[Footnotes]

[Footnotes]
1
Roger Stuewer, "The nuclear electron hypothesis," in Otto Hahn and the rise of nuclear physics (Dordrecht, 1983), 19–67
2
Conseil de Physique Solvay, VII, 1933, Structure et proprietes des noyaux atomiques (Paris, 1934).
3
Charles Weiner, " 1932-Moving into the new physics," PT, 25:5 (1972), 40–49.
4
W. Heisenberg, "Uber den Bau der Atomkerne," ZP, 77 (1932), 1–11, 78 (1932), 156- 164
80 (1933), 587–596.
5
Ettore Majorana, "Über die Kerntheorie," ZP, 82 (1933), 137–145
E. Wigner "On the mass defect of helium," PR, 43 (1933), 252–257.
7
Brown and Rechenberg (ref. 1)
L.M. Brown and D.F. Moyer, "Lady or tiger—the Meitner-Hupfeld effect and Heisenberg's neutron theory," AJP, 52 (1984), 130–136.
8
W. Pauli, Scientific correspondence, 2, ed. K. von Meyenn (Berlin, 1985), 113–114.
9
Pauli to Heisenberg, 14 Jul 1933 (ref. 8), 184–187.
10
Ref. 2, 325.
11
Ref. 2, 331.
12
W. Pauli, "Zur älteren und neueren Geschichte des Neutrinos" (1958), in Pauli, Physik und Erkeuntnistheorie (Braunschweig, 1984), 156–180.
N. Bohr, "Chemistry and the quantum theory of atomic constitution, "Journal of the Chemical Society (London) (1932), 349–384, esp. 383.
Pauli, "Only in 1936 did [Bohr] accept completely the validity of the energy theorem in β-decay and the neutrino, when Fermi's theory had already developed successful- ly."
Pauli, Physik und Erkenntnistheorie (1984), 163.
13
E. Fermi, "Tentativo di una teoria dell'emissione dei raggi 'beta,' " Ricerca scientifica, 4:2 (1933), 491–195
"Tentativo di una teoria dei raggi β" NC, 2 (1934), 1–19
"Versuch einer Theorie der β -Strahlen, I," ZP, 88 (1934), 161–171
E. Segrès et al., eds., Enrico Fermi, Collected Papers, I (Chicago, 1962).
14
P. Jordan and O. Klein "Zum Mehrkörperproblem der Quantentheorie," ZP, 45 (1927), 751–763
P. Jordan and E. Wigner "Über das Paulische Äquivalenzverbot," ZP, 47 (1928), 631–651.
W. Heisenberg, "Zum Paulischen Ausschliessungsprinzip," AP, 10 (1931), 888–904
Rasetti in Collected Papers (ref. 13, 539),
15
E. Fermi, "Versuch" (ref. 13), 166.
16
E. Fermi, "Quantum theory of radiation," Reviews of modern physics, 4 (1932), 87– 132.
17
Pauli (ref. 12).
N. Bohr, "Conservation laws in quantum theory," Nature, 138 (1936), 25–26.
18
Bohr in Conseil (ref. 2), 287.
19
G. Beck and K. Sitte, "Zur Theorie des β-Zerfalls," ZP, 86 (1933), 105–119
G. Beck, "Conservation laws and β-Emission," Nature, 132 (1933), 967
G. Beck and K. Sitte, "Be- merkung zur Arbeit von E. Fermi: "Versuch einer Theorie der β-Strahlen," ZP, 89 (1934), 259–260.
20
International Conference on Physics, 1934, Nuclear Physics (Cambridge, 1935).
22
Brown and Rechenberg (ref. 1).
23
Heisenberg to Bohr, 13 Mar 1934
Curie and F. Joliot, "Une nouveau type de radioactivité CR, 198 (1934), 254–256
24
Bohr to Pauli, 15 Mar 1934
Pauli, Correspondence (ref. 8), 307–310, esp. 310.
