[Footnotes]

[Footnotes]
1
P.A.M. Dirac, "Quantum mechanics of many-electron systems," PRS, A123 (1929), 714–733, on 714.
2
G.N. Lewis, Valence and the structure of atoms and molecules (New York, 1923), 56– 57
R.E. Kohler, "The origin of G.N. Lewis theory of the shared pair bond," HSPS, 3 (1971), 343–376
"The Lewis-Langmuir theory of valence and the chemical community 1920–1928," HSPS, 6 (1975), 431–468.
3
.J. Thomson, "On the structure of the atom," PM, 26 (1913), 729–799
"The forces between atoms and chemical affinity," PM, 27 (1914), 757–789.
4
W.C. Arsem, "A theory of valency and molecular structure," JACS, 36 (1914), 1655– 1675.
5
A.L. Parson, "A magneton theory of the structure of the atom," Smithsonian miscellane- ous collections, 65 (1915), 1–80.
6
W. Kossel, "Über Molekulbildung als Frage des Atombaues," AP, 49 (1916), 229–362.
7
Lewis (ref. 2), 56.
8
Ibid., preface.
9
Ibid., 74.
10
Lewis to Noyes, 11 Feb 1927 (LC).
11
J.J. Thomson, "Introduction to the session on the electronic theory of valency," TFS, 19 (1923-24), 450.
12
N.V. Sidgwick, The electronic theory of valency (Oxford, 1927), preface.
13
E.C. Kemble, R.T. Birge, W.F. Colby, F.W. Loomis, and L. Page, "Molecular spectra in gases," National Research Council, Bulletin, 11 (1926), 1–358.
14
A. Assmus, "Molecular structure and the genesis of the American quantum physics community, 1916–1926," Dissertation abstracts international, 52 (1991), 1057–A
"The molecular tradition in early quantum theory," HSPS, 22 (1992), 209–231
"The Americaniza- tion of molecular physics," HSPS, 23 (1993), 1–33.
15
D.A. Ramsay and J. Hinze, eds., Selected papers of R.S. Mulliken (Chicago, 1975).
P.O. Löwdin and B. Pullman, eds., Molecular orbitals in chemistry, physics, and biology: a tribute to R.S. Mulliken (New York, 1964).
Mulliken as- sessed his own contribution in his Life of a scientist: an autobiographical account of the development of molecular orbital theory with an introductory memoir by Friedrich Hund, ed. B.J. Ransil (Berlin, 1989).
16
Kemble et al. (ref. 13), 238.
17
Arnold Sommerfeld, Atomic structure and spectral lines, trans. Henry L. Brose (New York, 1923)
Irving Langmuir, "The arrangement of electrons in atoms and molecules," JACS, 41 (1919), 868–934.
18
Mulliken to Birge, Jun 1925 (BC, Box 21).
19
Birge, "The energy levels of the carbon monoxide molecule," Nature, 117 (1926), 229–230
"The band spectra of carbon monoxide," PR, 28 (1926), 1157–1181
H. Sponer, "Anregunspotentiale der Bandenspektren des Stickstoffs," ZP, 34 (1925), 622–633
R. Mecke, "Zum Wesen der Dublettstruktur einer Klasse von Bandenspektren," Naturwissenschaften, 13 (1925) , 755–756,
20
BC, Boxes 21, 31, and 32.
21
Birge, "The structure of molecules," Nature, 117 (1926), 300–302, on 301.
22
Mulliken, "The electronic states of the helium molecule," PNAS, 12 (1926), 158–162.
23
Mulliken, "Systematic relations between electronic structure and band-spectrum struc- ture in diatomic molecules, I," PNAS, 12 (1926), 144–157.
24
Mulliken, "Systematic relations between electronic structure and band-spectrum struc- ture in diatomic molecules, III: Molecule formation and molecular structure," PNAS, 12 (1926) , 338–343.
