[Footnotes]

[Footnotes]
1
1 Chron., 21:1–16
2 Sam., 24:1–16.
Exod., 30:12–15
2
Cohen, Calculating people (1982), 26
Pepys, Diary (1970), 3, 131, 134–5, 137.
3
Shapin and Schaffer, Leviathan (1985), 318.
4
Dee, "Mathematical Preface" (1570), *ir, *iiijv
Heilbron, in Shumaker, ed., Propaedeumata (1978), 4, 7.
5
Frängsmyr, Heilbron, and Rider, eds., The quantifying spirit (1990).
1
Crosland and Smith, HSPS, 9 (1978), 7–9.
2
Fox, HSPS, 4 (1974), 95
Gay-Lussac, MSA, 2 (1809), 207–208
infra, §1.1.
3
Rider, in Frängsmyr, Spirit (1990), 114–120.
4
Levy, CR, 131 (1900), 1027.
5
Silliman, HSPS, 4 (1974), 138, 143–144, 149
Fox, ibid., 136.
6
Whitman, "To think of time," in Writings (1902), 1, 385.
7
Fox, HSPS, 4 (1974), 110
Kleinert, in Fabian et al., Deutschlands Entfaltung (1980), 109–111
Haüy, Traité (1806), 1, x-xxii; Rosenberger, Geschichte (1882), 3,l3ff.
8
Frängsmyr et al., Spirit (1990), 1–3, 153–158, 311–312.
9
Friedrich Murhard, Geschichte (1798/9)
Fischer, Geschichte (1801), 8, lviii
A. Libes, Histoire (1810), 1, 1.
Thome de Gamond, Account (1870), vii.
10
Hassenfratz, Ecole poly., Jl., no. 5 (an vi [1799]), 238.
11
Gillispie, Montgolfiers (1983), 31–32, 58–62, 95–108, 135
Crouch, Eagle (1783), 13, 25, 37, 44, 77, 103
Manley, in Cardwell, Dalton (1968), 141
Farrar, ibid., 182.
12
Biot, JP, 59 (1804), 314 (quote), 317-318
Gay-Lussac, ibid., 458–460
Cros- land, Society (1967), 262–264.
13
Biot and Arago, MIT, 1806, 301–302.
14
Jenisch, Geist (1800), 3, 498.
15
Gay-Lussac, AC, 43 (1802), 140, 152–156, 158–164
infra, §2.2.
16
Desormes and Clement, JP, 89 (1819), 325–327 (quote), 336, text of 1812.
17
Fox, Caloric theory (1971), 6, 9–11
Fischer, Geschichte (1801), 7, 524, 529
Muncke, in Gehler, Wörterhuch, 10, 56f.
18
Heilbron, Electricity (1979), 384–390, 421–426.
19
Ibid., 418–419, 431–435.
20
McKie and Heathcote, Discovery (1935), 78–93
Oseen, Wilcke (1939), 156, 174–177.
21
Sebastiani, Physis, 23 (1981), 96–97
24 (1982), 208–209.
22
Oseen, Wilcke (1939), 232–234, 247–248
McKie and Heathcote, Discovery (1935), 31–53, 95–108
Guerlac, DSB, s.v. "Black."
23
Wilcke, KVA, HandL, 2 (1781), 143–163.
Seguin, AC, 3 (1789), 154–155, 160, 177–179, 187, 215, 217, 219
Fischer, Geschichte (1801), 7, 532.
24
Guerlac, HSPS, 7 (1976), 276
Lavoisier (1961), 68, 92–94
Lavoisier, JP, 2 (1772), 428–431.
25
Guerlac, HSPS, 7 (1976), 200–203, 220–221, 256
Lavoisier (1961), 97– 101, 218–221
Lavoisier, MAS, 1777, 592–600, in Oeuvres (1862), 2, 228–231.
26
Guerlac, HSPS, 7 (1976), 207–208
Lavoisier, MAS, 1777, 420–432, in Oeuvres (1862), 2, 216–221
Lavoisier, Elements (1790), 11, 14.
27
Morris, BJHS, 6 (1972), 13–14
Guerlac, HSPS, 7 (1976), 27, 229, 233–234, 250–252
Lavoisier and Laplace, MAS, 1780, 364
infra, §2.2.
28
Morris, BJHS, 6 (1972), 5–7
Lavoisier, MAS, 1777, 420–432, in Oeuvres (1862), 2, 212, 217.
29
Lavoisier, Oeuvres (1862), 2, 376, 270
Guerlac, HSPS, 7 (1976), 238
Lavoisier, MAS, 1781, 292
MAS, 1780, 334.
30
Volta, PT, 72 (1782), xxxii.
Sebastiani, Physis, 23 (1981), 89–90, 101–102.
31
Heilbron, Electricity (1979), 379, 396–397, 500.
32
Lavoisier, Elements (1790), 2–4, 7–8, 15–19
Morris, BJHS, 6 (1972), 17, 22, 25–26.
33
Lavoisier, MAS, 1782, 530, in Oeuvres (1862), 2, 550–551
Laplace, Expo- sition (1796), 2, 197
Guerlac, HSPS, 7 (1976), 272, 274.
34
Heilbron, Electricity (1979), 478–480.
35
Ibid., 471–476.
Frankel, HSPS, 8 (1977), 38–39
infra, §2.2.
36
E.G. Fischer, Physique mécanique (1806), 257–261.
37
Infra, §2.2.
Delametherie, JP, 54 (1802), 18.
38
Weiss, Prevost (1988), 156
Biot and Arago, MIF, 1806, 327
Configliachi, JP, 77 (1813), 212–213, 233
Morichini, ibid., 294–297, 308
39
Fischer, Napoleon (1988), 283.
40
Shimank, in lessing (1968), 67
41
Leslie, Diss. (1842), 743.
infra, §2.2.
42
Lichtenberg, in Erxleben, Anfangsgründe (1791), xxv
Kleinert, in Fabian, Entfaltung (1980), 103.
Delametherie, JP, 46 (1798), 24
43
Bentham, The theory of fictions (1789), ed. C.K. Ogden (1959), 110
Fink, Archiv f. Begriffsgesch., 25 (1982), 71
Haüy, Traite (1806), vii.
44
Fischer, Wärt., 1 (1798), v, 599 (art. "Cohäsion")
ibid., 6 (1805), 773-774, s.v. "Wärme."
45
Jenish, Geist (1800), 3, 500–501
Gren, Grundriss (1797), 3–5
(1808), 3–4.
Lorenz, NTM, 27 (1990:1), 34
Gren's Kantianism, and ibid., 27–31, 35–37
Weiss, Prevost (1988), 96–98.
46
Fischer, in Gren, Grundriss (1808), 4, 286–287
Krafft, Ber. Wiss. Ges., 1 (1978), 148.
47
Biot, in Fischer, Physique mecanique (1806), iv
Fischer, ibid., 76–77
Biot, Traite (1816), 1, xx–xxi.
48
Haüy, Traite (1806), 1, 79–81.
ibid., 2, 138–139
49
Nicholson, First principles (17922), 6
Introduction (17903), 114
50
McKie and Heathcote, Discovery (1935), 27-30
Sebastiani, Physis, 23 (1981), 92–94
Sigrist, Origines (1990), 86
Evans and Popp, AJP, 53 (1985), 745
Fox, Caloric theory (1971), 23–26.
51
Deluc to Blagden, 24 Aug 1783 (Blagden Papers, Royal Society).
52
Lavoisier and Laplace, MAS, 1780, 355, in Lavoisier, Oeuvres (1862), 2, 286– 287
Lavoisier, Elements (1790), 5, 23
Lilley, Arch. int. hist, sci, 1 (1948), 631– 634
Morris, BJHS, 6 (1972), 31–32
Fox, Caloric theory (1971), 28–37
Gillispie, DSB, 15, 313, s.v. "Laplace."
53
Seguin, AC, 3 (1789), 182–184, 189 (quote), 207, 221–224
Barruel, Ecole poly., Jl, no. 4 (an iv), 631–636
Brisson, Dictionnaire (an viii), 2, 140, s.v. "chaleur
Hutton, Dictionary (1815), 1, 265
Friedman, HSPS, 8 (1977), 74–76, 90–96.
54
Gay-Lussac, AC, 81 (1812), 107, AC, 13 (1820), 304, 307
Crosland, Gay-Lussac (1978), 125.
Berzelius to Davy, [1812], in Fox, BJHS, 4 (1968), 12
55
Muncke, in Gehler, Wörterbuch, 10, 95, 97 (quote), 100 (quote), 103.
56
Lichtenberg and Volta, Heilbron, Electricity (1979), 447–448
Grundriss (1797), 7–8, 792–793
(1808), 8–9, 653
Fischer, Wort, 1 (1798), 922.
57
French dualists, Heilbron, Electricity (1979), 473–474, 498–499
Poisson, JP, 75 (1812), 229
Haüy, his Tratté (1806), 2, 366.
58
Fischer, Wort, 3 (1800), 429, 452 (quote), 460, s.v. "Magnet,"
5 (1804), 400, 406, s.v. "Wärme
Lavoisier, Elements (1790), 175.
59
Rosmorduc, Coll. Gay-Lussac (1980), 216–219
Essai de sta- tique chimie (1803), 1, 192–204.
60
Berard, MSA, 3 (1817), 7, 9–10, 28
Gay-Lussac and Thenard, Recherches physico-chimiques (1811), 2, 186–206
Rosmorduc, Coll. Gay-Lussac (1980), 224–226.
61
Infra, §2.2.
62
Tremery, Soc. phil., Bull, 3 (1813), 323–328
Delaroche, ibid., 131
JP, 75 (1812), 201, 211.
63
Heilbron, Electricity (1979), 1-19
Rousseau and Porter, Ferment (1980), 361–365
Schimank, in Lessing (1968)
MIT, 1 (1798), ii–iii, viii.
64
Gilles, Erxleben (1978), 17, 22–33, 28.
65
Hassenfratz, Ecole poly., Jl, no. 6 (1799), 372 (quote)–374.
66
Gren, Grundriss (1797), v, x–xi, resp.
ibid., xv.
67
Jenisch, Geist (1800), 1, 482, 3, 499–500
68
Guerlac, HSPS, 7 (1976), 193–195
Lavoisier (1961), 228–230
Perrin, Isis, 81 (1990), 262
Volta, text of 1783
Sebastiani, Physis, 24 (1982), 20.
69
Guerlac, HSPS, 7 (1976), 194–196, 267–274
Lavoisier and Laplace, and of Donovan, Osiris, 4 (1988), 221–222, 226.
Melhado, Isis, 76 (1985), 195, 210
Freudenthal, Etudes (1989), 125–126
Lundgren, in Frängsmyr, Spirit (1990), 245–246, 257–263.
70
Lavoisier to Franklin, February 1790
Donovan, Osiris, 4 (1988), 227–228.
71
Donovan, Osiris, 4 (1988), 215, 226–228
Petrin, ibid., 55–64
Isis, 81 (1990), 262, 265–267
Melhado, in Freudenthal, Etudes (1989), 116.
72
Crosland, in Rousseau and Porter, Ferment (1980), 391
Donovan, Osiris, 4 (1988), 231.
73
Lavoisier to Franklin, Feb 1790
Donovan, Osiris, 4 (1988), 227
Pictet, Jl de Genéve, 28 Nov 1789
Perrin, Isis, 81 (1990), 269.
Levere, in Levere and Shea, Nature (1990), 207, 210
74
Fischer, Wort, 3 (1800), 891-893, 899
Haüy, Tratte (1806), 1, ii–iii.
75
Landriani to Magellan, 12 Feb 1781
Achard to Magellan, 6 Aug 1784
Carvalho, Correspondencia (1952), 51, 107
Fischer, Physique mecanique (1806), 76– 77.
76
Gehler, Wort (1798), s.v. "Physik," summarized by Krafft, Ber. Wiss. Ges., 1 (1978), 149–150.
Hassenfratz, Ecole poly., Jl, no. 5 (an vi), 239.
77
Delambre, Rapport (1810), 31–32
Silliman, HSPS, 4 (1974), 142
Biot, "A monsieur Berthollet," in Fischer, Physique mecanique (1806), i.
78
Barruel, Ecole poly., Jl, no. 3 (an iii), 337, and no. 4 (an iv), 623–624.
Hassenfratz, ibid., no. 5 (an vi), 238, and no. 6 (an vii), 144, 376–377
Fischer, in Gren, Grundriss (1808), 94–95.
79
Hassenfratz, Ecole poly., //, no. 6 (an vii), 375
infra, §5.1
80
Libes, Trattato (1803), 1, 244.
Gillispie, Inter- sezioni, 9 (1989), 411.
81
Haüy, Traite (18062), 1, 446–447, 2, 402
Nicholson, Introduction (17903), 1, 253–314, 2, 1–366
Fischer, Physique mecanique (1806), ix–xvi.
Arnold, AHES, 28 (1983), 250, 263–264.
82
Fischer, Physique mecanique (1806), 3
Gren, Grundriss (1793), xi (quote), xii– xiv.
83
Haüy, Traite (18062), 1, ii, iv
Nicholson, Introduction (17903), 2, 112
Playfair, Outlines (1812), 1, 1.
84
Thomson, System (1802), 2, 2–3
Crosland and Smith, HSPS, 9 (1978), 3–5.
85
Nicholson, First principles of chemistry (17922), 5–31
Nicholson, Introduction (17903), 2, 73–77, 112–126
Principles, 47–58
Introduction, 2, 153–157.
Miller, Re- trospect (1803), 1, 443
86
Jenisch, Geist (1800), 3, 497
Krafft, Ber. Wiss. Ges., 1 (1978), 134, 151
87
Achard, in Heilbron, Electricity (1979), 74
Deluc, PT, 68 (1778), 493.
88
Tagliaferri and Tucci, Incontri, 4 (1989), 68.
89
Biot, in Fischer, Physique mecanique (1806), ii.
90
Biot, Essai (1803), 22; Hassenfratz, Ecole poly., Jl, no. 6 (an vii), 372.
Gil- lisjpie, Intersezioni, 9 (1989), 412.
91
Jenisch, Geist, 1 (1800), 482.
92
Gehler, Wort., s.v. "Physik," and Lichtenberg, in Erxleben's Anfangsgründe (17946)
Gilles, Erxleben (1978), 12, 15
Gehler, in Krafft, Ber. Wiss. Ges., 1 (1978), 151
Fischer, Wort, 3 (1800), 889–890, 892.
93
Fischer, in Gren, Grundriss (1808), xv.
94
F.X. Zach to M.A. David, in Zach, Briefe (1938), 138.
95
Biot and Arago, MIF, 1806, 309–312
Dhombres-Firmas, JP, 75 (1812), 265, 273–274.
