[Footnotes]

[Footnotes]
1
Zuoyue Wang, "American science and the Cold War: The rise of the US President's Science Advisory Committee" (unpublished PhD dissertation, University of California, Santa Barbara, 1994)
Robert A. Divine, The Sputnik challenge: Eisenhower's response to the Soviet satellite (New York, 1993).
2
Dwight D. Eisenhower, "Science: Handmaiden of freedom," in Dael Wolfle, ed., Sympo- sium on basic research (Washington, DC, 1959), 133–142, on 140–141
James R. Killian, Jr., Sputnik, scientists and Eisenhower: A memoir of the first special assistant to the President for science and technology (Cambridge, 1977), 220–221
David Z. Beckler to Killian, 27 Feb 1959, (KP, 80–8: 10).
3
Peter Galison, Bruce Hevly, and Rebecca Lowen,"Controlling the monster: Stanford and the growth of physics research, 1935- 1962," in Galison and Hevly, eds., Big science: The growth of large-scale research (Stanford, 1992), 46-77
Daniel S. Greenberg, The politics of pure science: An inquiry into the rela- tionship between science and government in the United States (New York, 1967), 209–245.
4
Paul Forman, "Behind quantum electronics: National security as basis for physical research in the United States, 1940–1960," HSPS, 18:1 (1987), 149–229
Daniel J. Kevles, "Cold war and hot physics: Science, security, and the American state, 1945–56," HSPS, 20:2 (1990), 239–264.
5
Galison and Hevly, eds. (ref. 3)
Stuart W. Leslie, "Playing the education game to win: The military and interdisciplinary research at Stanford," HSPS, 18:1 (1987), 55–88
Leslie, The Cold War and American science: The military-industrial complex at MIT and Stan- ford (New York, 1993), chapt. 6.
6
Ginzton and Panofsky to Sterling, 31 Jan 1957
Sterling to Alan T. Waterman of the NSF (and to Orr E. Reynolds of the DOD and Willard F. Libby of the AEC), 16 Apr 1957, all in WP/M.
Panofsky, "The evolution of SLAC," Physics today, 36 (Oct 1983), 34–41
D.W. Dupen, "History and development," in R.B. Neal, ed., The Stanford two-mile ac- celerator (New York, 1968), 27–38.
7
Stanford University, "Proposal for a two-mile linear electron-accelerator," Apr 1957, in US Congress, Joint Committee on Atomic Energy, Stanford linear electron accelerator (USGPO, 1959), 283–526, esp. 288–289, 309.
8
Galison and Hevly, eds. (ref. 3), 46–78, on 65.
9
"Proposal for a program of nuclear physics and elementary particle studies at the California Institute of Technology involving the construction and use of a 1 Bev electron synchrotron," 15 Nov 1949
10
Richard Hewlett and Jack M. Holl, Atoms for peace and war, 1953–1961: Eisenhower and the Atomic Energy Commission (Berkeley, 1989), 257–260.
11
Panofsky to Frederick Terman, 11 Oct 1957, and enclosure, in WP/M.
12
Harvey M. Sapolsky, Science and the Navy: The history of the Office of Naval Research (Princeton, 1990), chapt. 3.
13
JCAE (ref. 7), 536.
14
J. Merton England, A patron for pure science: The National Science Foundation's for- mative years. 1945–57 (Washington, D.C., 1982), 292–297.
15
F.V.L. Pindar, "Pindar and O'Neill trip to contracting agencies in the East—October 1957," undated, on p. 11
R.H. Moulton and Pindar to Terman et al., 16 Jul 1958
16
Panofsky to Terman et al., 3 Apr 1959, in WP/M.
17
Panofsky, "Report on discussions concerning Project M held during my trip to Wash- ington, 21–27 Jan 58," 28 Jan 1958, in WP/M.
18
Hewlett and Holl (ref. 10), 258–6
Greenberg (note 3), chapt. 10.
19
Fisk to Killian, 19 Dec 1957, in Robert Lester, ed., The papers of the President's Sci- ence Advisory Committee, 1957–1961, microfilm (Frederick, MD, 1986), reel 3, 974.