25
F. Hund, "Zur Deutung einiger Erscheinungen in den Molekelspektren," ZP, 36 (1926), 657–674.
26
Mulliken to Birge, 17 Oct 1926 (BC, Box 21).
27
Mulliken, "Electronic states. IV. Hund's theory; second positive nitrogen and swan bands; alternate intensities," PR, 29 (1927), 637–649.
ref. 13
28
Mulliken, Life (ref. 15), 59.
29
Talk on 24 Feb 1928 (MP, 72/14)
Mulliken to Van Vleck, 11 Apr 1928 (AHQP, Reel 49).
30
Mulliken to Van Vleck, 21 May 1928 (AHQP, Reel 49)
Van Vleck to Mulliken, 23 Jun 1928
31
Mulliken, "The assignment of quantum numbers for electrons in molecules," PR, 32 (1928), 186–222, on 190.
32
Mulliken, "Systematic relations" (ref. 23).
33
MP, 80/17.
35
Mulliken, "Quantum numbers" (ref. 31), 191–192.
36
Ibid., 194.
37
Ibid., 196.
38
Ibid., 201.
39
J.C. Slater, "Robert Mulliken of Newburyport," in Lowdin and Pullman (ref. 15), 19.
40
Gale to Mulliken, 6 and 22 Mar and 6 Apr 1928
Mulliken to Gale, 24 Mar 1928 (MP, 107/2).
41
Mulliken, Life (ref. 15), 67
"The interpretation of band spectra," RMP, 2 (1930)
60–115, 3 (1931)
89–155, and 4 (1932), 1–86.
42
J.H. Van Vleck and A. Sherman, "The quantum theory of valence," RMP, 7 (1935), 167–228, on 175.
43
MP, 82/8–11.
44
C.S. Mead, ed., The Pauling catalog: Ava Helen and Linus Pauling papers at Oregon State University (Corvallis, 1991)
A. Rich and N. David- son, eds., Structural chemistry and molecular biology: a volume dedicated to Linus Pauling by his students, colleagues and friends (San Francisco, 1968).
45
L. Pauling, "The prediction of the relative stabilities of isosteric isomeric ions and molecules," JACS, 48 (1926), 641–651.
46
Pauling, "The dynamic model of the chemical bond and its application to the structure of benzene," JACS, 48 (1926), 1132–1143.
PP, Box 242, Popular scientific lectures 1925–35, "Modern theories of valence and chemical combination"
47
Pauling to Noyes, 25 Apr, 22 May, and 22 Nov 1926 (PP, Box 71).
49
auling to Noyes, 22 May 1926 (PP, Box 71)
Pauling, "The quantum theory of the dielectric constant of hydrogen chloride and similar gases," PNAS, 12 (1926), 32–35
PR, 27 (1926), 568–577.
50
Pauling to Noyes, 12 Jul 1926 (PP, Box 71).
Pauling, "The influence of a magnetic field on the dielectric constant of a diatomic dipole gas," PR, 29 (1927), 145–160.
51
Pauling, "Fifty years of progress in structural chemistry and molecular biology," Daedalus, 99 (1970), 988–1014, on 993.
52
Pauling to Noyes, 12 Jul, 22 Nov, and 17 Dec 1926 (PP, Box 71, Noyes correspondence 1921–38).
53
Pauling, "The electron affinity of hydrogen and the second ionization potential of lithi- um," PR, 29 (1927), 285–291.
54
Pauling, "The theoretical prediction of the physical properties of many-electron atoms and ions," PRS, A114 (1927), 181–211.
Sommerfeld is in PP, Box 97.
56
Mulliken, "Molecular scientists and molecular science: some reminiscences," JCP, 43 (1965), S2–S11, on S7.
58
W. Heitler and F. London, "Wechselwirkung meutraler Atome und homöpolare Bin- dung nach der Quantenmechanik," ZP', 44 (1927), 455–472, on 472.
Van Vleck and Sherman (ref. 42).