96
Ramond, Memoires (1811), v, ix
JP, 81 (1815), 234–238
An- nuaire for 1815
Truchot, ACP, 18 (1879), 308
97
Laplace, Oeuvres (1878), 14, 134
Dhombres-Firmas, JP, 75 (1812), 275
Ramond, Memoires (1811), xii.
1
Biot and Rossel, Biographie universelle, 5 (1812), 60, s.v. "Borda,"
Frankel, HSPS, 8 (1977), 41
Daumas, in Crombie, Sci. change (1963), 428–429.
2
Biot and Rossel, Biographie universelle, 5 (1812), 60.
3
Delambre, Hist. astr. moderne, 2 (1821), 598–601, 611–612
Danjon7 and Couder, Lunettes (1935), 626
King, History (1955), 99
Guy Pi- colet, Jean Picard et les debuts de Vastronomie de precision (1987), esp.
Levy, ibid., 139
4
Napoleon to Lalande, 5 Dec 1796
Fischer, Napoleon (1988), 39.
5
McKeon, Physis, 13 (1971), 246–266
14 (1972), 228–230
Repsold, Astr. Messw. (1830), 1, 40–43
King, History (1955), 96–99
Chapman, Dividing the cir- cle (1990), 26–30, 40–44.
6
Olmsted, Isis, 40 (1949), 224–225
McKeon, Physis, 14 (1972), 228.
7
Chapman, Dividing the circle (1990), 38–39, 49–50.
8
Debarbet, in Picolet, Picard (1987), 161–168
McKeon, Physis, 13 (1971), 276–277.
9
Cassini, Meridiana (1695), 15–17.
10
Picard, Mesure (1671), 165 (quote), 172
Repsold, Astr. Messw. (1830), 1, 44, 65.
11
Tatort, in Picolet, Picard (1987), 209, 218
Levallois, in ibid., 234–235, 240– 243.
12
Delambre, Hist astr. mod. (1821), 2, 602–603, 612–617, 621–617, 621–624, 627.
13
Olmstead, Isis, 40 (1949), 224
infra, §4.1.
14
Repsold, Astr. Messw. (1830), 1, 48–54
Levy, in Picolet, Picard (1987), 137; Chapman, Dividing the circle (1990), 63–65.
15
Smeaton, PT, 76 (1786), 6
King, History (1955), 108
Chapman, Ann. sci., 40 (1983), 463–468
Dividing the circle (1990), 54–60.
16
Shuckburgh, PT, 83 (1793), 75
King, History (1955), 109–118
Daumas, In- struments (1953), 234–235, 258
Chapman, Ann. sci.r 40 (1983), 470
Dividing the circle (1990), 70–73.
17
Hornsby, Proposal (1771), 1.
18
Chapman, Dividing the circle (1990), 67–70.
19
Ibid., 71–76, 96.
20
Bradley, PT, 35 (1729)
PT, 40 (1748), in Bradley, Misc. works (1832), 5, 11, 14, 21–31
Rigaud, "Memoir," ibid., xii–xiii, lxii–lxx
Danjon and Couder, Lunettes (1935), 630–631.
21
Chapman, Dividing the circle (1990), 83–85, 88–89.
22
Daumas, Instruments (1953), 230, 238, 255
Chapman, Jl hist, astr., 14 (1983), 134
Dividing the circle (1990), 109
Danjon and Couder, Lunettes (1935), 333, 338, 625.
23
Shuckburgh, PT, 83 (1793), 93–94, 98
Chapman, Dividing the circle (1990), 113-116
Westphal, Zs. f. Instr., 4 (1884), 154.
24
Roy, PT, 80 (1790), 146–149, 159
Richeson, Eng/zsft land measuring (1966), 180–183
Chapman, Dividing the circle (1990), 118–119
Pictet, PT, 81 (1791), 114
infra, §4.2.
25
Williams et al., PT, 85 (1795), 446, 449.
26
King, History (1955), 229–231
Wolf, Histoire (1902), 288, 292.
27
David, Dix-huit. siede, 14 (1982), 279–284
Tagliaferri and Tucci, Incontri, 4 (1989), 67, 73–4
Oriani (for the Brera) and Lalande, 17 June and 3 Jul 1786.
28
JP, 6 (1775), 267
Daumas, Instruments (1953), 353–360
Gil- lispie, Science and polity (1980), 117–122.
29
Charles Messier to Magellan, 2 Feb 1788
Legendre, and Mechain, in Carvalho, Correspondencia (1952), 153.
30
Daumas, Instruments (1953), 241–242.
31
May, Naut. mag., 145 (1945), 21–23, 26
David, in Zach, Briefe (1938), 52
Mar- tin Alois David (1757–1836)
32
Daumas, Instruments (1953), 264–267
Crombie, Sei. change (1963), 422
Stimson, Vistas, 20 (1976), 126–128
Chapman, Dividing the circle (1990), 130– 132.
33
Ibid., 38–39, 52
Chapman, Dividing the circle (1990), 135.
34
Zach to David, 8 Jul 1795,
19 Sep 1796
3 Oct 1796
Zach, Briefe (1938), 102, 131 ("Hadleysche Gesellschaft"), 132–133.
Lecoq to Gauss, 3 Feb and 22 Mar 1799
Gerardy, Ak. Wiss., Göttingen, Nachrichten, 1959:4, 39, 42.
35
Zach to David, 20 Oct 1791, 16 Jul 1793
30 Apr 1796
Zach, Briefe (1938), 62–63, 84, 115
Friedrich, Peterm. geogr. Mitt, 117:2 (1973), 147, 149 (quote), 153
Cassini de Thury, Relation (1775), 38 (quote), 45 (quote).
36
Roy, PT, 80 (1790), 258
Topping, PT, 82 (1792), 99–100.
37
Mayer to Euler, 23 June and 7 Sep 1754
Forbes, Euler-Mayer corr. (1971), 88, 92
Mayer, Akad. Wiss., Göttingen, Comment., 2 (1752), 325–331.
38
Mayer, Tabulae motuum (1770), 21–27
Borda, Description (1802), 7–8.
39
Bradley to Secretary of the Admiralty, 14 Apr 1760
Mayer, Tabulae (1770), cxiii–cxiv
Daumas, Instruments (1953), 242–243.
40
Borda, Description (1802), 11–12.
41
Ibid., 13, 16, 31
42
Ibid., preface
Marguet, Histoire (1917), 156-160
May, Naut. mag., 145 (1945), 26.
43
Berthaut, Carte (1898), 1, 101–106, 117–119
Cassini, MAS, 1788, 712
Dau- mas, Instr. (1953), 243-245.
Repsold, Astr. Messw. (1902), 1, 78
44
Mechain and Delambre, Base (1806), 1, 97–99
Berthaud, Carte (1902), 1, 105.
Pictet, PT, 81 (1791), 114
Gauss to Olbers, 8 Jul 1820
Schilling, Olbers (1900), 2:2, 20–21, 23
45
Berthaud, Carte (1898), 2, 106.
46
Roy, PT, 77 (1787), 214 (quote), 219
J.D. Cassini, MAS, 1788, 710–711
Blagden to Banks, 25 June 1785
47
Delambre, Histoire (1827), 758
infra, §4.1.
48
Leslie, Diss. (1842), 749
Zach to David, 8 Jul 1795, 30 Apr and 18 May 1796
Zach, Briefe (1938), 99, 116–118.
49
R. Schmidt, Kartenaufnahme (1973), 1, 38.
50
Ibid., 42 (von Muffling), 84, 88 (Tranchot)
Haasbroek, Investigation (1972), 28, 31, 35, 156, 161, 163
infra, §4.1
51
Biot and Arago, MJF, 1806, 303–306
Biot, Melanges (1858), 1, 50 (text of 1810).
52
Biot and Arago, M/F, 1806, 306, 363–373, and figures 6–7, opp. p. 387
Frankel, HSPS, 8 (1977), 60–61.
53
Ibid., 317–318
Malus, MSA, 3 (1817), 122–124, 128
54
Malus, Mem. divers sav., 2 (1811)
Buchwald, Rise (1989), 33 (quote), 36.
55
Heilbron, Electricity (1979), 87–94.
56
Ibid., 92–6
Coulomb, MAS, 1785, 589–90, 601–11.
57
Coulomb, MAS, 1785, 578, in Memoires (1884), 138–43, 144
58
Coulomb, MAS, 1785, 578, in Memoires (1884), 131–133.
59
Heilbron, Electricity (1974), 396–401, 465–466
Home, "Introductory mono- graph" (1979), 218, 222–223.
60
Robison, System (1822), 4, 68–74.
61
Coulomb, MAS, 1785, 569, in Memoires (1884), 107–115
62
Coulomb, MAS, 1785, 578, in Memoires (1884), 116–123.
63
Heilbron, Electricity (1979), 475–476
. Weiss, Prevost (1988), 164–165
64
Biot, in Fischer, Physique mecanique (1806), 246n, 257–261.
65
Dörries, HSPS, 22:1 (1991), 27–28.
66
Heilbron, Electricity (1979), 464–465, 479–480.
67
Ibid., 495–500.
68
Coulomb, MAS, 1785, 578, in Memoires (1884), 130, 141.
69
Coulomb, MAS, 1787, 421, in Memoires (1884), 187–190, 200–204, 210–211.
70
Heilbron, Electricity (1975), 449–451.
71
Ibid., 453–456
Volta, Opere (1918), 3, 203–206, 212–215, 224–225 (text of 1779), 248–258
72
Volta, Opere (1918), 5, 37–42
Heilbron, Electricity (1979), 455–456.
73
Leslie, Diss. (1842), 760.
74
Evans and Popp, A/P, 53 (1985), 752, re Pictet.
75
Pringle, Discourses (1783), 36, 40
Kippis, in ibid., xxxvii.
76
Cavendish et al., PT, 67:2 (1777), 825, 831, 845–851.
77
Ibid., 834, 843, 854, 856.
78
Middleton, Invention (1969), 71–72.
79
Roy, PI, 67:2 (1777), 689–694 (quote), 696, 704, 713
Feldman, HSPS, 15:2 (1985), 162, 173–176.
80
Guyton de Morveau, AC, 1 (1790), 256–261, 265 (quote), 274–275, 284–285
Lavoisier and Laplace, in Lavoisier, Oeuvres (1862), 2, 322 (text of 1780)
Fox, Caloric theory (1971), 63–66.
81
Dalton, Manchester Lit. Philos. Soc, Memoirs, 5:2 (1802), 595–602
Dalton, in Randall, Expansion (1902), 15–21
Fox, Caloric theory (1971), 68-69.
82
Dalton, New system (1809), 19
Dalton, in Randall, Expansion (1902), 22.
Farrer, in Cardwell, Dalton (1968), 163, 172
83
Gay-Lussac, AC, 43 (1802), 135–140
Randall, Expansion (1902), 28, 38-44, 48
Gilbert, Ann. Phys., 12 (1802), 396–398
84
Biot, Tratte (1815), 1, chapt. 9
Randall, Expansion (1902), 54–55, 59–60.
85
Regnault, ACP, 4 (1842), 5–63.
86
Regnault, ACP, 5 (1842), 52–83.
87
Crosland, Gay-Lusac (1978), 25-28.
88
Barnett, Osiris, 12 (1956), 302, 312, 321
Gliozzi, Cultura e scuola, 14 (Oct-Dec 1975), 200.
89
Flaugergues, JP, 77 (1813), 274–275 (quote), 278–279, 284–287.
90
Dulong and Petit, ACP, 7 (1818), 116, 141 (quote), 114–115, 340–341, 362 (criticism of Dalton and Leslie)
Lemay and Oesper, Chymia, 1 (1948), 171–172, 177–178.
91
Dulong and Petit, ACP, 2 (1816), 244–250.
92
Ibid., 259, 262–263
Dulong and Petit, AC, 7 (1818), 119–121, 124
Barnett, Osiris, 12 (1956), 325–327
Fox, Caloric theory (1971), 235–236
93
Dulong and Petit, AC, 7 (1818), 127–134.
94
Middleton, Barometer (1964), 180.
95
Gay-Lussac, ACP, 13 (1820), 305.
96
Lavoisier and Laplace (1780)
Lavoisier, Oeuvres (1862), 2, 287 (quote), 283 (quote), 332.
97
Ibid., 315, 319–320.
Fox, Caloric theory (1971), 52–53.
98
McKie and Heathcote, Discovery (1935), 43, 98–104, 123–130.
99
Ibid., 96–7, 104
Lavoisier, Oeuvres (1862), 2, 291, 300n.
100
Ibid., 296–302.
101
Lodwig and Smeaton, Ann. sei, 31 (1974), 10–12.
102
Ibid., 4–5 (Hassenfratz), 15 (quote from Thomas Thomson, An outline of the sciences of heat and chemistry (1830), 67–69).
103
Volpicelli, Giornale arcadico, 60 (1833), 70–71.
104
Bunsen, Phil mag., 41 (1871), 161–163, 178–179, pi. 5 after p. 244.
105
Fox, Caloric theory (1971), 35.
106
Gay-Lussac, MSA, 1 (1807), 180–181
Fox, Caloric theory (1971), 129.
107
Gay-Lussac, MAS, 1 (1807), 183–201.
108
Gay-Lussac, AC, 81 (1812), 100–104
Fox, Caloric theory (1971), 131–133.
MAS, 2 (1809), 207–34
109
Fox, in Cardwell, Dalton (1968), 192–198.
110
Dulong and Petit, ACP, 10 (1819), 398–403, 404–405
Lemay and Oesper, Chymia, 1 (1948), 178–180.
137
Fox, Caloric theory (1971), 134 (quote from prize announcement of 1811)– 138
Olson, Ann. sci., 26 (1970), 298–299.
112
Delaroche and Berard, AC, 85 (1813), 86–94, 99n.
113
Ibid., 95–103, 109
114
Ibid., 114–117, 156–170.
115
Ibid., tables opp. 114, 126.
116
Ibid., 140–149, 165.
117
Ibid., 74–77, 159–160, 169–175
Fox, Caloric theory (1971), 138–142.
118
Delaroche and Berard, AC, 86 (1813), 132–138.
119
Ibid., 110
infra, §3.1.
120
Desormes and Clement, JP, 89 (1819), 335–338 (text of 1812).
121
Ibid., 341–342.
122
Ibid., 330–334
Gliozzi, Cult, e scuola, 14 (Oct-Dec 1975), 205–206.
123
Desormes and Clement, JP, 89 (1819), 343–346
Later (ibid., 448– 449, text of 1818–19)
124
Fox, Caloric theory (1971), 146–153
Costabel, Arch. int. hist, sci., 21 (1968), 7–14.
125
Desormes and Clement, JP, 89 (1819), 325–328, 336.
126
Evans and Popp, Am. jl phys., 53 (1985), 738, 740
Voyage (1786), 2, 353.