20
Killian to Donald Quarles, 10 Jan 1958, in OSAST, I, box 11
"High Energy Physics;" Fisk to Killian, 9 Dec 1957 (ref. 19).
21
Fisk to Killian, 2 Mar 1958, and attachment, Science Advisory Committee, "Very high energy accelerators," undated
Frederick Seitz to Fisk, 27 Jan 1958
T. Keith Glennan to Killi- an, 28 Jan 1958
OSAST (ref. 20).
22
Lester (ref. 20), reel 3, on 195
Killian to Strauss, 10 Jan 1958
Killian to Donald Quarles, same date, both in OSAST (ref. 20).
23
Panofsky to files, 12 Dec 1957, in WP/M.
Killian, 27 Jan 1958
OSAST (ref. 20).
24
Panofsky to files, 12 Dec 1957
Terman, "Report on discussion on Project M held in Washington December 19, 1957," undated
Panofsky to files, "Visit of Alan T. Waterman of 12 January 1958," 13 Jan 1958; all in WP/M.
25
Panofsky (ref. 17).
Strauss to Fisk, 16 Jan 1958, in OSAST (ref. 20).
26
Panofsky to files, 19 Nov 1957, in WP/M.
27
Panofsky to files, 13 Jan 1958 (ref. 24)
Panofsky to Fisk, 28 Jan 1958, in OSAST (ref. 20).
28
Panofsky to Ginzton, and to files, 27 Nov 1957, in WP/M.
29
Panofsky to Ginzton, 21 Jan 1958, in WP/M.
30
Panofsky (ref. 17)
Glennan to Killian, 28 Jan 1958 (ref. 21).
31
Panofsky to Project M Committee of Stanford, 10 Mar 1958, and to files, 18 Mar 1958, WP/M.
Fisk to Killian, 27 Mar 1958, in OSAST (ref. 20).
32
Pindar, "Project M: Brief outline of discussion with Charles Falk," 21 Mar 1958
Panofsky memorandum on "Project M," 23 Apr 1958, in WP/M.
33
Ginzton to M. Chodorow et al., 20 Mar 1958, in WP/M.
34
Panofsky, "Discussion with John Williams.. .concerning Project M," 5 May 1958
Panofsky to Terman et al., 26 May 1958, WP/M.
35
Panofsky to Chodorow et al., "Telephone conversation with Dr. Shirleigh Silverman of ONR...," 5 June 1958
M Committee, 17 Jul 1958, WP/M.
36
Panofsky, "Project M rumors," 12 May 1958, in WP/M.
37
Panofsky to M Committee, 21 July 1958, in WP/M.
38
David Beckler, "Record of action [from] PSAC meeting June 17, 18, 1958," in Lester (ref. 19), reel 3, 187–88
Panofsky to M Committee, 18, 21 and 29 Jul 1958, in WP/M.
39
"Supplement to the report of the advisory panel on high-energy accelerators to the Na- tional Science Foundation—August 7–8, 1958," in U.S., Congress Joint Committee on Atomic Energy, High energy physics program: Report on national policy and background information (USGPO, 1965), 143–50. The panel's reports, for 1954 and 1956 are on 151–164 and 165–69, resp.
40
McCone to Killian, 13 Aug 1958, in OSAST (ref. 20)
Panofsky to Project M Commit- tee, "Discussion with E. Piore, 10 September," 12 Sep 1958, in WP/M.
41
David Z. Beckler, "Minutes of meeting on high energy accelerators.. .August 19, 1958," undated, in OSAST (ref. 20).
42
Killian to McCone, 23 Aug 1958, in OSAST (ref. 20)
Beckler (ref. 41).
43
Hewlett and Holl (ref. 10), 523.
44
George Kistiakowsky, A scientist at the White House: The private diary of President Eisenhower's Special Assistant for Science and Technology (Cambridge, 1976), 21.
45
Killian to McCone, 23 Aug 1958, in OSAST (ref. 20).
46
Killian to Piore, 1 Oct 1958, in OSAST (ref. 20).