59
Dictionary of scientific biography, s.v. "Schrödinger."
62
J.L. Heilbron, "The origins of the exclusion principle," HSPS, 13 (1983), 261–310.
B.L. van der Waerden, "Exclusion principle and spin," in M. Fierz and V.F. Weisskopf, eds., Theoretical physics in the twentieth century, a memorial volume to W. Pauli (New York, 1960)
H. Margenau, "The exclusion principle and its philosophical tradition," Philosophy of science, 11 (1944), 187–208.
63
H. Weyl, "Encomium," Science, 103 (22 Feb 1946), 216–218
W. Pauli, "Remarks on the history of the exclusion principle," Science, 103 (22 Feb 1946), 213–215.
64
S. Goudsmit and G.E. Uhlenbeck, "Ersetzung der Hypothese von unmechanischen Zwang durch eine Forderung beziiglich des inneren Verhaltens jedes einzelnen Elektrons," Na- turwissenschaften, 13 (1925), 953–954
"Spinning electrons and the structure of spectra," Nature, 107 (1926), 264–265
W. Pauli, "Zur Quantenmechanik des magnetischen Elektrons," ZP, 43 (1927), 601–623
C.G. Darwin, "The electron as a vector wave," PRS, 116 (1927), 227–253
P.A.M. Dirac, "Quantum theory of the electron," PRS, 117 (1928), 610–624.
66
London, "Quantentheorie und chemische Bindung," in Quantentheorie und Chemie (Leipzig, 1928), 59–84, on 71
Heitler and London (ref. 58), 456.
67
Van Vleck, "Spin, the great indicator of valence behavior," Pure and applied chemis- try, 24 (1970), 235–255, on 240.
68
Heitler to London, Sep 1927 (LA).
69
Ibid.
72
Heitler to London, 7 Dec 1927 (LA).
74
Hartree to London, 16 Sep 1928 (LA).
75
Heitler and G. Rumer, "Quantentheorie der Chemischen Bindung in Mehratomige Molecule," ZP, 68 (1931), 12–31.
77
London, "Zur Quantentheorie der homoopolaren Valenzzahlen," ZP, 46 (1928), 455– 467, on 459.
78
London (ref. 66), 60.
79
London, "Zur Quantenmechanik der homoopolaren Valenzchemie," ZP, 50 (1928), 24–51, on 48.
80
London, "Die Bedentung der Quantentheorie fur die Chemie" (Planck Festschrift), Na- turwissenschaften, 17 (1929), 516–529
London, "Valenzzahlen" (ref. 77)
"Valenzchem- ie" (ref. 79)
"Quantentheorie und Chemische Bindung" (ref. 66).
81
Pauling, "The application of the quantum mechanics to the structure of the hydrogen molecule," CR, 5 (1928), 173–213, on 174.
82
Van Vleck, "The new quantum mechanics," CR, 5 (1928), 467–507, on 506.
83
Louis de Broglie, "Opening address to the First International Congress of Quantum Chemistry at Menton, France, July 4–10, 1973,"
R. Daudel and B. Pullman, eds., The world of quantum chemistry (Dordrecht, 1974)
Max von Laue, History of physics (New York, 1950), 139.
84
Pauling and E.B. Wilson, Introduction to quantum mechanics with applications to chemistry (New York, 1935), 340.
85
W. Heisenberg, "Contribution to the discussion on the structure of simple molecules," in Chemistry at the centenary (1931) meeting of the British Association for the Advancement of Science {Cambridge, 1932), 247–248, on 247.
86
A.D. Buckingham, "Quantum chemistry," in C.W. Kilmister, ed., Schrodinger centenary celebration of a polymath (Cambridge, 1987), 112–117
McCrea, "How quantum physics came to England," New scientist, 17 (Oct 1985), 58–60.
88
Weyl, Group theory and quantum mechanics (New York, 1931), 342, 346, 370.