127
Scheele, Chemische Abhandlung von der Luft und dem Feuer (1777)
Cornell, Ann. sci., 1 (1936), 219–220
Weiss, Prevost (1988), 222–224.
128
Saussure, Voyage (1786), 2, 353–354.
129
Evans, Phil, mag., 45 (1815), 404–408
Cornell, Ann. sei., 3 (1938), 119.
130
Prevost, JP, 38 (1791), 317–319, 322n (on electric parallel)
Calorique (1809), 14, 28–32, 87–100
Evans and Bopp, Am. jl phys., 53 (1985), 741, 743, 746
Weiss, Prevost (1988), 225–227, 246, 251, 255–259.
131
Prevost, Calorique (1809), 6, 8 (quotes), 53–54
132
Rumford, Works (1969), 2, 422 (text of 2 Feb 1804).
133
Rumford, Works (1969), 2, 477–483 (text of 1804)
Brown, Rumford (1979), 247–248, 256–263.
134
Rumford to Lady Palmerston, 8 Feb 1804, in ibid., 255, 268
Rumford, Works (1969), 2, 3–26 (the canon-boring experiments, text of 1798).
135
Ibid., 1, 422
Evans and Popp, Am. jl phys., 53 (1985), 749
Weiss, Prevost (1988), 261.
136
Rumford, Works (1969), 1, 348–352, 361–363, 371–372, 422–426.
137
Brown, Rumford (1979), 239–240, 257
Rumford, Works (1969), 1, 315, 406– 408, 414 (texts of 1804)
Goldfarb, Br. jl hist sci, 10 (1977), 27–28.
138
Rumford, Works (1969), 1, 309, 416, 440–441
139
Ibid., 330, 337, 435–436 (texts of 1804).
140
Brown, Rumford (1979), 260, 269-270
Am. jl vhys., 22 (1954), 13–17
Rumford, Works (1969), 1, 348–349, 488–492
Leslie, Inquiry (1804), vii, 9.
141
Banks to Rumford, Apr 1804
Brown, Rumford (1979), 269.
Olson, Scottish philosophy (1975), 210.
142
Leslie, Inquiry (1804), 9–11, 16–17, 21, 24.
Olson, Ann. sei., 25 (1969), 203-204
ibid., 26 (1970), 276, 280, 282, 287, 294–295
Burr, Isis, 21 (1934), 174–176.
143
Ibid., 27–29, 31–32 (first two quotes), 41, 143, 150, 160, 162 (last quote), 175, 188.
Olson, Scot- tish philosophy (1975), 196, 199–200, 213–215.
144
Leslie, Inquiry (1804), 193–200, 201
145
Ibid., 69–71, 81, 105.
146
Ibid., 143, 149 (quote), 150, 159, 165
Leslie, Diss. (1842), 767
147
Herschel, Sci. papers (1912), 2, 53–56, 60, 63
Cornell, Ann. sci.f 3 (1938), 120–121, 126–128, 134–135.
148
Herschel, Sci. papers (1912), 2, 70, 75
149
Ibid., 99–100 (read 6 Nov 1800).
150
Ibid., 78–79 (read 13 May 1800).
151
Ibid., 103–107, 129 (quote), 135–137
152
Leslie, Nie. jl, 4 (1800), 346–347 (quote against Newton), 348–349, 420
Lelie, Inquiry (1804), 407–417
Olson, Ann. sei., 26 (1970), 283–284.
153
Leslie, Inquiry (1804), 457–458, 560.
154
ibid., 559, 403–404, resp.
155
Herschel, Sci. papers (1912), 2, 77 (quote), 78
Rumford, Works (1969), 1, 405, 303
Leslie, Inquiry (1804), 136, 521–522.
156
Stewart, in Leslie, Tracts (1806), 1, 30–35
Leslie, ibid., 36–39.
Ol- son, Scottish)?hilosophy (1975), 197, 219.
157
Banks to Henry Cavendish, 9 Apr 1800
Lovell, Isisf 59 (1968), 57.
Thomson, System (1802), 1, 261–267.
158
Delaroche, JP, 75 (1812), 202, 205, 214–215
159
Berthollet, Chaptal, and Biot, AC, 85 (1813), 311 ("a gradual transition"), 313–315, 317 ("luminous molecules "), 323–325
160
Delaroche, JP, 75 (1812), 217–218 (table), 248f (graph)
Trilling, Brit, jl hist, sci., 8 (1975), 200–206.
161
Grigull, Physis, 20 (1978), 213–235.
162
Delaroche, JP, 75 (1812), 215.
163
Leslie, Inquiry (1804), 263–266, 276, 313–314, 319–320, 324
ibid., 281-286
164
Dulong and Petit, ACP, 7 (1818), 225–226 (including a mandatory criticism of Leslie), 233–238, 255 (quote), 259, 262.
Fox, Brit, jl hist, set, 4 (1968), 4.
1
Crosland, Society (1967), 155.
Hahn, Anatomy (1971), 310–312.
3
Crosland, Society (1967), 57–65, 279–280.
4
Biot and Arago, MIF, 1806, 304.
5
MSA, 1 (1807), iii–iv
2 (1809), [3]
3 (1817), vi–vii.
6
. Lavoisier and Laplace, MAS, 1780, 355–408 (Laplace, Oeuvres (1878), 10, 149– 200)
Fox, DSB, 15, 358–360, and HSPS, 4 (1974), 95
supra, §1.1.
7
Fox, HSPS, 4 (1974), 105
MSA, 1 (1807), i (quote), iii-iv
8
Vuillemin, Thaies, 9 (1958), 63.
Guerlac, HSPS, 7 (1967), 249.
9
Crosland, Society (1967), 120–121, 255–257
10
Fox, HSPS, 4 (1974), 102, 120–122
Biot's Traite de physique (1816)
Frankel, HSPS, 8 (1977), 69–71.
supra, §1.1.
11
Biot and Arago, MIT, 1806, 302
Biot, MSA, 3 (1817), 133, 145 (texts of 1813)
Biot, Traite (1816), 1, xv
Frankel, Centaurus, 18 (1974), 242.
MSA, 3 (1817), 371–372.
12
Sadoun-Goupil, Colloque Gay-Lussac (1980), 65–66
Crosland, Society (1967), 129–130, 250–254
13
Gay-Lussac, MSA, 2 (1809), 207–208
MSA, 1 (1807), 202–203, resp.
Gay-Lussac, MSA, 1 (1807), [379].
14
Gay-Lussac, MSA, 2 (1809), 227
Sadoun-Goupil, Colloque Gay-Lussac (1980)
Crosland, Ann. sei, 17 (1961), 11–12, 25.
15
Frankel, Centaurus, 18 (1974), 227-231
Buchwald, Rise (1989), 27.
16
Malus, MSA, 2 (1809), 260
MSA, 2 (1809), 158
ibid., 256–257 (positivistic), 261, 263
17
Chappert, Malus (19^7), 204-211
18
Heilbron, in Westman, Copernican achievement (1975), 278–281.
19
Petit, Ecole poly., Jl, 3:16 (1813), 1–2, 40, emphasis added.
Dulong, Petit, and the Arcueil group, Crosland, Society (1967), 131-132, 145, 167-168, 226.
20
Malus, MSA, 2 (1809), 267.
21
Laplace, MSA, 2 (1809), 138
Frankel, Centaurus, IS (1974), 232–236, 239-240
Fox, HSPS, 4 (1974), 103–105.
22
Chappert, Malus (1977), 206–208
Buchwald, Rise (1989), 37–40
infra, §3.2.
23
Fox, HSPS, 4 (1974), 98–102, and DSB, 15, 360
Mauskopf, Ambix, 17 (1970), 185–187.
24
Crosland, in Cardwell, Dalton (1968), 276–280.
25
Gay-Lussac, MSA, 2 (1809), 233-234
Crosland, Society (1967)
26
Crosland, in Cardwell, Dalton (1968), 283-284
Fox, HSPS, 4 (1974), 1-6, 9- 18.
27
Fox, HSPS, 4 (1974), 108-112, 123-125, 130-134
Herivel, BJHS, 3, (1966), 121-129.
28
Young, Quarterly review, 2 (Nov 1809), 343
Frankel, Centaurus, 18 (1974), 241–243
Young, Lectures on natural philosophy (1807), 2, 670
Leslie, Diss. (1842), 732.
29
Leslie, Diss. (1842), 730, 740, 729, resp.
30
Babbage to John Herschel, 21 Feb 1816
Miller, BJHS, 16 (1983), 17
Weiss, Prevost (1988), 89.
31
Dhombres, AIHS, 36 (1986), 265, 267, 275–276
Dhombres and Dhombres, Naissance (1989), 168–195
Picon, Rev. his. sci., 42 (1989), 157–158.
32
Biot, Melanges, 2 (1858), 6–10
Levallois, Vie des sciences, 3 (1986), 287
Cros- land, Society (1967), 19
Outram, Hist, sci., 16 (1978), 158.
33
Dhombres, AIHS, 36 (1986), 286.
Fischer, Napoleon (1988), 39, 43, 172
Dhombres and Dhombres, Naissance (1989), 665.
34
Lamartine, Des destinies de la poesie (1834)
Herivel, BJHS, 3 (1966), 117.
Home, in Metivier et al., Poisson (1981), 153
Gillispie, APS, Proc, 33 (1989), 457
35
Chateaubriand, Genie du christianisme (1807), 1, 21
Stafford, Stud. 18th cent, cult, 11 (1982), 270
Dhombres and Dhombres, Naissance (1989), 428–431
Gascoigne, Cambridge (1989), 272.
36
Clairaut, MAS, 1745, 577–578
Buffon, ibid., 493, 497–500, 551–552
Clairaut, MAS, 1748, 421
Clairaut, Theorie de la lune (1752).
37
Clairaut MAS, 1739, 263
38
Principia, Bk.I, Props. XCIV, XCV
Cajori ed., 229.
39
Opticks, Bk. I, Part I, Prop. VI
Cohen ed., 80–81.
Sabra, Theories of light (1967), 302–308.
40
Clairaut, MAS, 1739, 263 (quote), 268–271.
41
Jurin, Heilbron, Physics at the Royal Society (1983), 67–72.
42
Clairaut, Figure de la terre (1743), §lix
1808, 113
ibid., §lv-lx (105–122 of 1808 edn).
43
Ibid., 121 (§ix).
44
Laplace, Oeuvres (1878), 4, 349-351
14, 217–218 (texts of 1805–6)
Bickerman, Centaurus, 19 (1975), 184–185.
45
Laplace, Oeuvres (1878), 4, 235–239, 248, 275.
46
Malus, Mem. divers savants, 2 (1811), 338.
47
Laplace, Oeuvres (1878), 4, 353, 356, 358–365.
Dhom- bres, Rev. hist, sci., 42 (1989), 53, 56–61.
48
Laplace, Oeuvres (1878), 4, 362–363.
49
Ibid., 4, 349
ibid., 14, 233 (text of 1806).
ibid., 373–374.
50
Crosland, Gay-Lussac (1978), 50
Oeuvres (1878), 4, 403–404, 495
Dhombres, Rev. hist, sei, 42 (1989), 74.
51
Haüy, Tratte (18062), 1, 213, xxvii–xxviii, resp.
Fischer, Physique mecanique (1806), 146 (quote), 148.
Dhombres and Dhombres, Naissance (1989), 512–514
Naissance (1989), 512–514
52
Young, Quart rev., 11 (1814), 43
Playfair, Natural philosophy (1810), 1, 181– 182
Gauss to Bessel, 27 Jan 1829, in Gauss, Briefwechsel (1880), 489.
53
Van der Waals, in Rowlinson, Van der Waals (1988), 139–142
Rayleigh, Scientific papers (1899), 3, 397–399, 421–423, 465–468 (texts of 1890, 1891).
54
Bernoulli, Recherches physiques et geometriques sur.. .la propagation de la lumiere (1736), 38
d'Alembert, Tratte de Vequilibre et mouvement des fluides (1744), 219
Lagrange, Acc. scienze, Turin, Misc., 1 (1759), ii
Lagrange, ibid., ii, vii, 4
Laplace, Oeuvres (1878), 14, 297 (text of 1816).
55
Lagrange, Acc. scienze, Turin, Misc., 1 (1759), 91.
56
Principia, Bk II, props. 47 and 49
Cajori, 375–381.
57
Cotes to Newton, 23 June and 30 Jul 1711
Newton, Correspondence (1975), 167–171, 183–185.
58
Lagrange, Acc. scienze, Turin, Misc., 1 (1759), 6–7
2 (1760/1), 13, 15– 16.
59
Ibid., 41–42.
60
Heilbron, Physics at the Royal Society (1983), 79-80.
61
Lagrange, Acc. scienze, Turin, Misc., 1 (1759), 91–92
2 (1760/1), 152– 153
62
Poisson, Ecole poly., Jl 7:14 (1808), 325.
63
Biot, MSA, 2 (1809), 96–98
JP, 47 (1798), 186
Desormes and Clément, JP, 89 (1819), 324 (earlier examples of adiabatic heating); Kuhn, Isis, 49 (1958), 133–135.
64
Laplace, Oeuvres (1878), 14, 329–331, on 331
Arnold, AHES, 28 (1983), 275–276.
65
Laplace, Oeuvres (1878), 14, 331–332.
66
Biot, JP, 55 (1802), 173, 178–181.
67
Biot, JP, 55 (1802), 182.
68
Poisson, Ecole poly., Jl, 7:14 (1808), 325–326.
69
Poisson, ACP, 23 (1825), 15.
70
Poisson, Ecole poly, Jl., 7:24 (1808), 360–364.
Kuhn, Isis, 44 (1958), 137
supra, §2.2.
71
Laplace, Oeuvres (1878), 14, 298
Sebastian!, Physis, 23 (1981), 401–402.
Fox, Caloric theory (1971), 159–161
72
Laplace, Oeuvres (1878), 14, 299.
Kuhn, Isis, 44 (1958), 137
Sebastiani, Physis, 23 (1981), 404–405.
73
Fox, Caloric theory (1971), 162–163
Finn, Isis, 55 (1964), 13– 18, and, in DSB, 15, 357–358
74
Laplace, Oeuvres (1878), 13, 303–304 (text of 1822)
ACP, 19 (1822), 436–437
75
Oeuvres (1878), 13, 277–282, and 14, 305–307.
76
Laplace, ibid (1878), 23, 280
77
Ibid., 5, 134.
Finn, Isis, 55 (1964), 16.
78
Ibid., 5, 136–137
79
Desormes and Clément, Jp, 89 (1819), 330–332.
80
Poisson, ACP, 23 (1825), 7–10
Sebastian!, Physis, 23 (1981), 405– 410.
81
Poisson, ACP, 23 (1825), 13–15.