Panofsky M Committee, 9 Sep 1958, in WP/M
Beckler to Killian, 11 Sep 1958, in Lester (ref. 19), reel 2, 985–986.
47
Panofsky to Project M Committee, 9 Sep 1958, in WP/M, and ref. 40.
48
Panofsky to Project M Committee, 1 Oct 1958, in WP/M.
49
Panofsky to Project M Committee, 6 and 8 Oct 1958, in WP/M.
50
Ginzton and Panofsky to Project M Committee, 10 Oct 1958, in WP/M.
51
Panofsky to Beckler, 13 Oct 1958, Ginzton and Panofsky to Piore, same date, in Lester (ref. 19), reel 1, 512–520.
52
Panofsky to Project M Committee, "Telephone conversation with E.M. McMillan," 3 and 14 Nov 1958, in WP/M.
53
Panofsky, ibid.
"Appendix 3: Piore panel report—1958," in JCAE (ref. 39), 135–142
"Notes on meeting of April 2, 1959, with the president re high energy ac- celerator policy," undated, in OS AST (ref. 20).
54
Piore report (ref. 53), 135–137.
55
Piore report (ref. 53).
56
Panofsky to M Committee, "Action of the Killian committee in its 17 November meet- ing," 19 Nov 1958, in WP/M.
Warren C. Johnson, GAC chairman, to McCone, 3 Feb and 15 May 1959, in ref. 7, 22–23
Richard Sylves, The nuclear oracles: A political history of the General Advisory Committee of the Atomic Energy Commission 1947–1977 (Ames, IA, 1987), 219–237.
57
Panofsky (ref. 56)
Panofsky to Project M Committee, 23 Dec 1958, in WP/M.
58
Panofsky to Project M Committee, 30 Jan 1959, and to Terman et al., 3 Apr 1959, WP/M
La Jolla, Ca, 18 Jul 1992.
59
Panofsky to Project M Committee, 2 Mar 1959, in WP/M.
60
Andrew J. Goodpaster, "Memorandum of conference with the president, April 2, 1959," 3 Apr 1959 in Lester, ed., The diaries of Dwight D. Eisenhower, 1953–1961, 28 reels (Frederick MD, 1968), reel 21, 252–255
Anonymous, "A primer for elementary particle phy- sics," 13 Feb 1959, 258–278, ibid.
New York Times, 17 May 1959, 68.
61
Killian, "Notes for introduction of high-energy accelerator proposal to the president- April 2, 1959," undated, in OS AST
Killian (ref. 2), 220
62
Killian to Eisenhower, "National program for high energy accelerator physics," 2 Apr 1959, in OSAST (ref. 20).
63
Beckler, "Notes on meeting of April 2, 1959, with the president re high energy ac- celerator policy," undated, in OSAST (ref. 20)
Goodpaster, "Memorandum...," 3 Apr 1959, in Lester (ref. 60), reel 21, 252–253.
Kistiakowsky (ref. 44), 307.
64
L.A. Minnich "Minutes of Cabinet meeting," and Maxwell M. Rabb, "Actions of the Cabinet," 11 Mar 1957, in Paul Kesaris and Joan Gibson, eds., Minutes and documents of the Cabinet meetings of President Eisenhower (1953–1961), 9 reels (Washington, D.C., 1980), reel 5, 549–556
Wang (ref. 1), chapt. 2.
65
Wang (ref. 1), chapt. 5
Eisenhower's letters to Killian upon the latter's resignation in spring 1959, in Killian (ref. 2), 208–212
Killian (ref. 61).
66
"Support for basic research," editorial, New York Times, 16 May 1959, 22.
67
Killian (ref. 2), 220.
Public Papers of the Presidents of the United States, 1959 (Washington, D.C., 1960), 348.
Divine (ref. 1), chapt. 6
Wang (ref. 1), chapt. 4.
68
Panofsky to Terman et al., 3 Apr 1959, in WP/M
(ref. 7), 17
Pindar to M files, "Meeting...May 12, 1959," 2 Jun 1959, in WP/M
69
Joseph Turner, "Capital gain," Science, 129 (12 Jun 1959), 1583
Killian to Maurice Stans, BOB director, 28 Apr 1959, in OSAST (ref. 20).