89
Mulliken's article, "Band spectra and chemistry," CR, 6 (1929), 503–545
90
Pauling, "The application of the quantum mechanics to the structure of the hydrogen molecule and the hydrogen molecule-ion and to related problems," CR, 5 (1928), 173–213.
92
Van Vleck (ref. 82).
93
Van Vleck, "The group relation between the Mulliken and Slater-Pauling theories of valence," JCP, 3 (1935), 803–806.
94
Van Vleck and Sherman (ref. 42), 173.
95
Van Vleck (ref. 82), 500, 503.
96
G.L. Clark, "Introductory remarks in the symposium on atomic structure and valence," CR, 5 (1928), 361–364, on 362.
97
W.H. Rodebush, "The electron theory of valence," CR, 5 (1928), 509–531, on 511, 513.
98
H.S. Fry, "A pragmatic system of notation for electronic valence conceptions in chemi- cal formulas," CR, 5 (1928), 557–568, on 558–559.
99
Hund, "Chemical binding," TRS, 25 (1929), 645–647.
100
J.E. Lennard-Jones, "The electronic structure of some diatomic molecules," TFS, 25 (1929), 665–686
W. Heitler, "Zur Quantentheorie der Valenz," Naturwissenschaften (5 Jul 1929), 546–547.
101
Pauling to Van Vleck, 9 Aug 1927 (PP, Box 113, Van Vleck Correspondence).
102
PP, Box 210, LP Calculations and Manuscripts, vol. Ill, 1926–27.
103
Pauling (ref. 46).
104
O. Burrau, "Berechnung des Energiewertes des Wasserstoffmolekel-Ions (H2+," Viden- skabernes Selskab, Matematisk-Fysiske Meddelelser, 7 (1927).
105
AHQP and Pauling, "Work on molecular orbitals," 1926 (ref. 102).
107
E.U. Condon, "Wave mechanics and the normal state of the hydrogen molecule," PNAS, 13 (1927), 466–470.
110
Pauling to Van Vleck (ref. 101).
111
Pauling, "The shared-electron chemical bond," PNAS, 14 (1928), 359–362.
112
Ref. 105.
113
AHQP and Pauling, "He spectrum" (ref. 109).
116
AHQP, and Pauling, "Group theory and chemical combination" (PP, Box 209, LP Notes and Calculations, vol. II, 1923–29).
London, "Valenzzahlen" (ref. 77).
117
Pauling (ref. 111).
118
Pauling (ref. 111), on 361.
120
Birge to Mulliken, 18 Apr 1931 (BC).
121
Pauling to Lamb, 11 Feb 1931 (PP, Box 168, American Chemical Society: Correspon- dence 1925–44).
122
Pauling, "Quantum mechanics and the chemical bond," PR, 37 (1931), 1185–1186
J.C. Slater, "Directed valence in polyatomic molecules," PR, 37 (1931), 481–489
S.S. Schweber, "The young Clark Slater and the development of quantum chemistry," HSPS, 20:2 (1990), 339–106.
123
PP, Box 212, LP Berkeley Lecture: Quantum Mechanics 1929–33, introduction to first lecture on "The nature of the chemical bond."
124
JACS, 53 (1931), 1367–1400, on 1367.
125
PP, Box 212, LP Berkeley Lectures: Quantum Mechanics 1929–33
127
Ref. 89.
MP, 84/10
128
Birge to Mulliken, 1 Feb 1930 (BC, Box 33).
129
Mulliken to Birge, 26 Mar 1931 (BC, 21).
130
Birge to Mulliken, 17 Mar 1928 (BC, 32).
131
Mulliken to Birge, Leipzig [1930] (BC, 21).
132
Mulliken (ref. 128), "Bonding power of electrons and theory of valence," CR, 9 (1931), 347–388, on 347, 384, 369.
133
Ibid., 350, 351.
134
Ibid., 354.
135
Ibid., 357, 360.