1
Lagarde, in Picolet, Picard (1987), 248–249, 251.
2
Francis Vernon to Henry Oldenburg, 19 Jan 1669/70, in Oldenburg, Correspondence, ed. Hall, 6 (1965), 433.
3
Levallois, Vie des sciences, 3 (1986) , 262
Taton, in Picolet, Picard (1987), 208.
4
Taton, in Picolet, Picard (1987) , 218–219
Levallois, ibid., 263.
infra, §5.2.
5
Westphal, Zs. J. Instr., 4 (1884), 154–156
5 (1885), 260
Levallois, in Picolet, Picard (1987), 229–234
supra, §2.1.
6
Picard, Mesure (1671), 138–139, 147–148, 171–173, 187–189
Westphal, Zs. f. Instr., 4 (1884), 189–191
5 (1885), 262
Smith, Plane to spheroid (1986), 68, 71–76.
7
Cassini, MAS, 1666–1695, 8 (1730), 39
Picard, "Rapport," 21 Jul 1669
Ta- ton, in Picolet, Picard (1987), 218.
8
Cassini, MAS, 1666–1699, 8 (1730), 50
Olmsted, Isis, 34 (1942), 120, 126
Gal- lois, Ann. geogr., 18 (1909), 289–291.
9
Cassini, MAS, 1666–1699, 8 1730), 51
Gallois, Ann. geogr., 18 (1909), 307– 310
Wolf, Hist. Obs. Paris (1902), 62–63
Brown, Cassini (1941), 40–42, 62.
10
Gallois, Ann. geöogr., 78 (1909), 291–298
Jacques Cassini, Grandeur (1720), 1-5
Konvitz, Cartography (1987), 5–8
Lagarde, in Picolet, Picard (1987), 253–259.
11
Jacques Cassini, Grandeur (1720), 37, 46, 188, 192–194, 246–247
Delambre, Grandeur (1912), 4–5, 10–15, 18, 22, 14
Westphal, Zs. f. Instr., 4 (1884), 156–157
5 (1885), 262.
12
J.D. Cassini, MAS, 1713, 190–191
Jacques Cassini, Grandeur (1720), 9
Leval- lois in Lacombe and Costabel, Figure (1988), 45–52
Costabel, ibid., 98–103.
13
Infra, §4.2
John Wallis to Edmund Halley, 4 Mar 1687
Oldroyd, in Hunter, Hooke (1989), 211.
14
Konvitz, Cartography (1987), 10–16, and Cartographica, 19 (1982), 1–2
West- phal, Zs. f. Inst., 5 (1885), 269.
Vannereau, in Cart. (1978), 229–230.
15
Cassini de Thury, "Description," in his Relation (1775), 128 (quote), 129–132, 147–148
16
Cassini de Thury, Description (1783), 9–12.
17
Konvitz, Cartogr., 19 (1982), 6, 12–14, 24–25, 30
Cartography (1987), 17–22
Gillispie, Polity (1980), 115–117.
Guillaume, Proc. verb. (1894), 2, 218–226, 476–487, 601–602.
18
Schmidt, Kartenauf. (1973), 1, 10–13
Westphal, Zs. f. Instr., 5 (1885), 274.
19
Westphal, Zs. f. Instr., 4 (1884), 191–193.
20
Schmidt, Kartenauf. (1973), 1, 13, 45
Westphal, Zs. f. Instr., 5 (1885), 274
Berthault, Ing. geogr. (1902), 1, 49.
21
Cassini de Thury, Relation (1765), ii-v, xvii (quote), 3–8, 126.
Relation (1775), ix
22
Cassini de Thury, Relation (1765), vii–viii (quote), ix–xiv (quote), 26, 30–31
23
Ibid., xiv (quote), xx–xxiv (quote), 51.
Germanies in Relation (1775), xix.
24
Cassini de Thury, Relation (1765), xxiv–xxv, 76–77.
Relation (1775), xx
25
Cassini de Thury, Relation (1765), xiv, xxvi–xxxii, 25, 31, 53–67, 82, 90–94, 114–122
Cassini observes (ibid., 122–123)
26
Ibid., 46–48, 100–102
Cassini, Relation (1775), viii, 2–6.
27
Zach, quoted in Westphal, Zs. /. Instr., 5 (1885), 374
Jahn, Gesch. (1844), 2, 131-132
Friedrich, Peterm. geogr. Mitt., 117:2 (1973), 149-150
Levallois, Vie des sci- ences, 3 (1986), 283
28
Olbers to Gauss, 19 Mar 1822, in Schilling, Olbers (1900), 2:2, 177
supra, §2.1.
Gauss to Olbers, 10 June 1824, ibid., 312–313
Bessel, 15 Jan 1825
Gauss, Briefwechsel (1880), 444.
29
Berthaut, Ing. geogr. (1902), 1, 13, 20–32, 37, 41, 45–46, 50, 57, 93, 119–120.
30
Ibid., 71, 83, 90–91, 95–96, 99–100, 103–104, 106–108, 113–114
Huguenin, Imago mundi, 24 (1970), 127
Konvitz, Cartography (1987), 39.
31
Berthaut, Ing. geogr. (1902), 2, 65, 74, 77, 106.
32
Ibid., 73, 99, 102 (quote), 109–110
Darcon to Depot de la guerre, [1777], ibid., 72.
33
Ibid., 121–122, 136–138, 144–145, 150–151, 157–160, 175–176, 184–185.
34
Supra, §2.1.
35
Dorn, quoted in Jordan, Zs. f. Verm., 28 (1899), 53–54
Lacy to Dorn, 2 May 1764, in Paldus, Annahmen (1919), 5.
36
Dörflinger, in Cart. (1978), 192–193
Nischer-Falkenhof, Imago mundi, 2 (1964), 83–87.
37
Westphal, Zs. f. Instr., 5 (1885), 374–376
Berleithner, in Cart. (1978), 132, 140–143
Paldus, Annahmen (1919), 6, 8, 14, 18 (quote), 28, 38, 39, 41, 46–49, 53– 54.
Gotten, Zs. f. Verm., 10 (1881), 387.
38
Bruwier, in Cart. (1978), 60-65
Bernleithner, ibid., 134–135
Carter, ibid., 260, 264–265.
39
Comments on Bruwier, in Cart. (1978), 25–26
Lemoine-Isabeau, in Cart. (1978), 53–58
Koeman, ibid., 289–291.
40
Koeman, in Cart. (1978), 292–297
Bernleithner, ibid., 132–133
Tagliaferri and Tucci, Incontri, 4 (1789), 64
41
Berthaut, Ing. geogr., 1 (1902), 151, 153, 157, 178, 183
Lorette, in Cart. (1978), 77–81, 85–87, 110–117.
42
Schmidt, Kartenauf. (1973), 2, 13, 15, 20–22
Cart. (1978), 275–277
Berthaut, Ing. geogr. (1902), 2, 62
Pfitzer, Zs. f. Verm., 42 (1913), 40.
43
Zach to David, 6 Jan 1797, in Zach, Briefe (1938), 139.
44
Mori, Arch. stor. ital, 35 (1905), 376–380, 391–395, 417
Barsanti and Rombai, Ximenes (1987), 39–43, 74, 91–92.
Devic, Histoire (1851), 67–68.
45
Howse, Maskelyne (1989), 151–152
Aubert to Deluc, 18 Nov 1783, in Aubert, N&R, 9 (1951), 86
Hornsby to Banks, 25 June 1784, in Forbes, Vistas in astr., 28 (1985), 173
Cassini de Thury, in Maskelyne, PT, 77 (1787), 152
46
Banks to Blagden, 18 Oct 1783 (Blagden Papers, B. 19, Royal Society)
Blagden to Banks, 21 Oct 1783 (DTC Papers, 3, 141, Natural History Museum, Lon- don)
Maskelyne, PT, 77 (1787), 154–164, 169–170.
47
Blagden to Banks, 18 Oct 1783 (DTC Papers, 3, 132–133, Natural History Museum).
48
Close, Early years (1969), 4, 7–8
Wallis, in Cart. (1978), 167, 170–174
Skel- ton, Geogr. jl, 128 (1962), 417–421
Widmalm, in Frängsmyr, Spirit (1990), 184–186.
49
Roy, PT, 77 (1787), 188–189
Devic, Histoire (1851), 111–115
Close, Early years (1969), 19–22
Konvitz, Cartography (1987), 27
Gillispie, Polity (1980), 122– 123
Widmalm, in Frängsmyr, Spirit (1990), 193–194, 199–200.
50
Roy, PT, 80 (1790), 111–114 (second quote), 115, 160 (first quote), 183, 265- 266
Forbes, Vistas in astr., 28 (1985), 178.
51
Roy, PT, 80 (1790), 116, 122–126
Blagden to Banks, 30 Sep 1787 (DTC Pa– pers, Nat. Hist. Mus., London)
Westphal, Zs. /. Instr., 5 (1885), 380–385, 420–424
supra, §2.1
Westphal (ibid., 424, 432)
Debarbat;(.changes (1990), 53–58.
52
Roy, PT, 80 (1790), 225
Forbes, Vistas in astr., 28 (1985), 174
Howse, Maskelyne (1989), 152–153
Widmalm, in Frängsmyr, Spirit (1990), 188, 195–198
Maskelyne, PT, 77 (1787), 181–185
Roy, ibid., 214
Wargentin, PT, 67 (1777), 164.
53
Westphal, Zs. /. Instr., 5 (1885), 373–374
Hammer, Zs. /. Verm., 20 (1891), 447-448
Cajori, Hassler (1929), 16–25
Berthaut, Ing. geogr. (1902), 2, 327.
Thomas Bugge in 1787 (Westphal, 429).
54
Greene, American science (1984), 35, 131
Cajori, Hassler (1929), 71–80, 118– 127, 161–200.
55
Beaucour, Soc. sauvegarde chat. imp. Pont-de-Briques, Bull, hist., 1 (1972), 198–204
Fischer, Napoleon (1988), 127–128.
56
Close, Early years (1969), 15, 25–-27
Skelton, Geogr. jl, 128 (1962), 424–425
Wallis, in Cart. (1978), 169
Widmalm, Kartan (1990), 120.
57
Williams, Mudge, and Dalby, PT, 85 (1795), 414–418, 424–428, 438–439, 451, 484–486, 499, 509, 511
Richeson, Land measuring (1966), 181–183
Westphal, Zs. f. Instr., 5 (1885), 425–426
Zach to David, 7 June 1786, in Zach, Briefe (1938), 119.
58
Williams et al., PT, 87 (1797), 432–433, 507–508
Westphal, Zs. f. Instr., 5 (1885), 431–432
Widmalm, Kartan (1990), 140.
59
Gillipie, APS, Proc. 133 (1989), 466–469
Berthaut, Ing. geogr. (1902), 1, 193– 194.
60
Schmidt, Kartenauf. (1973), 1, 50, 81
Berthaut, Ing. geogr. (1902), 1, 305–431, 2, 283–390.
61
Biot, Melanges (1858), 2, 75–76, text of 1818.
62
Haasbroek, Investigation (1972), 12–15
Roy, PT, 80 (1790), 262–263
Zach to Schedius, 18 Feb 1801
Zach, Briefe (1984), 75.
63
Galle, in Gauss, Werke, 11:2, Abh. 1, 27–28
Haasbroek, Investigation (1972), 15–16, 86 (quote, slightly reworked from the original transla- tion), 116, 150, 184, 215
Schmidt, Kartenauf. (1973), 1, 29–34.
64
Berthaut, Ing. geogr. (1902), 2, 188, 283–284, 288–294, 297–299
Dhombres and Dhombres, Naissance (1989), 232
Schmidt, Kar- tenauf. (1973), 1, 51–53, 59–61, 75–76, 84–88, 121–124
Cart. (1978), 278– 279, 282.
Schmidt, 2, 97
65
Berthaut, Ing. geogr. (1902), 2, 269–270, 283–285, 299, 413–421
Schmidt, Kartenauf. (1973), 1, 37–38, 64–68, 194–196
Zach to David, 15 Aug 1805, in Zach, Briefe (1938), 185–186
Westphal, Zs. f. Instr., 5 (1885), 378–379.
66
Ibid., 212–226
Pfitzer, Zs. f. Verm., 42 (1913), 43
Berthaut, Ing. geogr. (1902), 2, 109, 111
Schmidt, Kartenauf. (1973), 1, 207–210.
67
Hammer, Zs. f. Verm., 34 (1905), 285
Geist, ibid., 35 (1906), 169–175
Schmidt, Kartenauf. (1973), 1, 78
Eckhardt, Astr. Nach., 12 (1835), 130.
68
Berthaut, Ing. geogr. (1902), 2, 300–311, 326–328
Schmidt, Kartenauf. (1973), 1, 47–48
Amman, Zs. f. Verm., 37 (1908), 154–155
Widmalm, Kartan (1990), 131, 138–139.
69
Galle, in Gauss, Werke (1863), 11:2, Abh.l, 3–4, 20–23
Gauss, ibid., 3, 138, 4, 140, 8, 136–137.
70
Gauss to Olbers, 22 Apr and 5 May 1803
Schilling, Olbers (1900), 2:1, 149–151
71
Lecoq to Gauss, 13 Apr, 17 May, and 27 Sep 1799
Zach, in Gerody, Ak. Wiss., Göttingen, Nachrichten, 1959:4, 46, 53 (Gauss to Lecoq, 24 Apr 1799), 57, 58
Galle, in Gauss, Werke (1863), 22:2, Abh.l, 24, 26, 28
Gauss to Bessel, 15 Nov 1822, in Gauss, Werke, 9, 357
Briefwechsel (1880), 412
Gauss to Olbers, 22 Feb 1804
Schilling, Olbers (1900), 2:1, 177–179.
72
Phtzer, Zs. f. Verm., 42 (1913), 1
Hammer, ibid., 34 (1905), 288–289, 292 (re Laplace)
Widmalm, Kartan (1990), 142–144.
73
Zach, Memoires (1811), 26
Otto Mayr, DSB, 11, 354–355.
74
Gauss, Werke (1863), 9, 408–411
Galle, in ibid., 11:2, Abh.l, 57.
Herbst, NTM, 28:1 (1991), 62–68.
75
Galle, ibid., 32, 59–60
Gauss to Bessel, 26 Dec 1821, 15 Nov 1922
Gauss, Briefwechsel (1880), 394–395, 406
Schmidt, Kartenauf, 1 (1973), 226
76
Gauss to Gerling, 14 Nov 1838
Gauss, Werke (1863), 9, 393.
77
Principia, Bk III, prop. XIX, 424–427 (ed. Cajori), 2, 592-598 (ed. Cohen).
78
Todhunter, History (1873), 1, 2–17
Costabel, in Lacombe and Costa- bel, Figure (1988), 108–113.
