
63
"Write texts here for Reich schools," New York Times (10 Nov 1944), 21.
64
Cultural Policy Committee, minutes, 5–7 Dec 1946 (NA, box 103 and BA Zl/1009)
65
Sonderausschuss, minutes (ref. 64).
66
A. Beyerchen, Scientists under Hitler: Politics and the physics community in the Third Reich (New Haven, 1977), 41–42, 60–61.
67
Glum (ref. 32), 583.
68
Ibid., 595–596, 612–614.
69
Minutes of Direcktorium meeting of 2 Dec 1946, attended by Glum and Kraus (BA Zl/20)
Osietzski (ref. 7), 148–160.
70
Preller to Rossmann, 22 Jan 1947 (BA Zl/423, 54–56).
71
Research Control Committee, minutes, 16 Jan 1947 (NA, box 86, folder "research con- trol").
72
Minutes (ref. 71)
Preller to Moller, 5 Mar 1947
Moller to Eickemeyer, 4 Mar 1947 (BA Zl/423).
73
Minutes (ref. 71)
Eickemeyer to Moller, 10 Mar 1947 (BA Zl/423).
74
Preller, correspondence in BA Z1/423.
75
Research Control Committee, minutes, 24 Feb 1947 (NA, box 86).
76
Internal Landerrat meeting, minutes, 15 Apr 1947 (BA Zl /19).
77
Knoblauch to Eickemeyer, 4 Mar 1947 (BA Zl/423).
78
Research Control Committee, minutes, including Knoblauch memo, 25 Mar 1947 (NA, box 86).
79
Research Control Committee, minutes, 7 Jul 1947, ibid.
80
Research Control Committee, minutes, 25 Mar 47, ibid
Regener to Research Con- trol Committee, 22 Mar 1947 (BA Zl/581, 51–53).
82
Reported by F. Frowein, remarks at meeting, "Langfristiger Forschungsplan," 25 Jun 1947 (BA Zl/603, 162–165).
83
Bipartite Economic Panel, "Encouragement of industrial research in the combined zones," 7 and 13 Mar 1947, and minutes, 18 Mar 1947 (HI, boxes 42–43)
Frowein, reports to Research Control Committee, minutes, 27 Jan and 3 May 1948 (NA, box 86)
84
Frowein, "Industrie-Forschungsplan fur die Bizone," Wiesbaden, 21 Apr 1948 (BA Zl/424, 15–29).
85
Frowein, reports of meetings with industrialists (BA Zl/603).
86
Frowein, report to Research Control Committee, minutes, 27 Jan 1948 (NA, box 86).
88
Research Control Committee, minutes, 27 Jan 1948 (NA, box 86)
Clay, remarks on FIAT, 7th meeting of Bipartite Board, minutes, 3 Mar 1947 (HI, Box 35).
89
Research Control Committee, minutes, 27 Jan 1948 (NA, box 86).
90
Ibid., 9 Dec 1947.
91
Reported by Eickemeyer, ibid., 3 May 1948
Eickemeyer to Rossmann, 27 Apr 1948 (BA Z1/425, 321–322).
92
Research Control Committee, minutes, 3 May 1948 (NA, box 86).
93
Hartel (ref. 16), 77–79.
94
"Protokoll der Sitzung beim Vorsitzer des Verwaltungsrates des Vereinigten Wirtschaft- gebiets, 25.8.48 in Frankfurt" (BA Z1/425, 68–76).
95
ibid.
96
Osietzki (ref. 7)
M. Balfour and J. Mair, Four-power control in Germany and Austria (London, 1956)
W. Abelshauser, Wirtschaft in Westdeutschland: Rekonstruktion und Wachstumsbedingungen in der amerikanischen und britischen Zone (Stuttgart, 1975).
97
F.A. Paneth, "Scientific research in the British zone of Ger- many," Nature, 161 (1948), 191-192.
Osietzki (ref. 96).
99
J. Bernstein, ed., Hitler's uranium club: The secret recordings at Farm Hall (New York, 1995).
M. Walker, Nazi science: Myth, truth and the German atomic bomb (New York, 1995), 233–241.
100
Eickemeyer to Hahn, 24 May 1948 (BA Z1/425, 227)
Eickemeyer, 1948 (BA Zl/424).
101
"Protokoll der Rektoren-Konferenz," Schonberg im Taunus, 18–-19 Jul 1947 (BA Zl/1007, 134–147).
102
Erich Wende, C.H. Becker, Mensch und Politiker: Ein biographischer Beitrag zur Kul- turgeschichte der Weimarer Republik (Stuttgart, 1959).
103
Kurt Zierold, Forschungsfdrderung in drei Epochen (Wiesbaden, 1968), part 1
T. Nip- perdey and L. Schmugge, 50 Jahre Forschungsfdrderung in Deutschland: Ein Abriss der Geschichte der deutschen Forschungsgemeinschaft 1920–1970 (Berlin, 1970).
104
Paul Forman, "The financial support and political alignment of physicists in Weimar Germany," Minerva, 12 (1974), 39–66
B. Schroder-Gudehus, "The argument for the self-government and public support of science in Weimar Germany," Miner- va, 10 (1972), 537–570.
105
F. Schmidt-Ott, "Fiir die Erneuerung unseres gesamten Kulturlebens," Leipziger Neueste Nachrichten, no. 225 (13 Aug 1934), 2.
106
Beyerchen (ref. 66)
Zierold (ref. 103), part 2
Nipperdey and Schmugge (ref. 103), 49–67
K.-H. Ludwig, Technik und Ingenieure im Dritten Reich (Konigstein/Ts., 1979).