25
Felix Bloch to Gregor Wentzel, 24 Dec 1933 (AHQP).
26
Pauli to Heisenberg, 7 Jan 1934 (ref. 8), 248.
27
Heisenberg to Pauli, 12 Jan 1934 (ref. 8), 249.
28
Heisenberg to Pauli, 18 Jan 1934 (ref. 8), 250–253.
Heisenberg to Pauli, 17 Jul 1933 (ref. 8), 195.
29
A.O. Barut's article, "Bemerkungen iiber C.F. von Weizsäckers Theorie der Kernkräfte," in Physik, Philosophic und Politik, ed. K.M. Meyer-Abich (Munich, 1982), 335–341.
30
Fermi to Heisenberg, 30 Jan 1934 and 6 Feb 1934 (Werner-Heisenberg-Archiv and AHQP).
31
E. Fermi "Versuch" (ref. 13), 162.
I. Curie and F. Joliot (ref. 23).
G.C. Wick, "Sugli elementi radioattivi de F. Joliot e I. Curie," RAL, 19 (1934), 319–324.
32
Wick to Heisenberg, 16 Apr [1934]
33
Heisenberg (ref. 4), 595.
L.M. Brown and D.F. Moyer (ref. 7).
34
A.J.F. Siegert, "Note on the interaction between nuclei and electromagnetic radiation," PR, 52 (1937), 787– 789.
35
R. Frisch and I. Estermann, "Uber die magnetische Ablenkung von Wasserstoffmolekiilen und das magnetische Moment des Protons," ZP, 85 (1933), 4–24.
G.C. Wick, "Teori dei raggi e momento magnetico del protone," RAL, 21 (1935), 170–173.
36
Heisenberg to Bohr, 17 Apr 1934.
37
I. Tamm, "Exchange forces between neutrons and protons and Fermi's theory," Nature, 133 (1934), 981
D. Iwanenko, "Interaction of neutrons and protons," ibid, 981–982.
D. Iwanenko, "The neutron hypothesis," Nature, 129 (1932), 798
"Sur la constitution des noyeaux atomiques," CR, 195 (Paris, 1932), 439– 441.
38
A. Nordsieck, "Neutron collisions and the beta-ray theory of Fermi," PR, 46 (1934), 234–235.
39
L.M. Brown, "How Yukawa arrived at the meson theory," Progress of theoretical phy- sics, 85:suppl. (1985), 13–19
"Hideki Yukawa and the meson theory," PT, 39:5 (1986), 1–8.
40
Tabibito (The Traveler), trans. L.M. Brown and R. Yoshida (Singapore, 1982), 201.
41
H. Yukawa, "On the interaction of elementary particles, I.," Physico-Mathematical So- ciety of Japan, Proceedings, 17 (1935), 48–57.
42
S.H. Neddermeyer and C.D. Anderson, "Note on the nature of cosmic-ray particles," PR, 51 (1937), 884–886
J.C. Street and E.C. Stevenson, "Penetrating corpuscular component of the cosmic radiation," ibid., 1005
Y. Nishina, M. Takeuchi, and T. Ichimiya, "On the na- ture of cosmic-ray particles," ibid., 52 (1937), 1198–1199.
43
Conference ( ref. 20), 66 ff.
44
Heisenberg to Pauli, 28 Oct 1934 (ref. 8), 354–356.
45
Pauli to Heisenberg, 1 Nov 1934 (ref. 8), 357–358.
K. von Meyenn (ref. 8, 245)
46
Heisenberg to Pauli, 4 Nov 1934 (ref. 8), 358–360.
47
Pauli to Heisenberg, 7 Nov 1934 (ref. 8), 360–363.
48
W. Heisenberg, "Bemerkungen zur Theorie des Atomkerns," in Pieter Zeeman, 1865– 25 Mei-1935, Verhandelingen op 25 Mei 1935 Aangeboden aan Prof. Dr. P. Zeeman (The Hague, 1935), 108–116.