80
Principia, ed. Cajori, 427.
81
Desaguliers, PT, 33 (1725), 344–345
Course (17632), 1, 391–393, 446– 447.
82
D'Alembert, Encycl, 6 (1756), 753.
83
Godin, MAS, 1733, 223–224.
84
Greenberg, HSPS, 13 (1983), 246–254.
85
Godin, MAS, 1733, 230–231.
86
Greenberg, HSPS, 13 (1983), 254–259.
87
Lafuente and Mazuecos, Caballeros (1987), 56–62
Cassini de Thury, Relation (1765), v
88
Brunet, Maupertuis (1929), 1, 33-58
Brunet, Clairaut (1952), 30–53
Nord- mann, Cahiers d'hist. mond., 10 (1966), 87–91
Smith, Plane to spheroid (1986), 174– 176, 192
Saveney, Rev. deux mondes, 79 (1869:1), 28.
Martin, Figure (1987), 43–87
Ta- ton, in Lacombe and Costabel, Figure (1988), 115–137.
89
Maupertuis to Johann I Bernoulli, 12 Sep 1735
13 Oct 1735
Brown, Science and comedy (1976), 175–176.
Terrall, Isis, 83 (1912), 224–225.
90
Smith, Plane to spheroid (1986), 143, 184, 187–192
Levallois, Vie des sciences, 3 (1986), 288.
Lafuente and Mazuecos, Caballeros (1987), 70–81
Westphal, Zs. f. Instr., 5 (1885), 273
Zach, in Monatliche Correspondenz, 1 (1800), 113, 339.
91
Maupertuis to Bernoulli, 27 Mar 1736
Brown, Science and comedy (1976), 178
Bradley, 27 Sep 1737
Tweedie, Stirling (1922), 78
Colin Maclaurin, Machin, and Stirling, 1738, ibid., 75, 89, 174.
Olbers to Gauss, 9 Feb 1821
Schilling, Olbers (1900), 2:2, 66
Zach, Memoire (1811), 15–16
Jahn, Gesch. (1844), 2, 157–158, 185.
Terrall, Isis, 83 (1912), 227–234.
92
Smith, Plane to spheroid (1986), 105, 109–111, 152, 166
Lafuente and Ma- zuecos, Caballeros (1987), 157–194
Lafuente, in Lacombe and Costabel, Figure (1988), 139–150
Westphal, Zs. f. Instr., 5 (1885), 270–271.
93
aclaurin to Stirling, 6 Dec 1740
Tweedie, Stirling (1922), 91.
94
Smith, Plane to spheroid (1986), 108, 142–143, 148, 151
Levallois, Vie des sci- ences, 3 (1986), 281
Marquet, in Lacombe and Costabel, Figure (1988), 193–196.
Ac- cording to Zach, Memoire (1811), 13–14
95
Levallois, Vie des sciences, 3 (1986), 276.
96
D'Alembert, EncycL, 6 (1756), 754
Levallois, Vie des sciences, 3 (1986), 268, 293n4.
97
Cassini de Thury, MAS, 1740, 279–281, 288
La Condamine, Mesure (1751), 104, 222, 229
Delambre, Grandeur (1912), 63–67.
Westphal, Zs. f. Instr., 4 (1884), 159
Fauque, in Lacombe and Costabel, Figure (1988), 209–216.
98
Delambre, Grandeur (1912), 69–72
Cassini de Thury, Relation (1775), v
Gil- lispie, Polity (1980), 113–115
Westphal, Zs. f. Instr., 5 (1885), 265–266.
99
D'Alembert, EncycL, 6 (1756), 756.
100
Delambre, Grandeur (1912), 72–81, 143–145
Todhunter, History (1873), 1, 355–356
Levallois, in Lacombe and Costabel, Figure (1988), 67–73.
101
Schmidt, Bibl. Mat. (1736), 134
Job, 38:18.
Joshua, 18:4-9
Schmidt, 135–139
102
La Condamine, MAS, 1746, 637
Lafuente and Pesset, RHS, 37 (1984), 249, 252–254
103
Boscovich, AS, Bologna, Comm., 4 (1757), 353, 361
ibid., 146–147
La Condamine, Mesure (1751), 263–267
Boscovich and Maire, Voyage (1770), 1–2, 29 (quote), 31–32
104
Boscovich and Maire, Voyage, (1770), 48–49 (last quote), 52, 57–63, 74–75
105
Boscovich and Maire, Voyage (1770), 40–44, 262–340
Nikolic, AIHS, 14 (1961), 318–319
Wesphai, Zs. f. Instr., 4 (1884), 161–162,
5 (1885), 334.
Boscovich and Maire, Voyage, 40–41
106
Boscovich and Maire, Voyage (1770), 32–33, 117, 489 (quote), 492.
107
D'Alembert, EncycL, 6 (1756), 760 (quote), 761.
Hahn, in Bossi and Tucchi, Commemoration (1988), 72
Zach, Memoire (1811), 23–24
Berthaut, Ing. geogr. (1902), 2, 359–361
Jahn, Gesch. (1844), 2, 184.
108
Cassini, Relation (1765), 130–133
Relation (1775), v.
109
Boscovich and Maire, Voyage (1770), 36
Zach, Monat Corr., 4 (1801), 553– 554
Nikolic, AIRS, 14 (1961), 315–316.
110
Chatelain to Boscovich, 25 Mar 1770
Arnolfini, 17 Mar and 2 June 1767
Arrighi, Carteggio (1965), 20–22, 28
Bernleithner, in Cart (1978), 140–141.
111
Zach, Monat Com, 8 (1803), 515–521
Memoire (1811), 7–8, 25, 93 (second quote), 123, 136
Howard, Zs. f. Verm., 17 (1888), 34–38
Westphal, Zs. f. Instr., 5 (1885), 344.
112
Zach to Schedius, 23 May 1798
26 Jan 1799
30 Apr 1801
Zach, Briefe (1984), 45–46, 56, 80–81
114
Bernleithner, in Cart. (1978), 141–144
Liesganig, Dimensio graduum (1770), b4v (quote), 211–212.
115
Jl des scavans, 25 (June 1767), 128–132
Maskelyne, PT, 58 (1768), 327–328.
Bradley to Stirling, 2 Dec 1733
Tweedie, Stirling (1922), 162.
116
Maskelyne, PT, 65 (1775), 495–499
Howse, Maskelyne (1989), 129–132.
117
Maskelyne, PT, 65 (1775), 500-542
Howse, Maskelyne (1989), 134–139.
118
Mechain and Delambre, Base (1806), 1, 51–56
Delambre, Histoire (1827), 759–760.
119
Mechain and Delambre, Base (1806), 1, 23–24, 41–44
Warme, Eloge (1824), 15-16
Berthaut, Carte (1898), 1, 121–122
Mechain and Delambre, Base (1806), 1, 32-34.
120
Ibid., 1, 46–52.
121
Berthaut, Ing. geogr. (1902), 1, 43–46, 66, 102–103, 122–123.
122
Ibid., 1, 126–127, 130–132, 135–150.
123
Delambre, Histoire (1827), 756–762
Mechain and Delambre, Base (1806), 1, 57–58
Berthaut, Ing. geogr. (1902), 1, 162–164.
124
Ibid., 1, 165
Bigourdan, Systeme (1901), 135–145
Mechain and Delambre, Base (1806), 1, 66–80
Mechain to Delambre, 11 Nov 1797, ibid., 83.
125
Ibid., 1, 84–90
Delambre, Rapport (1810), 6
Berthaut, Carte (1898), 1, 123– 124.
126
Delambre, Grandeur (1812), 302–303
Ten, in Scientifiques et savants (1990), 447–448.
127
ibid., 450.
128
Biot, Melanges (1858), 1, 51–58, 60 (quote), 64–65
Ten, in Lacombe and Costabel, Figure (1988), 246–263.
ibid., 75
Frenkel, HSPS, 8 (1977), 43.
129
Close, Early years (1969), 66–68
Mudge to Colby, 7 June 1817.
130
Biot, Melanges (1858), 1, 65–66, 79 (quote) 83
Delambre to Blagden, 26 June 1808
131
Levallois, Vie des sciences, 3 (1986), 288
Schmidt, Kartenauf. (1973), 1, 31
Mechain and Delambre, Base (1806), 3, 112
infra, §5.2.
Laplace, Oeuvres, 2, 148 (text of 1799)
132
Roy, PT, 77 (1787), 201, 207, 209–212
Williams, Mudge, and Dalby, PT, 85 (1795), 237–238, 527.
133
Mudge, PT, 93 (1803), 383-385, 425-426, 489, 492
Close, Early years (1969), 54.
134
Rodriguez, PT, 102 (1812), 325–326, 336–338
PM, 41 (1813), 23–24, 30, 90, 95-97
Gregory, ibid., 178-179 (quote), 183–188.
Miller, BJHS, 16 (1983), 11.
135
Widmalm, Kartan (1990), 128
Zach, Memoire (1811), 20–22.
Jahn, Gesch. (1844), 2, 190–191.
136
Jahn, Gesch. (1844), 2, 165, 179–182
Galle, in Gauss, Werke (1863), 11:2, Abh.l, 35–36, 48–49
Lambton, PT, 108 (1818), 486, 488
Eckhardt, Astr. Nach., 12 (1835), 134
Bru, in Lacombe and Costabel, Figure (1988), 226, 236-237.
137
Widmalm, Kartan (1990), 154–158
Levallois, Vie des sciences, 3 (1986), 284–285, 291
Scientißques et societes (1990), 430–434
Schumacher, 20 Dec 1823
Galle, in Gauss, Werke (1863), 11:2, Abh.l, 89
Gauss, "Bestimmung," in Werke, 9, 49
Gauss to Olbers, 29 Jan 1822
Schil- ling, Olbers (1900), 2:2, 165.
Leslie, Diss. (1842), 776–777.
1
Josephus, Jewish antiquities, cited by Kula, Measures (1986), 3.
2
Bouchard, Prieur (1946), 286
Talleyrand, Proposition (1790)
Miller, Speeches (1790) 60–63.
3
Kula, Measures (1986), 164–226, esp. 191–196, 230, 236
Hyslop, French na- tionalism (1968), vii, 56.
Gamier, in Les mesures (1984), 10.
4
La Condamine, MAS, 1747, 492–495
HAS, 1747, 82–88.
Kula, Measures (1986), 209
Miller, Speeches (1790), 18.
5
Talleyrand, Proposition, in Miller, Speeches (1790), 68–69
Miller, ibid., 16, 35.
6
Crosland, Stud. Voltaire eight, cent, 87 (1972), 297.
7
John Arbuthnot, Works (1751), 1, 9, 36
James Jurin, PT, 34 (1727)
8
P.L.C. Baudin, 4 messidor an 7 (1799)
Mechain and Delambre, Base (1806), 3, 650.
9
Borda, Lagrange, Lavoisier, Tillet, and Condorcet, HAS, 1788, 5 (text of 1790).
10
Ibid., 6
Crosland, Stud. Volt, eight, cent., 87 (1972), 299.
11
Instruction abregee (an ii), xvii, 171
Lavoisier, Elements (1790), 295-296.
12
Prieur, Instruction (an iii), 4–5
Miller, Speeches (1790), 39
supra, §2.2.
13
Condorcet, Memoires sur les monnoies (Paris, 1790), 3–4
Cham- pagne, Role (1979), 60.
14
Bigourdan, Systeme metrique (1901), 193.
15
HAS, 1789, 1–18 (text of 1792)
Bigourdan, Systeme metrique (1901), 78–82.
16
Aux citoyens (an iii), 10.
17
Bigourdan, Systeme metrique (1901), 82 (text of 11 Aug 1795).
18
Bouchard, Prieur (1946), 297–299
Delambre, Grandeur (1912), 212.
19
Exposition (an x), 13–14
Delambre, Rapport historique (1810), 8.
20
Villain, La Rev. francaise, 7 (1884), 538, 540–541
ibid., 457–459, 535–553, and 8 (1885), 623– 631
Andrews, Amer. hist, rev., 36 (1931), 517–522.
21
Villain, Rev. fran., 8 (1885), 635
Andrews, Amer. hist, rev., 36 (1931), 524
Zernhavel, Rhythms (1981), 84–86
Baczko, in Nora, Lieux (1984), 1, 39.
22
Guillaume, Proc. verb., 2 (1894), 440, 442
Villain, Rev. fran., 8 (1885), 636, 639.
23
Guillaume, Proc. verb., 2 (1894), 442–445
Villain, Rev. fran., 8 (1885), 640– 642.
24
Guillaume, Proc. verb., 2 (1894), 448–450, 582–584.
25
Guillaume, Proc. verb., 2 (1894), 585–586
26
Ibid., 580–581, 586–587.
27
Miliin, Annuaire (an ii), viii–xii.
28
Guillaume, Proc. verb., 2 (1894), 697–713, quote on 703, 873–875
Villain, Rev. fran., 8 (1885), 654–655, 740–749, 751.
29
Guillaume, Proc. verb., 2 (1894), 875–892.
30
France, Comm. temp, poids mes., Instruction (an ii), 33–34, and Avis (an iv), 8
Truchot, ACP, 18 (1809), 319
Biot, MSA, 2 (1809), 411.
Baczko, in Nora, Lieux (1984), 1, 49.
31
Villain, Rev. fran., 8 (1885), 754–757, 832, 835–838, 842–854
Guillaume, Proc. verb., 2 (1894), 752, 804–806
MIF, 1 (an vi), i
32
Froeschle, in Scientifiques et societes (1990), 458, 461–464.
33
Villain, Rev. fran., 8 (1885), 885–887
Crosland, Society (1967), 63.
34
Gillispie, Science and polity (1980), 97–99, 461–466
Hahn, Anatomy (1971), 118–121
Gillispie, in Clagett, Critical problems (1959), 257, 268–274.
35
Molard, Description (1811), 1, 7–27
Hahn, Anatomy (1971), 186-189
Guerlac, Essays and papers (1977), 467–468.
36
Hahn, Anatomy (1971), 162–163.
37
Hahn, Anatomy (1971), 163–164
Bigourdan, Systeme metrique (1901), 14–15
Talleyrand, in Miller, Speeches (1790), 59.
38
Bouchard, Prieur (1946), 287–290
Pattison, Beginnings (1957), 48–49
Bigour- dan, Systeme metrique (1901), 10.
39
Bigourdan, Systeme metrique (1901), 6–11
Cassini, Grandeur (1720), 250
La Condamine, MAS, 1747, 501–505, 511
Henry, Correspondance (1883), xxv, 234–235.
40
Prony, in Roy, Description (1787), xvi–xvii
Lunier, Dictionnaire (1806), 2, 615, s.v. "mesure."