136
Ibid., 383.
137
Ibid., 357, 359.
Van Vleck (ref. 67).
138
Ibid., 384–385.
139
Ibid., 369.
140
"II. The one-electon bond and the three-electron bond," JACS, 53 (1931), 3225–3237 extreme bond type to another," JACS, 54 (1932), 988–1003
"IV. The energy of single bonds and the relative electronegativity of atoms," ibid., 3570–3582
"V. The quantum mechanical calculation of the resonance energy of benzene and naphthalene and the hydrocarbon free radi- cals," JCP, 1 (1933), 362–374, with G. Wheland
"VI. The calculation from thermochemical data of the energies of resonance of molecules among several electronic structures," ibid., 606–617, with J. Sherman
"VII. The calculation of resonance energy in conjugated systems," ibid., 679–686.
141
Pauling, "Recent work on the structure of molecules," talk given to the Southern Sec- tion of the American Chemical Society, 1936 (PP, Box 242, Popular Scientific Lectures 1925– 55).
142
Pauling, "Resonance and organic chemistry," 1941 (ibid.).
143
Pauling, "The theory of valence and of the structure of atoms, molecules, and cry- stals," 1957 (PP, Box 243, Popular Scientific Lectures 1956–65).
144
McGraw-Hill (New York, 1935–85).
145
Lewis to Pauling, 25 Aug 1939 (PP, Box 58).
146
The draft chapters are in PP, Box 372.
147
Pauling to Wheland, 30 Oct 1936
13 and 30 Mar 1937
28 Jul 1937
Wheland to Pauling, 29 Nov 1936 (PP, Box 115).
148
Pauling to Wheland, 1 Dec 1944
27 Jun 1945
Wheland to Pauling, 6 Dec 1944 (PP, Box 115).
149
"The nature of the chemical bond 1932–59" (PP, Box 399).
150
Pauling, The nature of the chemical bond and the structure of molecules and crystals (New York, 1939), 12.
152
Pauling to Wheland, 24 May 1943
Wheland to Pauling, 17 May 1943
6 Dec 1944
21 Apr 1954 (PP, Box 115)
Wheland, The theory of resonance and its applications to or- ganic chemistry (New York, 1944).
153
Wheland to Pauling, 20 Jan 1956 (PP, Box 115).
154
Pauling to Wheland, 26 Jan and 8 Feb 1956 (PP, Box 115).
155
Wheland to Pauling, 4 Feb 1956 (PP, Box 115).
156
Ref. 154.
157
Pauling, "Modern structural chemistry. Nobel lecture, December 11, 1954," in Nobel lectures in chemistry 1942–1962 (Amsterdam, 1964), 134–148.
158
Pauling, "The nature of the theory of resonance," in Sir Alexander Todd, ed., Per- spectives in organic chemistry, dedicated to Sir Robert Robinson (New York, 1956)
The nature of the chemical bond and the structure of molecules and crystals (3rd edn., New York, 1967).
159
Pauling, "The nature of theory of resonance" (ref. 158), 6–7
The nature of the chemical bond (ref. 158), 219–220.
160
J.R. Platt, "1966 Nobel Laureate in chemistry: Robert S. Mulliken," Science, 154 (1966), 745–747, on 746.
161
Mulliken, "Electronic structure of polyatomic molecules and valence," PR, 40 (1932), 55–62.
162
Mulliken to Van Vleck, 28 Feb and 28 Mar 1932 (AHQP, Reel 49).
163
Hund, "Zur Frage der chemischen Bindung," ZP, 73 (1931), 1–30.
164
Mulliken, "Electronic structures of polyatomic molecules and valence. II. General considerations," PR, 41 (1932), 49–71, on 51.
165
Ibid., 52.
166
Ibid., 60.
167
Mulliken to Van Vleck, 16 Apr 1935 (AIP, Van Vleck Papers, 38/47).