70
Ref. 7, esp. 1–13.
71
Ref. 7, esp. 31, 36, 38, 203, 218–219.
72
US Congress, Joint Committee on Atomic Energy, Amending the Atomic Energy Act and authorization of Stanford accelerator project (USGPO, 1959), 16–29
Background infor- mation on the high energy physics program and the proposed Stanford linear electron ac- celerator project, report to the Joint Committee on Atomic Energy, 87th Congress, 1st Session (USGPO, 1961), v
Anon., "Cut in funds for Stanford accelerator more apparent than real," Science, 131 (22 Apr 1960), 1196–1198.
73
Ginzton to file, "Project M politics," 4 Aug 1959
Robert H. Moulton to file, "Visit by Messrs. McCone, Williams and Ink—July 18, 1959," 16 Oct 1959, both in WP/M
McCone to Kistiakowsky, 26 Feb 1960
"Stanford accelera- tor," same date, all in Eisenhower Library, McCone Papers, box 2, folder "O&M 7-1 President's Science Advisory Committee (3)."
74
McCone to Kistiakowsky (ref. 73)
JCAE, "Authorizing appropriations for the Atomic Energy Commission," 19 Apr 1960, in Senate report, 86th Congress, 2nd Session, serial volume 12234 (USGPO, 1960), report no. 1277, 9.
75
Hewlett and Holl (ref. 10), 524
Kistiakowsky (ref. 44), 21.
76
Moulton to R. Brown et al., "Discussion re Project M held November 4 in Washington, D.C.," 9 Nov 1959, in WP/M.
77
McCone to Kistiakowsky (ref. 73)
Sterling to Paul McDaniel, 17 Sep 1959, and at- tached "Board of Trustees' Resolution, Sept. 17, 1959," in WP/M
Neal (ref. 6), 32.
78
Wigner, to whom it may concern, 15 Jul 1959, in McCone Papers (ref. 73).
80
Ginzton to Panofsky, 3 Nov 1959, and Pindar, "Notes on meeting at AEC, Washington, December 9, 1959," undated, both in WP/M.
81
McCone to Kistiakowsky, 16 Dec 1959, and reply, 22 Dec 1959
McCone Papers (ref. 73)
Kistiakowsky (ref. 44), 47, 178–179.
82
Kistiakowsky (ref. 44), 223.
83
Piore to McCone and Kistiakowsky, 5 Feb 1960, in McCone Papers (ref. 73)
Kis- tiakowsky (ref. 44), 47, 178–179.
84
Kistiakowsky (ref. 44), 249
Floberg to Kistiakowsky, 11 Feb 1960, in McCone Papers (ref. 73).
85
Kistiakowsky to Floberg, 19 Feb 1960, in McCone Papers (ref. 73).
86
McCone to Kistiakowsky, 10 Mar 1960, in McCone Papers (ref. 73).
87
McCone to Kistiakowsky, 26 Feb 1960, in McCone Papers (ref. 73)
Kistiakowsky (ref. 44), 264–265.
88
Kistiakowsky (ref. 44), 264–265.
89
Kistiakowsky to McCone, 16 Mar 1960, in OSAST (ref. 20).
90
Kistiakowsky (ref. 44), 280
Hewlett and Holl (ref. 10), 524–525.
Beckler to Goodpaster, "Stanford linear accelerator," 14 Jul 1960, in OSAST (ref. 20).
91
Kistiakowsky (ref. 44), 280
Hewlett and Holl (ref. 10), 524–525.
92
Kistiakowsky to McCone, 5 Apr 1960, in OSAST (ref. 20)
Hewlett and Holl (ref. 10), 523.
93
Kistiakowsky (ref. 44), 298–300, 303–304.
94
JCAE (ref. 72), 8–9
Greenberg (ref. 3), 236
Howard Margolis, "Hanford and Stanford: The issue is clear but the politics are complex," Science, 134 (21 Jul 1961), 177–178.