41
Whitehurst, in Works (1792), iii (text of 1787)
Miller, Speeches (1790), 44.
42
Talleyrand, in Miller, Speeches (1790), 71.
43
Miller, Speeches (1790), 43–44
Shuckburgh, PT, 88 (1798), 165–166.
44
Borda et al., MAS, 1788, 1–6
Mechain and Delambre, Base (1806), 1, 14
Bi- gourdan, Systeme metrique (1901), 16.
45
Borda et al., MAS, 1788, 1-6 (decimalization), 7–16 (arc over pendulum), texts of 1790.
Bigourdan, Systeme metrique (1901), 17-18
Mechain and Delam- bre, Base (1806), 1, 14–19.
46
Borda et al., MAS, 1788, 13–16, 19, text of 1790.
47
Bigourdan, Systeme metrique (1901), 19–21.
48
Borda et al., MAS, 1787, 15–16, text of 1790
Bigourdan, Systeme metrique (1901), 56
Laplace, Oeuvres (1878), 14, 141, 145
49
Jefferson to William Short, 28 July 1791
Hellmann, Osiris, 16 (1931), 286.
Bassot, in France, Bureau des Longitudes, Annaire, 1901, D. 2, D. 16
Gillispie, in DSB, 15, 334–335, s.v. "Laplace
Konvitz, Cartographie (1987), 47.
50
Biot, Essai (1803), 355–356.
Moreau, in Scientifiques et societes (1990), 120–121, 125–127, 143
Legendre, MAS, 1788, 753
Rodriguez, Phil mag., 41 (1813), 22
51
Delambre, Rapport (1810), 5
Crosland, in Bugge, Science (1969), 20
Borda et al., MAS, 1788, 15, text of 1791.
52
Kula, Measures (1986), 236-237, 243.
53
Hahn, Anatomy (1971), 163–164, 253
Favre, Origines (1931), 121–130
Bi- gourdan, Systeme metrique (1901), 32.
54
Ibid., 22–26.
55
Mechain and Delambre, Base (1806), 1, 20, 23, 43–44, 97–99
Delambre, Rap- port (1810), 6.
56
Borda and Cassini, in Mechain and Delambre, Base (1806), 3, 337–401
Wolf, Memoires sur la pendule (1899), 2, 17–64.
Biot, Melanges (1858), 2, 74.
57
France, Comm. temp., Instruction (an ii), 29–30.
58
Bigourdan, Systeme metrique (1901), 22.
59
Bigourdan, Systeme metrique (1901), 30–35
Champagne, Role (1979), 102- 103
Bouchard, Prieur (1946), 293
Bugge, Science (1969), 206–207
Cappelli, Rapports (an x), 7
Hellman, Osiris, 13 (1958), 322–323.
60
Bigourdan, Systeme metrique (1901), 36–40.
61
Mechain and Delambre, Base, 1 (1806), 46–52.
62
Bigourdan, Systeme metrique (1901), 55–56 (address to the Convention, 19 Jan 1794).
63
France, Comm. temp., Instruction (an ii), xv–xvi
Bouchard, Prieur (1946), 295–296, 299–301, 461–464
Sarton et al., RHS, 3 (1950), 127.
64
Bigourdan, Systeme metrique (1901), 61.
65
Kula, Measures (1986), 244.
66
. France, Convention nationale, hoi relative aux poids et mesures (an iii), 4–7
Bigourdan, Systeme metrique (1901), 67–70.
Hellman, Osiris, 13 (1958), 324–327
Bouchard, Prieur (1946), 306–307.
67
Mechain and Delambre, Base, 1 (1806), 58–64
Bigourdan, Systeme metrique (1901), 71–77.
68
. Hellman, Osiris, 13 (1958), 333–335
Crosland, in Bugge, Science (1969), 197
Laplace to Delambre, 29 Jan 1798
Laissus, RHS, 14 (1961), 287–288.
69
Crosland, in Bugge, Science (1969), 197–200
Bugge, ibid., 205–211
Mechain and Delambre, Base (1806), 1, 92–94.
Bugge, Science (1969), 204
Delambre, Rapport (1810), 232–233
70
Bugge, Science (1969), 204
Crosland, Stud. Volt, eight, cent., 87 (1972), 305-308
P.C.L. Baudin, "Reponse," in Mechain and Delambre, Base (1806), 3, 652.
ibid., 3, 649.
71
Laissus, RHS, 14 (1961), 288.
72
Tables de comparaison (an x), xxxii.
73
Capelli, Rapports metriques (an x), 5
Ciscär, Memoria (1800), 33–34.
74
Gattey, Elements (an x), 65.
Bugge, Science (1969), 205
Crosland, Isis, 60 (1969), 229–231
Favre, Origines (1931), 196-202.
75
Crosland, Stud. Volt, eight, cent, 87 (1972), 285.
76
Qhessiron], in Nouveau cours, 8 (1809), 299-300.
77
Ibid., 292.
78
ibid.
Mechain and Delambre, Base (1806), 3, 651 (text of 1799)
Ciscär, Memoria (1800), 38-39
Gamier, Traite (1818), 281.
79
Kelly, Metrology (1816), 25-26
Gattey, Elements (an x), 9–10
Chessiron, Nouveau cours (1809), 8, 296.
JP, 47 (1799), 59, 60.
80
Berthaut, Ingenieurs (1902), 2, 160, 148, resp.
ibid., 119, 163– 171
Fischer, Napoleon (1988), 90n, 279, 282.
Fleurieu, Application (an viii), 2–4, 9–21.
81
Kelly, Metrology (1816), xiii
ibid., 27–30
Favre, Origines (1931), 203–205.
82
Kelly, Metrology (1816), xvi
Puissant, Tratte (1820), 245.
83
Viel, Construction des edifices (1803)
Ducrest, Vues nouvelles (1803)
Molard, Description (1811)
V, Krafft, Recueil (1812)
Belidor, Science des Ingenieurs (1813).
84
Projets d'architecture (1806).
85
Bruyere, Etudes (1823).
86
Lemmonier and Normand, Paris moderne (1843)
Bouchard, Prieur (1946), 313.
87
Rondelet, Traite (1805), 3, 57, 66-67, 83 ff., 102, 164, 179–183, 269 ff., 388– 396.
88
Ibid., 1, 99, 101–102, 158–160; 4, 583–604, 609–644.
89
Puissant, Traite (1807), 139, 154
Pommies, Manuel (1808), 166–169.
90
Chaptal, L'industrie francaise (1819)
Lefevre, Guide practique (1833), i–vi, 15–21.
91
Sombart, Der Bourgeois (1913), 164.
92
Exposition abregee [1802], 23-24, 29–30
Tables de corn- par aison (an x), xiv–xxix
Capelli, Rapports (an x), 49-57.
93
Rondelet, Traite (1805), 4:2 (1816), 610–613
Poittier, Arithmetique pratique (an viii), 146–152.
Gattey, Elements (an x), 32-33
94
Lacroix, Traite (1805), 115–146
Gamier, Traite (1818), 1, 263–275, 281– 293
Thinon, Lecons (1860), 131.
95
Chessiron, Nouveau cours (1809), 8, 293.

Bibliography

Bibliography
Abbri, Ferdinando. "The chemical revolution: A critical assessment." Nuntius, 4 (1989), 303–15.
Andrews, G.G. "Making the revolutionary calendar." American his- torical review, 36 (1931), 515–32.
Arbuthnot, John. Miscellaneous works. 2 vols. Glasgow: J. Carlisle, 1751.
Arnold, D.H. "The Mecanique physique of S.D. Poisson: The evolu- tion and isolation in France of his approach to physical theory, 1800–1840." Archive for the history of exact sciences, 28 (1983), 243–367, and 29 (1984), 1–54, 287–307.
Arrighi, Gino, ed. Carteggi di Giovanni Attilio Arnolfini. Quaranta- quattro lettere inedite di Girolamo de la Lande, Ruggiero Guiseppe Boscovich e Leonardo Ximenes. Lucca: Azienda Grafica, 1965.
Baczko, Bronislaw. "Le calendrier republicain" Les lieux de memoire. Ed. Pierre Nora. Vol. 1. La Republique. Paris: Gallimard, 1984. Pp. 37–83.
Barnett, Martin K. "The development of thermometry and the tem- perature concept." Osiris, 12 (1956), 269–341.
Barruel, Etienne. "Physique generale." Ecole poly technique. Journal, 2e cahier, Floreal and Prairial [an iii] (published Nivose, an iv), 128–44; 3e cahier, Messidor, Thermidor, and Fructidor, an iii (Prairial, an iv), 337–44; 4e cahier, Vendemiaire, Brumaire and Frimaire, an iv (Vendemiaire, an v), 623–45.
Barsanti, Danilo, and Leonardo Rombai. Leonardo Ximenes: Uno scienziato nella Toscana lorenese del settecento. Florence: Edizioni Medicea, 1987.
Bassot, Leon. "Notice historique sur la fondation du Systeme metrique." France. Bureau des Longitudes. Annuaire (1901), D.l– D. 43.
Beccaria, G.B., and Domenico Canonica. Gradus taurinensis. Turin: Typographia regia, 1774.
Belidor, Bernard Forest de. La science des Ingenieurs, dans la conduite des travaux de fortification et d'architecture civile. Ed. C.LM.H. Navier. Paris: Firmin Didot, 1813.
Berard, J.E. "Memoire sur les proprietes des differaetes especes de rayons qu'on peut separer au moyen du prisme de la lumiere solaire." MSA, 3 (1817), 5–47.
Bernleithner, Ernst. "Oesterreichs Kartographie zur Zeit des Gra- phen Ferraris." In Cartographie (1978), 129–47.
Berthaut, H.M.A. La carte de France, 1750-1898. 2 vols. Paris: Imprimerie du Service geographique, 1898–99.
Berthaut, H.M.A. Les ingenieurs geographes militaires, 1624–1831. 2 vols. Paris: Imprimerie du Service geographique, 1902.
Berthollet, C.L. Essai de statique chimique. Paris: F. Didot, 1803.
Berthollet, C.L., J.A. Chaptal, and J.B. Biot. "Sur un memoire de M. Beraud, relatif aux proprietes physiques et chimiques des divers rayons qui composent la lumiere solaire." AC, 85 (1813), 309–25.
Bianca, Mariano, ed. La scienza a Firenze. Itinerari scientifici a Firenze e provincia. Florence: Alinea, 1989.
Bickerman, J.J. "Theories of capillary attraction." Centaurus, 19 (1975), 182–206.
Bigourdan, Georges. Le Systeme metrique des poids et mesures. Son etablissement et sa propagation graduelle. Paris: Gauthier-Villars, 1901.
Biot, J.B. "Sur la theorie du son." JP, 55 (1802), 173–82.
Biot, J.B. Essai sur Vhistoire generale des sciences pendant la revolution francaise. Paris: Duprat and Fuchs, 1803.
Biot, J.B. "Extrait de la relation d'un voyage aerostatique." JP, 59 (1804), 314–20.
Biot, J.B. "Experiences sur la propagation du son ä travers les corps solides et ä travers Fair, dans les tuyaux tres-elonges." MSA, 2 (1809), 405–23.
Biot, J.B. Traite de physique experimentale et mathematique. 4 vols. Paris: Deterville, 1816.
Biot, J.B. "Sur une loi remarquable qui s'observe dans les oscilla- tions des particules lumineuses, lorsqu'elles traversent oblique- ment les lames minces de chaux sulfatee ou de cristal de roche, taillees parallelement ä Faxe de crystallisation." MSA, 3 (1817), 132–47.
Biot, J.B. "Examen compare de l'intensite d'action que la force repulsive extraordinaire du spath dTslands exerce sur les molecules lumineuses de diverses couleurs." MSA, 3 (1817), 371–84.
Biot, J.B. Melanges scientifiques et litteraires. 3 vols. Paris: Michel Levy, 1858.
Biot, J.B., and D.F.J. Arago. "Sur les affinites des corps pour la lumiere, et particulierement sur les forces refringentes des differents gaz." MIF, 1806, 301–87.
Borda, Charles. Description et usage du cercle de reflexion, avec differentes methodes pour calculer les observations nautiques. 2nd edn. Paris: Firmin Didot, 1802.
Borda, Charles, J.L. Lagrange, A.L. Lavoisier, Mathieu Tillet, and M.J.A.N. Caritat de Condorcet. "Rapport." HAS, 1788, 1–6. Text of 27 0ct 1790.
Borda, Charles, J.L. Lagrange, P.S. de Laplace, Gaspar Monge, and M.J.A.N. Caritat de Condorcet. "Rapport.. .sur la choix d'une unite de mesures." HAS, 1788, 7–16. Text of 19 Mar 1791.
Boscovich, R.G., and Christopher Maire. Voyage astronomique et geographique dans VEtat de l'Eglise entrepris par Vordre et sous les auspices du pape Benöit XIV. Paris: Tilliard, 1770.
Boscovich, R.G. "De litteraria expeditione per pontificiam ditionem." Accademia della scienze, Bologna. Commentarii, 4 (1757), 353–96.
Bouchard, Georges. Un organisateur de la victoire. Prieur de la Cöte- d'Or, Membre du Comite de salut publique. Paris: R. Clavreuil, 1946.
Boy er, Carl B. "Early principles in the calibration of thermometers." AJP, 10 (1942), 176–80.
Boyer, Jacques. "Le centenaire du Systeme metrique." Revue encyclopedique, 9 (1859), 845–54.
Bradley, James. "A letter.. .giving an account of a new-discovered motion of the fix'd stars." PT, 35 (1729), 637–61.
Bradley, James. "A letter.. .concerning an apparent motion observed in some of the fixed stars." PT, 45 (1748), 1–43.
Bradley, James. Miscellaneous works and correspondence. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1832.
Brisson, M.J. Dictionnaire raisonne de la physique. 7 vols. 2nd edn. Paris: Libraire economique, 1800.
Brown, Harcourt. Science and the human comedy. Natural philosophy in French literature. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1976.
Brown, Lloyd Arnold. Jean Dominique Cassini and his world map of 1696. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1941.
Brown, Sanborn C. "Discover of the differential thermometer." AJP, 22 (1954), 13–17.
Brown, Sanborn C. Benjamin Thompson, Count Rumford. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1979.
Bru, Bernard. "Laplace et la critique probabiliste des mesures geodesiques." In Lacombe and Costabel, Figure (1988), 223–44.
Brunet, Pierre. Maupertuis. Paris: A. Blanchard, 1929.
Brunet, Pierre. La vie et Voeuvre de Clairaut (1713–1765). Paris: Presses universitaires de France, 1952.
Bruwier, Marinette. "Les 'Memoires historiques, chronologiques et economiques' de Ferraris." In Cartographie (1978), 60–73.
Bruyere, L. Etudes relatives a Vart des constructions. Paris: Bance aine, 1823.