49
Die Atomkerne (Leipzig, 1937), 29
50
Ref. 48, 112.
51
Weizsacker in ref. 49, 188–191.
52
ref. 35.
53
E.J. Konopinski and G.E. Uhlenbeck, "On the Fermi theory of /3-radioactivity," PR, 48 (1935), 7–12.
54
Pauli to Heisenberg, 22 Feb 1938 (ref. 8), 552.
55
V. Weizsäcker (ref. 49); George Gamow, Atomic nuclei and nuclear transformations (Oxford, 1937)
H.A. Bethe and R.F. Bacher, "Nuclear physics, A. stationary states of nu- clei," Reviews of modern physics, 8 (1936), 82–229
H.A. Bethe, "B. Nuclear dynamics, theoretical," ibid., 9 (1937), 69–244
M. Stanley Livingston and H.A. Bethe, "C. Nuclear dynamics, experimental," ibid., 9 (1937), 245–390.
56
ref. 53.
57
Ref. 55, part A, 203.
58
Ref. 55, part A, 204.
59
Wigner (ref. 5), 253.
60
R.D. Present, "Must neutron-neutron forces exist in the H3 nu- cleus?," PR, 50 (1936), 635–642.
61
Ref. 60
ref. 55
62
Pauli to Wentzel, 24 Feb 1936 (ref. 8), 440–441.
63
M.G. White, "Scattering of high energy protons in hydrogen," PR, 49 (1936), 309–316
M.A. Tuve, N.P. Heydenburg, and L.R. Hafstad, ibid., 50 (1936), 806–825.
G. Breit, E.U. Condon, and R.D. Present, "Theory of scattering of protons by protons," ibid., 825–845.
G. Breit and E. Feenberg, "The possibility of the same form of specific interaction for all nuclear particles," ibid., 850–856.
B. Cassen and E.U. Condon, "On nuclear forces," ibid., 846–849.
65
G. Wentzel, "Zur Theorie der β-Umwandlung und der Kernkräfte," ZP, 104 (1937), 34–47
ibid., 105 (1939), 738–746.
Visvapriya Mukjerji, "A history of the meson theory of nuclear forces from 1935 to 1952," AHES, 13 (1974), 28–100.
66
G. Wentzel, "Zur Frage der β-Wechselwirkung," Helvetica physica acta, 10 (1937), 107–-111.
G. Wentzel, "Zum Problem des statischen Meson- feldes," ibid., 13 (1940), 269–308.
67
G. Gamow and E. Teller, "Some generalizations of the transformation theory," PR, 51 (1937), 289.
68
N. Kemmer, "Field theory of nuclear interaction," PR, 52 (1937), 906–910.
69
Ref. 8, 490.
N. Kemmer, "Die Anfäge der Mesontheorie und des verallgemeinerten Isospins," Physikalische Blatter, 39 (1983), 170–175.
70
Cassen and Condon (ref. 63).
E. Wigner, "On the consequences of the symmetry of the nuclear Hamiltonian on the spectroscopy of nuclei," PR, 51 (1937), 106–119.
71
Ref. 68, 908.
73
ref. 68
74
Breit and Feenberg (ref. 63).
75
J.R. Oppenheimer and R. Serber, "Note on the nature of cosmic-ray particles," PR, 51 (1937), 113.
76
E.C.G. Stueckelberg, "On the existence of heavy electrons," PR, 52 (1937), 41–42.
Stueckelberg are "Radioactive β-decay and a nuclear exchange force as a consequence of a unitary field theory," Nature, 137 (1936), 1032
"Feldtheorie der Materie," Helvetica physica acta, 9 (1936), 389–404, 533–554.
77
H. Yukawa, "On a possible interpretation of the penetrating component of the cosmic ray," Physico-Mathematical Society of Japan, Proceedings, 19 (1937), 712–713.