168
Mulliken, "Electronic structures of polyatomic molecules and valence. VI. On the method of molecular orbitals," JCP, 3 (1935), 375–378, on 376.
169
Mulliken (ref. 168), 378.
Van Vleck of 1 Jul 1935(?) (AHQP, Reel 49).
170
Mulliken, "Electron states and the structure of molecules" (MP, 74/2).
171
Mulliken, Selected papers (ref. 15), on 13
Lewis' award, "What are the electrons really doing in molecules," Vortex, 21 (1960), 1–5.
172
"Electronic structure of molecules," talk at the Chicago meeting of the National Academy of Sciences(?), 1937(7), (MP, 74/6).
174
Heitler to London, 4 Nov 1935 (LA).
175
Heitler to London, 12 Nov 1935 (LA).
176
Ibid.
177
Ibid.
178
London to Heitler, Oct or Nov 1935 (LA).
179
London to Heitler, 17 Nov 1935 (LA)
Heitler to London, 22 Nov 1935 (LA).
180
London to Heitler, Nov 1935 (LA).
181
Mulliken, "Interpretation of band spectra. III" (ref. 41), 30.
182
Mulliken, "Quantum numbers I" (ref. 31), 189
PR, 32 (1928), 761–772.
183
Mulliken, "The assignment of quantum numbers for electrons in molecules. III. Dia- tomic hydrides," PR, 33 (1929), 731–747.
184
Mulliken, "Electronic structures of polyatomic molecules and valence. V. Molecular RXn," JCP, 1 (1933), 492–503.
185
Mulliken, "Spectroscopy, molecular orbitals and chemical bonding," Science, 157 (7 Jul 1967), 17.
186
R. Kronig, The optical basis of valency (Cambridge, 1935).
187
Ibid.
188
Wheland, "The quantum mechanics of unsaturated and aromatic molecules: A com- parison of two methods of treatment," JCP, 2 (1934), 474–481.
189
Heitler to London, beginning of Dec 1935 (LA).
190
Heitler to London, 13 Dec 1935 (LA).
191
Ibid.
192
Heitler to London, 6 Feb 1936 (LA).
193
Heitler to London, 7 Oct 1936 (LA).
194
London to Heitler, Nov(?) 1936 (LA).
195
London to Born, 1 Oct 1936 (LA).
196
Born to London, 10 Oct 1936 (LA).
197
Heitler to London, 7 Oct 1936 (LA).
198
Heitler, Elementary wave mechanics with applications to chemistry (Oxford, 1956)
199
Heitler and G. Poschl, "Ground states of C2 and 02 and the theory of valency," Na- ture (2 Jun 1934), 833–834.
200
M.J. Nye, "Physics and chemistry: Commensurate and incommensurate sci- ences?", in Nye and J. Richards, eds., The invention of physical science (Dordrecht, 1992), 205–224.
201
Heitler, Wave mechanics (ref. 198), on 190.
202
Heitler, "Quantum chemistry: the early period," International journal of quantum chemistry, 1 (1967), 13–36, on 14, 35, 13
"The theory of the chemical bond," Archiv filr Physik, 10 (1955), 145–156, on 156.
203
K. Gavroglu, Fritz London: A scientific biography (Cambridge, 1994).
206
Hund to London, 13 Jul 1928 (LA).
207
Van Vleck to Mulliken, 23 Jun 1928 (AHQP, Reel 49).
208
Van Vleck and Sherman (ref. 42), 168–169.
209
R.H. Fowler, "A report on homopolar valency and its quantum mechanical interpreta- tion," in Chemistry at the centenary (1931) meeting of the British Association for the Ad- vancement of Science (Cambridge, 1932), 226–246, on 226.
210
Heisenberg, "Contributions to the discussion on the structure of simple molecules," ibid., 247–248.
211
C.A. Coulson, "Recent developments in valence theory," Pure and applied chemistry, 24 (1970), 257–287, on 259, 287.
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