Buchwald, J.Z. The rise of the wave theory of light. Optical theory and experiment in the early nineteenth century. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1989.
Buffon, G.L. Leclerc, Comte de. "Reflections sur la loi d'attraction." MAS, 1745, 493–500, 551–2.
Bugge, Thomas. Science in France in the revolutionary era. Ed. M.P. Crosland. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1969.
Bunsen, Robert. "Caloric researches." Philosophical magazine, 41 (1871), 161–82.
Burr, Alexander C. "Notes on the history of the experimental deter- mination of the thermal conductivities of gases," Isis, 21 (1934), 169–86.
Cajori, Florian. The chequered career of Ferdinand Rudolf Hassler. Bos- ton: Christopher, 1929.
Capelli, Charles. Rapports metriques. Turin, Felix Buzan, an x.
Cardwell, D.S.L., ed. John Dalton and the progress of science. Man- chester: Manchester University Press, 1968.
Carter, Alice C. 'The Dutch barrier fortress in the 18th cnetury, as shown in the de Ferraris map." In Cartographie (1978), 259–71.
La Cartographie au xviiie siede et l'oeuvre du comte Ferraris (1726– 1814). Brussels: Credit communal de Belgique, 1978. (Collection histoire pro civitate, no. 54.)
Carvalho, Joacquim de. Correspondencia cientifica dirigida a Joano Jacinto de Magalhänes, 1769–1789. Coimbra: Universidad de Coim- bra, 1952.
Cassini, G.D. La meridiana del tempio di S. Petronio. Tirata, e preparata per le osservazioni astronomiche Vanno 1665. Rivista, e restaurata Vanno 1695. Bologna: Erede di Vittorio Benacci, 1695.
Cassini, G.D. (Cassini I.) "De la figure de la terre." MAS, 1713, 187–98.
Cassini, G.D. "Les elemens de Fastronomie verifiez par Monsieur Cassini par le rapport de ses tables aux observations de M. Richer faites en Fisle de Cayenne." MAS, 1666-1699, 8 (1730), 53–117.
Cassini, Jacques. (Cassini II.) De la grandeur et de la figure de la terre. Paris: Imprimerie royale, 1720.
Cassini, J.D. (Cassini IV.) "De la jonction des observatoires de Paris et de Greenwich, et precis des travaux geographiques executes en France, qui y ont donne lieu." MAS, 1788, 706–17.
Cassini de Thury, CF. (Cassini III.) "Memoire sur la prolongation de la perpendiculaire de Paris jusqu'ä Vienne en Autriche." MAS, 1763, 299–325.
Cassini de Thury, C.F. "De la meridienne de Paris, prolongee vers le Nord, et les observations qui ont ete faites pour decrire les frontieres du Royaume." MAS, 1740, 276–92.
Cassini de Thury, C.F. Relation des deux voyages faits en Allemagne par ordre du roi. Paris: Nyon, 1765.
Cassini de Thury, C.F. Relation d'un voyage en Allemagne, qui comprend les operations relatives a la figure de la terre et a la geographie particuliere. Paris: Imprimerie royale, 1775.
Cassini, C.F. "Description des conquetes de Louis XV, depuis 1745 jusqu'en 1748." In Cassini, Relation (1775), 123–94.
Cassini de Thury, C.F. La description geometrique de la France. Paris: J.C. Desaint, 1783.
Cavendish, Henry, et al. "The report of the committee appointed by the Royal Society to consider the best method of adjusting the fixed points of thermometers." PT, 67 (1777), 816–57.
Champagne, Ruth Inez. The role of five eighteenth-century French mathematicians in the development of the metric system. Ph.D. thesis, Columbia University, 1979.
Chapman, Allan. "The accuracy of angular measuring instruments used in astronomy between 1500 and 1850." Journal for the his- tory of astronomy, 14 (1983), 133–37.
Chapman, Allan. "The design and accuracy of some observatory instruments of the seventeenth century." AS, 40 (1983), 457–71.
Chapman, Allan. Dividing the circle: The development of critical angu- lar measurement in astronomy 1500-1830. Chichester, West Sussex: Ellis Horwood, 1990.
Chappert, Andre. Etienne-Louis Malus (1775-1812) et la theorie cor- pusculaire de la lumiere. Paris: Vrin, 1977.
Chaptal, J.A.C. De Vindustrie francoise. 2 vols. Paris: Renouard, 1819.
Cfhessiron], L. "Mesures." In Nouveau cours complet d'agriculture theorique et pratique. Vol. 8. Paris: Deleville, 1809. Pp. 291–314.
Ciscär, Gabriel. Memoria elemental sobre los nuevos pesos y medidas decimates fundadas en la naturaleza. Madrid: Imprenta real, 1800.
Clairaut, A.C. Theorie de la figure de la terre tiree des principes de Vhydrostatique. Paris: Durand, 1743; 2nd edn, Paris: Courcier, 1808.
Clairaut, A.C. "Sur les explications cartesienne et newtonienne de la refraction de la lumiere." MAS, 1739, 259–75.
Clairaut, A.C. "Avertissement.. .sur le Systeme du monde, dans les principes de 1'attraction." MAS, 1745, 577–8.
Clairaut, A.C. "De l'orbite de la rune, en ne negligeant les quarres des quantites de meme ordre que le force perturbatrices." MAS, 1748, 421–40.
Clairaut, A.C. Theorie de la lune. St Petersburg: Academie imperiale des sciences, 1752.
Close, Charles. The early years of the Ordnance Survey. Ed. J.B. Han- ley. New York: A. Kelley, 1969.
Clotten, M. "Das Vermessungswesen im ehemaligen Königreich Hannover." ZsV, 10 (1881), 292–8, 387–98, 425–38, 445–59.
Cohen, P.C. A calculating people. The spread of numeracy in early America. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1982.
Colloque Gay-Lussac. Palaisseau: Ecole polytechnique, 1980.
Configliachi, Pietro. "Memoire sur la force magnetisante du bord le plus recule du rayon violet du spectre solaire." JP, 77 (1813), 212–35.
Cornell, E.S. "Early studies in radiant heat." AS, 1 (1936), 217–25.
Cornell, E.S. "The radiant heat spectrum from Herschel to Melloni, part I: The work of Herschel and his contemporaries." AS, 3 (1938), 119–37.
Costabel, Pierre. "Le 'calorique du vide' de Clement et Desormes." Archives internationales d'histoire des science, 21 (1968), 3–14.
Costabel, Pierre. "Science positive et forme de la terre au debut du xviiie siede." In Lacombe and Costabel, Figure (1988), 97–113.
Coulomb, C.A. "Construction et usage d'une balance electrique." MAS, 1785, 569–77. In Coulomb, Memoires (1884), 107–15.
Coulomb, CA. "Memoire.. .oü Ton determine suivant quelles lois le fluide magnetique ainsi le fluide electrique agissent." MAS, 1785, 578–611. In Coulomb, Memoires (1884), 116–46.
Coulomb, CA. "Sur la maniere dont le fluide electrique se partage entre deux corps conducteurs mis en contact." MAS, 1787, 421– 67. In Coulomb, Memoires (1884), 183–229.
Coulomb, C.A. Memoires. Paris: Gauthiers-Villars, 1884. (Societe francaise de physique. Collection de memoires relatifs a la physique, 1.)
Crosland, M.P. "The origin of Gay-Lussac's law of combining volumes." AS, 17 (1961), 1–26.
Crosland, Maurice. The Society of Arcueil. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1967.
Crosland, Maurice. "The first reception of Dalton's atomic theory in France." In Caldwell, ed., John Dalton (1968), 274–87.
Crosland, Maurice. "Introduction." In Bugge, Science (1969), 1–18.
Crosland, Maurice. "The congress on definitive metric standards, 1798–1799: The first international scientific congress?" Isis, 60 (1969), 226–31.
Crosland, Maurice. '"Nature' and measurement in eighteenth- century France." Studies on Voltaire and the eighteenth century, 87 (1972), 277–309.
Crosland, Maurice. Gay-Lussac. Scientist and bourgeois. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1978.
Crosland, Maurice. "Chemistry and the chemical revolution." In Rousseau and Porter, Ferment (1980), 389–418.
Crosland, Maurice, and Crosbie Smith. "The transmission of physics from France to Britain, 1800–1840." HSPS, 9 (1978), 1–61.
Crouch, T.D. The eagle aloft. Two centuries of the balloon in America. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian, 1983.
Dalby, Isaac. "The longitudes of Dunkirk and Paris from Greenwich, deduced from the triangular measurement in 1787, 1788, supposing the earth to be an ellipsoid." PT, 81 (1791), 236–45.
Dalton, John. "On the expansion of elastic fluids by heat." Man- chester Literary and Philosophical Society. Memoirs, 5:2 (1803), 595–602.
Danjon, Andre, and Andre Couder. Lunettes et telescopes. Paris: Editions de la Revue d'optique, 1935.
Daumas, Maurice. Les instruments scientifiques aux xviie et xviiie siecles. Paris: Presses universitaires de France, 1953.
Daumas, Maurice. "Precision of measurement and physical and chemical research in the 18th century." In A.C. Crombie, ed. Scientific change. New York: Basic Books, 1963. Pp. 418–30.
David, Jean-Claude. "Grimm, Lalande et le quart de cercle de FEcole royale militaire." Dix-huitieme siecle, 14 (1982), 277–87.
Debarbat, Suzanne. "La qualite des observations astronomiques de Picard." In Picolet, Picard (1987), 157–73.
Debarbat, Suzanne. "Cooperation geodesique entre la France et FAngleterre ä la veille de la Revolution francaise: Echanges tech- niques, scientifiques et instrumentaux." Echanges d'influences scientifiques et techniques entre pays Europeens de 1780 a 1830. Paris: CTHS, 1990. Pp. 47–76. (Congres national des societes savantes, CXIV. Section histoire des sciences et des techniques. Actes.)
Dee, John. "Mathematicall preface." In H. Billingsley, tr. The ele- ments of geometry of the most auncient philosopher Euclide of Megara. London: I. Daye, 1570.
Delambre, J.B.J. Rapport historique sur les progres des sciences mathematiques depuis 1789, et sur leur etat actuel. Paris: Imprimerie imperiale, 1810.
Delambre, J.B.J. Histoire de Vastronomie moderne. 2 vols. Paris: Huzard-Coucier, 1821.
Delambre, J.B.J. Histoire de Vastronomie au dix-huitieme siecle. Paris: Bachelier, 1827.
Delambre, J.B.J. Grandeur et figure de la terre. Ed. G. Bigourdan. Paris: Gauthier-Villars, 1912.
Delametherie, J.C. "Discours preliminaire." JP, 46 (1798), 1–134.
Delaroche, Francois. "Observations sur le calorique rayonnant." JP, 75 (1812), 201–28.
Delaroche, Francois. "Observations sur le calorique rayonnant." Societe philomathique. Bulletin, 3 (1812), 131.
Delaroche, Francois, and J.E. Berard. "Memoire sur la determination de la chaleur specifique des differens gaz." AC, 85 (1813), 72– 110, 113–82.
Deluc, J.A. "An essay on pyrometry and aerometry, and on physical measures in general." PT, 68 (1778), 419–553.
Depuydt, L. Frans. "The large-scale mapping of Belgium, 1800– 1850." Imago mundi, 27 (1975), 23–6.
Desaguliers, J.T. "A dissertation concerning the figure of the earth." PT, 33 (1725), 201–22, 239–55, 277–304, 344–5.
Desaguliers, J.T. Course of experimental philosophy. 3rd edn. 2 vols. London: A. Millar, 1763.
Desormes, C.B., and Nicolas Clement. "Determination experi- mentale du zero absolu de la chaleur et du calorique specifique des gaz." JP, 89 (1819), 321–46, 428–55.
Devic, J.F.S. Histoire de la vie et des travaux de f.D. Cassini IV. Cler- mont: A. Daix, 1851.
Dhombres, Jean. "Mathematisation et communaute scientifique francaise (1775–1825)." Archives internationales d'histoire des sci- ences, 36 (1986), 249–93.
Dhombres, Jean. "La theorie de la capillarite selon Laplace, mathematisation superficielle ou etendue?" RHS, 42 (1989), 43– 77.
Dhombres, Nicole, and Jean Dhombres. Naissance d'un pouvoir: Sci- ences et savants en France, 1793–1824. Paris: Payot, 1989.
Dhombres Firmas, L.A. "Extrait [des memoires sur la formule barometrique, par L. Ramond]." JP, 75 (1812), 253–75.
Donovan, Arthur. "Lavoisier and the origins of modern chemistry." Osiris, 4 (1988), 214–31.
Dörflinger, Johannes. "Leben und kartographisches Werk der Ingenieur-Offiziere de Traux (unter besonderer Berücksichtigung von Maximilien de Traux)." In Cartographie (1978), 191–223.
Dörries, Matthias. "Prior history and after effects: Hysteresis and Nachwirkung in the 19th cnetury." HSPS, 22:1 (1991), 25–55.
Ducrest, L. Vues nouvelles sur les courans d'eau, la navigation interieure et la marine. Paris: Perronneau, 1803.
Dulong, P.L., and A.T. Petit. "Recherches sur les lois de dilation des solides, des liquides, et des fluides elastiques, et sur la mesure exacte des temperatures." ACP, 2 (1816), 240–63.
Dulong, P.L., and A.T. Petit. "Des recherches sur la mesure des temperatures et sur les lois de la communication de la chaleur." ACP, 7 (1818), 113–54, 225–64, 337–67.
Dulong, P.L., and A.T. Petit. "Sur quelques points importants de la theorie de la chaleur." ACP, 10 (1819), 395–413.
Eckhardt, C.L.P.G. "Auszug aus Herrn Ministerialraths Eckhardt vorläufige Nachricht." Astronomishe Nachrichten, 12 (1835), 129– 34.
Erxleben, J.C.P. Anfansgründe der Naturlehre. Ed. G.C. Lichtenberg. 3rd, 4th, 5th edns. Göttingen: J.C. Dietrich, 1784, 1787, 1791.
Evans, James, and Brian Popp. "Pictet's experiment: The apparent radiation and reflection of cold." AJP, 53 (1985), 737–53.
Evans, T.S. "Historical memoranda respecting experiments intended to ascertain the calorific powers of the different prismatic rays." Philosophical magazine, 45 (1815), 401–10.
Exposition abregee du nouveau Systeme des poids et mesures, d'apres le metre definitif. Avignon: Seguin, an x.
Farrar, K.R. "Dalton's scientific apparatus." In Cardwell, ed., John Dalton (1968), 159-86.
Fauque, Daniel. "Un instrument essentiel de l'expeditions pour la mesure de la terre: le quart du cercle mobile." In Lacombe and Costabel, Figure (1988), 209-21.