78
"On the interaction of elementary particles," in Physico-Mathematical Society of Japan, Proceedings, by H. Yukawa and S. Sakata, in 19 (1937), 1084–1093
H. Yukawa and by S. Sakata, and M. Taketani, in 20 (1938), 319–340.
N. Kemmer, "The impact of Yukawa's meson theory on workers in Europe a reminis- cence," Progress in theoretical physics, 1965: suppl., 602–608.
N. Kemmer, "Na- ture of the nuclear field," Nature, 141 (1938), 16–17
H.J. Bhabha, "Nuclear Forces, Heavy electrons and the β-decay," ibid., 117–118.
79
H. Yukawa and S. Sakata, "The mass and the life-time of the mesotron," Physico-Mathematical Society of Japan, Proceedings, 21 (1939), 138–140
H. Yukawa and S. Sakata, "Mass and mean life- time of the meson," Nature, 143 (1939), 761–762.
Yukawa, Sakata, and Taketani (ref. 78).
80
N. Kemmer, "Quantum theory of Einstein-Bose parti- cles and nuclear interaction," Royal Society of London, Proceedings, A166 (1938), 127–153.
H. Fröhlich, W. Heitler, and N. Kemmer, "On the nuclear forces and the magnetic moments of the neutron and the proton," ibid., 154–177
Yu- kawa, Sakata, and Taketani (ref. 78).
81
N. Kemmer, "The charge-dependence of nuclear forces," Cambridge Philosophical So- ciety, Proceedings, 34 (1938), 354–364
H. Yukawa, S. Sakata, M. Kobayashi, and M. Tak- etani, "On the interaction of elementary particles, IV," Physico-Mathematical Society of Japan, Proceedings, 20 (1938), 720–745.
82
S. Hayakawa, "The development of meson physics in Japan," in The birth of particle physics, eds. L.M. Brown and L. Hoddeson (Cambridge, 1983), 82–107.
83
H.A. Bethe, "The meson theory of nuclear forces," PR, 55 (1939), 1261–1263
"The meson theory of nuclear forces," PR, 57 (1940), 260–272, 390–413.
84
Gamow and Teller (ref. 67)
C. Critchfield and E. Teller, "On the saturation of nuclear forces," PR, 53 (1938), 812–818.
85
E.P. Wigner, C.L. Critchfield, and E. Teller, "The electron-positron field theory of nu- clear forces," PR, 56 (1939), 530–539, on 533.
86
C.L. Critchfield, "Spin dependence in the electron-positron theory of nuclear forces," PR, 56 (1939), 540–547.
87
R.E. Marshak: Heavy electron pair theory of nuclear forces, PR, 57 (1940), 1101–1106, on 1101.
88
C.L. Critchfield and W.E. Lamb, Jr., "Note on a field theory of nuclear forces," PR, 58 (1940), 46–49
R.E. Marshak and V.F. Weisskopf, "On the scattering of mesons of spin 1/2 by atomic nuclei," PR, 59 (1941), 130–135
Mukherji (ref. 65).
89
C.M.G. Lattes, H. Muirhead, G.P.S. Occhialini, and C.F. Powell, "Processes involving charged mesons," Nature, 159 (1947), 694–697.
90
R. Bjorklund, W.E. Crandall, B.J. Moyer, and H.F. York, "High energy photons from proton-nucleon collisions," PR, 77 (1950), 213–218
J. Steinberger, W.K.H. Panofsky, and J. Stellar, "Evidence for the production of neutral mesons by photons," PR, 78 (1950), 802–805.
A.G. Carlson, J.E. Cooper, and D.T. King, "Nuclear transformations produced by cosmic ray particles of great energy, V. The neutral mesons," Philosophical magazine, 41 (1950), 701–724.
91
R.E. Marshak and H.A. Bethe, "On the two-meson hypothesis," PR, 72 (1947), 506– 509.
S. Sakata and T. Inoue, "On the relation between the meson and the Yukawa parti- cle," Physico-Mathematical Society of Japan, Bulletin, 16 (1942), 232–234 (in Japanese)
Progress in theoretical physics, 1 (1946), 143–150.
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