95
"Cut in funds for Stanford accelerator more apparent than real," Science, 131 (22 Apr 1960), 1196–1198
Greenberg (ref. 3), 237–238
Goodpaster, "Memorandum of conference with the president, April 7, 1960," 9 Apr 1960, in Lester (ref. 60), reel 25, 548–550.
96
JCAE (ref. 74), 9
"Cut" (ref. 95), 1197.
97
McDaniel to Kistiakowsky, 13 Jul 1960, in OSAST (ref. 20)
"Memorandum of under- standing of contract requirements," undated, all in Background information (ref. 72), 2–5
Galison (ref. 3), 70.
98
Greenberg (ref. 3), 233.
99
Stanford linear electron accelerator (ref. 7), 14.
100
Public works appropriations for 1961, hearings before the subcommittees of the Com- mittee on Appropriations, House of Representatives, 86th Congress, 2nd Session (USGPO, 1960), 264–265.
101
Kistiakowsky (ref. 44), 233, 217–218, 273.
102
"Piore panel report—1960," and Wigner, "Commentary..." in (ref. 39), 122–134.
103
Kistiakowsky to McCone, 21 Dec 1960, in McCone Papers (ref. 73)
Background information (ref. 72), 6–8.
104
PSAC, "Government research and development: Summary conclusions and recommen- dations," 17 Oct 1960, in Eisenhower Library, White House collection, Papers of Office of Staff Secretary, Subject Series, Alpha Subseries, box 16
"Dr. Kistiakowsky:" BOB, "Organization of science in government," 16 Sep 1960, in OS AST, box 9
Thomas D. Morris to Elmer B. Staas, 16 Sep 1960, in National Archives, Record Group 51 (BOB), series 52.1, box 6
105
Goodpaster, "Memorandum.. .December 19, 1960," in Lester (ref. 60), reel 28, 315.
106
Leslie (ref. 3)
Greenberg (ref. 3), 227–29, 235.
107
Bell to Kennedy, "Stanford linear electron accelerator," 9 Mar 1961, in National Ar- chives, RG 359 (Records of the Office of Science and Technology), box 86
108
Glenn T. Seaborg, Journal (25 vols., Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, 1989), 7, 25.
109
Ibid., 74, 111.
110
Ibid., 130–131.
111
Ibid., 131.
112
JCAE, "Authorizing appropriations for the Atomic Energy Commission," 21 June 1961, in US Congress, Senate Report, 87th Congress, 1st session, serial volume 12323 (USGPO, 1961), report no. 441
Neal (ref. 6).
Howard Margolis, "Hanford and Stanford," Science, 133 (21 Jul 1961), 177–178
Richard Wayne Dyke, Mr. Atomic Energy: Congressman Chet Holifield and atomic energy affairs, 1945–1974 (New York, 1989), chapt. 7.
113
Neal (ref. 6), 36–37.
114
Panofsky (ref. 6)
M. Mitchell Waldrop, "SLAC feels the thrill of the chase," Science, 244 (19 May 1989), 771–773.
115
Robert R. Wilson, "Particle accelerators," Scientific American, 198 (March 1958), 65–75.
116
Ref. 100, 264–265.
117
"Has particle physics fulfilled its promise?" Physics today, 48 (Feb 1995), 13, 15.
118
High energy physics research, hearings before the Subcommittee on Research, Development, and Radiation of the JCAE, 89th Congress, 1st session (USCPO, 1965), 39, 216.
119
Marvin L. Goldberger in Science and the Congress: The third Franklin conference (Philadelphia, 1978), 138.
120
Kistiakowsky (ref. 44), 200.
121
Killian, "Capsule conclusions," in Wolfle (ref. 1), 121–126, on 122
Beckler, "Ex- cerpts from meeting of the President's Science Advisory Committee [on March 14, 15, 1960]: Discussion of the organization of science in government," in RG 359 (ref. 107), box 176
122
NSF, Federal funds for research and development and other scientific activities (Washington, 1971), 220.
Nathan Reingold, "Science and government in the United States since 1945," History of science, 32 (1994), 361–386.
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