107
T. Stammen, ed., Einigkeit und Recht und Freiheit: Westdeutsche lnnenpolitik 1945–1955 (Munich, 1965), 94–97.
108
Cultural Policy Committee, minutes, 23-25 Apr 1947 (NA, box 103; and BA Zl /1009).
109
Ibid.
110
Preller, correspondence (BA Zl/423).
111
Nordwestdeutscher Hochschultag, "Protokoll der VII. Tagung in Miinster am 9./10. September 1947" (BA Zl/1007, 94–119).
Stamm (ref. 7), 70–85.
112
Nordwestdeutsche Hochschul-Konferenz, "Protokoll der Rektorenbesprechung in Bad Driburg am 14.2.1947" (BA Zl/1007, 49–63).
113
Preller, "Niederschrift iiber die Rektorenkonferenz der US-Zone in Heidelberg am 21./22.4.1947" (BA Zl/1007, 186–191).
114
Cultural Policy Committee, minutes, 7–8 Jul 1947 (NA, box 103; BA Zl/1009).
115
Ref. 111.
Stamm (ref. 7), 109–126
Osietzki (ref. 7), 227–234.
116
Bipartite Board, approval (ref. 98).
117
Reported in Zierold (ref. 103), 278.
118
Ibid., 279.
120
(ref. 103), 279
ibid., 550-554.
121
Ref. 119.
122
Ibid.
123
Ibid., 59.
126
Parlamentarischer Rat, Verhandlungen des Hauptausschusses (Bonn, 1949), 30th meeting, 6 Jan 1949, 362
Heisenberg, Collected works, W. Blum et al., eds, vol. C5 (Munich, 1989), 71.
127
Verhandlungen, ibid.
J.F. Golay, The founding of the Federal Republic of Germany (Chicago, 1958), 219.
128
Adenauer to Heisenberg, 6 Jan 1949
129
"Military Governors' aide memoire for the Parliamentary Council," in Golay (ref. 127), 263–264.
130
Ibid., on 234.
131
"Vortrag von Professor Dr. Werner Heisenberg 'Der Deutsche Forschungsrat'," manuscript, 9 Mar 1949 (HA), published in Heisenberg (ref. 126), 72–76, on 74.
132
H. Eickemeyer, ed., Abschlussbericht des Deutschen Forschungsrats (DFR) tiber seine Tatigkeit (Munich, 1953), draft and final bylaws, 82, 85.
133
Heisenberg (ref. 126), 76–86.
134
Gerlach to Heisenberg, 16 Mar and 15 Jun 1949 (HA, Notgemeinschaft).
135
Heisenberg to Gerlach, 20 Jun 1949, ibid.
136
Notgemeinschaft, to Heisenberg, 11 Jul 1949 (HA, Notgemeinschaft).
137
Ludwig (ref. 106), 234–241
Zierold (ref. 103), 212–265
M. Walker, German National Socialism and the quest for nuclear power 1939–1949 (Cambridge, 1989), 129–137.
138
Gerlach to Heisenberg, 15 Jun 1949 (HA, Notgemeinschaft).
139
Heisenberg et al., letter to Parliamentary Council (ref. 126).
140
B. Blout to Heisenberg, 3 May 1949
Heisenberg to K. Geiler, president of NDW, draft, 11 Jan 1951
Zierold (ref. 103), 297–306
141
"Staatsabkommen der Lander des amerikanischen, des britischen und des franzbsischen Besatzungsgebietes tiber die Finanzierung wissenschaftlicher Forschungseinrich- tungen," K6nigstein/Ts., 1 Apr 1949
50 Jahre Kaiser Wilhelm-Gesellschaft und Max Planck-Gesellschaft 1911–1961 (Bonn, 1961), 227–231.
Osietzki (ref. 7), 238–271
Stamm (ref. 7), 99–108.
142
Heisenberg, "Denkschrift des DFR uber die Betreuung der wissenchaftlicher Forschung im Rahmen der Deutschen Bundesregierung," Gottingen, 1 Sep 1949, reprinted in Heisenberg (ref. 126), 87–91.
143
Heisenberg to Zenneck, 17 Dec 1949 (HA, Forschungsrat)
Geiler (ref. 136).
144
Heisenberg to Dr. Rust in Chancellor's office, 8 Jun 1950 (HA, correspondence).
Eckert (ref. 3).
146
Adenauer to Heisenberg, 11 May 1951 (HA, correspondence).
147
Heisenberg, "Memorandum des DFR iiber die Organisation der wissenschaftlichen Forschung in Deutschland," manuscript dated 19 Jun 1951 (HA, Forschungsrat)
Heisenberg (ref. 126), 92–96
Heisenberg, "Erforschung und wirtschaftliche Nutzbarmachung der Atomenergie im Frieden."
148
Adenauer to Heisenberg, 2 and 17 Jul 1951 (HA, correspondence).
149
Heisenberg, "Vorwort," in Eickemeyer (ref. 132), 9–10
Heisenberg (ref. 126), 115–116.
Stamm (ref. 7), 126–141.
150
Zierold (ref. 103), 305–-312.
151
Federal Ministry for Scientific Research, Bundesbericht Forschung II (Bonn, 1967)
Keck (ref. 2).
152
Das Bundesministerium fiir wissenschaftliche Forschung (Bonn, 1969), 35–44.
153
Gundgesetz fur die Bundesrepublik Deutschland (Bonn, 1989)
154
Bundesminister fur Bildung und Wissenschaft, Hr&gtchschulrahmengesetz vom 26. Januar 1976 (Koblenz, 1977).
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