Favre, Adrien. Les origines du Systeme metrique. Paris: Presses universitaires de France, 1931.
Feldman, T.S. "Applied mathematics and the quantification of experimental physics: The example of barometric hypsometry." HSPS, 15:2 (1985), 127–97.
Fink, K.J. "Actio in distans, repulsion, attraction. The origin of an eighteenth-century fiction." Archiv für Begriffsgeschichte, 25 (1982), 69–87.
Finn, B.S. "Laplace and the speed of sound." Isis, 55 (1964), 7–19.
Fischer, E.G. Physique mecanique. Tr., with notes, by J.B. Biot. Paris: Bernard, 1806.
Fischer, Joachim. Napoleon und die Naturwissenschaften. Stuttgart: Steiner, 1988.
Fischer, J.K. Physikalisches Wörterbuch, oder Erklärung der vor- nehmsten zur Physik gehörigen Begriffe und Kunstwörter so wohl nach atomistischer als auch nach dynamischer Lehrart betrachtet. 7 vols. Göttingen: J.C. Dietrich, 1798–1806.
Fischer, J.K. Geschichte der Physik seit der Wiederherstellung der Künste und Wissenschaften bis auf die neuesten Zeiten. 8 vols. Göttingen: J.J. Röwer, 1801–08.
Flaugergues, Honore. "Extrait d'un memoire sur le rapport de la dilation de Pair avec la chaleur." JP, 77 (1813), 273–92.
Fleurieu. C.P.C. de. Application du Systeme metrique decimal applique a l'hydrographie et aux calculs de la navigation. 3rd edn. Paris: Imprimerie de la Republique, an viii.
Forbes, E.G. The Euler-Mayer correspondence (1751–1755). A new per- spective on eighteenth-century advances in the lunar theory. New York: American Elsevier, 1971.
Forbes, E.G. "The geodetic link between the Greenwich and Paris observatories in 1787." Vistas in astronomy, 28 (1985), 173–81.
Fox, Robert. "Dalton's caloric theory." In Cardwell, ed., John Dalton (1968), 187–201.
Fox, Robert. "The background to the discovery of Dulong and Petit's law." BJHS, 4 (1968), 1–22.
Fox, Robert. The caloric theory of gases from Lavoisier to Regnault. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1971.
Fox, Robert. "The rise and fall of Laplacian physics." HSPS, 4 (1974), 89–136.
France. Comite d'instruction publique. Tables de rapports entre les mesures republicaines et les mesures anciennes, le plus generalement employees en France. Paris: Imprimerie de la Republique, 5e jour completaire, an iii [1795].
France. Commission temporaire des poids et mesures republicaines. Instruction sur les mesures deduites de la grandeur de la terre, uni- formes pour toute la Republique, et sur les calculs relatifs ä leur division decimale. Paris: Imprimerie nationale executive du Louvre, an ii [1794].
France. Commission temporaire des poids et mesures republicaines. L'agence temporaire des poids et mesures, aux citoyens redacteurs de la feuille du cultivateur, en reponse a des objections contre la nomenclature des mesures nouvelles, inserees dans le no. 38 de ce journal. Paris: Imprimerie de la Republique, Thermidor, an iii [1795].
France. Commission temporaire des poids et mesures republicaines. Avis. Paris: Imprimerie de la Republique, Frimaire, an iv [1795].
France. Convention nationale. Loi relative aux poids et mesures. Paris: Imprimerie de la Republique [1795].
Frängsmyr, Tore, J.L. Heilbron, and Robin E. Rider, eds. The quanti- fying spirit in the eighteenth century. Berkeley: University of Cali- fornia Press, 1990.
Frankel, Eugene. "The search for a corpuscular theory of double refraction: Malus, Laplace, and the prize competition of 1808." Centaurus, 18 (1974), 223–45.
Frankel, Eugene. "J.B. Biot and the mathematization of experimental physics in Napoleonic France." HSPS, 8 (1977), 33–72.
Freudenthal, Gad, ed. Etudes sur Helene Metzger. Paris: Fayard, 1989.
Friedman, R.M. "The creation of a new science: Joseph Fourier's analytical theory of heat." HSPS, 8 (1977), 73–99.
Friedrich, Klaus. "Die Bedeutung Franz Xavier von Zachs für die Entwicklung der astronomischen Geographie in Deutschland." Petermanns geographische Mitteilungen, 117:2 (1973), 147–53.
Froeschle, Michel. "Calendrier republicain correspondait-il ä une necessite scientifique?" In Scientifiques et societes (1990), 453-65.
Galle, A. "Über die geodätischen Arbeiten von Gauss." In Gauss, Werke (1863), 11:2, Abh. 1.
Gallois, Lucien. "L'Academie des sciences et les origines de la carte de Cassini." Annales de geographic 18 (1909), 193–204.
Gamond, M.A. Thome de. Atlas containing the plans and sections of the submarine tunnel between England and France. London: Saville, 1870.
Gamier, Jean-Guillaume. Traite d'arithmetique. 4th edn. Gent: J.N. Houdin, 1818.
Gascoigne, John. Cambridge in the age of the Enlightenment. Cam- bridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989.
Gattey, F. Elements du nouveau Systeme metrique, suivis des Tables des rapports des anciennes mesures agraires avec les nouvelles. Paris: Baily and Rondonneau, an x.
Gauss, C.F. Bestimmung des Breitenunterschiedes zwischen den Sternwarten von Göttingen und Altona durch Beobachtungen am Ramsdenschen Zenithsector. Göttingen: Vandenhoek and Ruprecht, 1828. In Gauss, Werke, 9, 1–58.
Gauss, C.F. Werke. 12 vols. Göttingen: Gesellschaft der Wissen- schaften, 1868–1929.
Gauss, C.F. Briefwechsel zwischen Gauss und Bessel. Leipzig: Engel- mann, 1880. (Gauss. Werke. Ergänzungsreihe, 1.)
Gay-Lussac, J.L. "Recherches sur la dilation des gaz et des vapeurs." AC, 43 (1802), 137–75.
Gay-Lussac, J.L. "Relation d'un voyage aerostatique." JP, 59 (1804), 454–62.
Gay-Lussac, J.L. "Premier essai pour determiner les variations de temperature qu'eprouvent les gaz en changeant de densite, et considerations sur leur capacite pour le calorique." MSA, 1 (1807), 180–204.
Gay-Lussac, J.L. "Memoire sur la combinaison des substances gazeuses, les unes avec les autres." MSA, 2 (1809), 207–34.
Gay-Lussac, J.L. "Extrait d'un memoire sur la capacite des gaz pour le calorique." AC, 81 (1812), 98–108.
Gay-Lussac, J.L. "Sur le calorique du vide." ACP, 13 (1820), 304–8.
Gehler, J.S.T. Physikalishces Wörterbuch. 6 vols. Leipzig: Schwickert, 1795–1801.
Gehler, J.S.T. Physikalisches Wörterbuch, oder Versuch einer Erklärung der vornehmsten Begriffe und Kunstwörter der Naturlehre. 2nd edn. 11 vols. Leipzig: Schwickert, 1825–45.
Gerardy, Theo. "Der Briefwechsel zwischen Carl Friedrich Gauss und Carl Ludwig von Lecoq." Akademie der Wissenschaften, Göttingen. Math.-Phys. Klasse. Nachrichten, 1959:4, 37–63.
Gilbert, L.W. "Eine nöthige Verbesserung der Resultate Gay- Lussac's über die Ausdehnung der Gasarten und der Dämpfe durch Wärme." Annalen der Physik, 12 (1802), 396–8.
Gilles, Bernhard. J.Ch.P. Erxlebens "Anfangsgründe der Naturlehre" als Spiegelbild der physikalischen Wissenschaft im letzten Viertel des 18. Jahrhunderts. Thesis, University of Mainz, 1978.
Gillispie, C.C. "The Encyclopedic and the Jacobin philosphy of sci- ence: A study in ideas and consequences." In Marshall Clagett, ed. Critical problems in the history of science. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1959. Pp. 255–89.
Gillispie, C.C. Science and polity in Prance at the end of the ancien regime. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1980.
Gillispie, C.C. The Montgolfier brothers and the invention of aviation. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1983.
Gillispie, C.C. "Scienze e istruzione nella Rivoluzione francese." Intersezioni, 9 (1989), 401–13.
Gillispie, C.C. "Scientific aspects of the French Egyptian expedi- tion." American Philosophical Society. Proceedings, 133 (1989), 447–74.
Gliozzi, Mario. "II calorico." Cultura e scuola, 14 (Oct-Dec 1975), 183–209.
Godin, Louis. "Methode pratique de tracer sur terre un parallele par un degre de latitude donne; et du rapport du meme parallele dans le spheroide oblong, et dans le spheroide applati." MAS, 1733, 223–32.
Goldfarb, S.J. "Rumford's theory of heat: A reassessment." BJHS, 10 (1977) , 25–36.
Greenberg, John. "Geodesy in Paris in the 1730s and the Paduan connection." HSPS, 13 (1983), 239–60.
Greene, J.C. American science in the age of Jefferson. Ames: Iowa State University Press, 1984.
Gregory, Olinthus. "Brief memoir of Charles Hutton." Imperial magazine, 5 (1823), 207–27.
Gren, F.A.C. Grundriss der Naturlehre. 3rd edn. Halle: Hemmerde and Schwetsche, 1797.
Grigull, Ulrich. "Das Newtonische Abkühlungsgesetz." Physis, 20 (1978) , 213–35.
Guerlac, Henry. Lavoisier—The crucial year. The background to his first experiments on combustion in 1772. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1961.
Guerlac, Henry. "Chemistry as a branch of physics: Laplace's colla- boration with Lavoisier." HSPS, 7 (1976), 193–276.
Guerlac, Henry. Essays and papers in the history of modern science. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1977.
Guicciardini, Niccolö. The development of Newtonian calculus in Bri- tain, 1700-1800. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989.
Guillaume, J. Proces-verbaux du Comite d'instruction publique de la Convention nationale, vol. 2. Paris: Imprimerie nationale, 1894.
Guyton de Morveau, L.B. "Sur la dilatabilite de Lair et des gaz par la chaleur." AC, 1 (1790), 256-99.
Haasbroek, N.D. Investigation of the accuracy of Krayenhoff's triangu- lation (1802-1811) in Belgium, The Netherlands, and a part of western Germany. Delft: Rijkscommissie voor geodesies 1972.
Hahn, Roger. The anatomy of a scientific institution. The Paris Academy of Sciences, 1666–1803. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1971.
Hahn, Roger. "Laplace and Boscovich." In M. Bossi and P. Tucci, eds. Bicentennial commemoration of R.G. Boscovich. Proceedings. Milan: Unicopli, 1988. Pp. 71–82.
Hall, A.R., and Laura Tilling, eds. The correspondence of Isaac New- ton, vol. 5. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1975.
Hammer, E. "Zur Geschichte der Basismessung." ZsV, 20 (1891), 446–8.
Hassenfratz, J.H. "Discours sur le cours de physique generale." Ecole polytechnique. Journal, 5e cahier (an vi), 236-42.
Hassenfratz, J.H. "Physique generale: De l'enseignement de cette science." Ecole polytechnique. Journal, 6e cahier (an vii), 372- 408.
Haüy, R.J. Traite elementaire de physique. 2nd edn. 2 vols. Paris: Courcier, 1806.
Heilbron, J.L. "Duhem and Donahue." In Robert S. Westman, ed. The Copernican achievement. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1975. Pp. 276–84.
Heilbron, J.L. "Introduction." In Wayne Shumaker, tr. Propaedeu- mata aphoristica. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1978. Pp. 1–99.
Heilbron, J.L. Electricity in the 17ih and 18th centuries. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1979.
Heilbron, J.L. Physics at the Royal Society during Newton's presidency. Los Angeles: William Anders Clark Memorial Library, 1983.
Hellman, C. Doris. "Legendre and the French reform of weights and measures." Osiris, 1 (1936), 314–39.
Henry, Charles. Correspondance inedite de Turgot et Condorcet. Paris: Charavay freres, 1883.
Herivel, J.W. "Aspects of French theoretical physics in the 19th cen- tury." BJHS, 3 (1966), 109–32.
Herbst, Hans-Dieter. "Das Wechselverhältnis von Astronomie und Maschinenbau, dargestellt am Beispiel des Wirkens von Georg von Reichenbach (1771–1826)." NTM. Schriftenreihe für Geschichte der Naturwissenschaften Technik und Medizin, 28:1 (1991), 61–72.
Herschel, William. "Investigation of the powers of the prismatic colours to heat and illuminate objects." PT, 90 (1800), 255–83. In Herschel, Scientific papers (1912), 2, 53–69.
Herschel, William. "Experiments on the solar, and on the terrestrial rays that occasion heat." PT, 90 (1800), 293–326, 437–538. In Herschel, Scientific papers (1912), 2, 77–98, 98–146.
Herschel, William. "Experiments on the refrangibility of the sensible rays of the sun." PT, 90 (1800), 284–92. In Herschel, Scientific papers (1912), 2, 70–6.
Herschel, William. "Investigation of the powers of the prismatic colours to heat and illuminate objects." Nicholson's journal, 4 (1800–01), 320–6.
Herschel, William. The scientific papers. 2 vols. London: Royal Society and Royal Astronomical Society, 1912.
Home, R.W. "Introductory monograph." In Aepinus's essay on the theory of electricity and magnetism. Tr. P.J. Connor. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1979. Pp. 1–224.
Home, R.W. "Physical principles and the possibility of a mathemati- cal science of electricity and magnetism." In Metirier, Poisson (1981), 151–66.
Hornsby, Thomas. [A proposal to purchase astronomical instru- ments]. Oxford: privately printed, 1771.
Howse, Derek. Nevil Maskelyne. The seaman's astronomer. Cam- bridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989.
Hugenin, Marcel. "French cartography of Corsica." Imago mundi, 24 (1970), 123–37.
Hutton, Charles. Philosophical and mathematical dictionary [1795]. 2 vols. 2nd edn. London: the author, 1815.
Hylsop, Beatrice Fry. French nationalism in 1789 according to the gen- eral cahiers. Revised edn. New York: Octagon, 1968.
Jahn, G.A. Geschichte der Astronomie vom Anfang des 19. Jahrhunderts bis zum Ende des Jahres 1842. 2 vols. Leipzig: H. Hunger, 1844.
Jenisch, David. Geist und Charakter des achtzehnten Jahrhunderts. Pol- itisch, moralisch, aesthetisch und wissenschaftlich betrachtet. 3 vols. Berlin: Akademie der Wissenschaften, 1800–01.
Jordan, W. "Oesterreichische Geodäsie." ZsV, 28 (1899), 52–60.
Kelly, P. Metrology; or, An exposition of weights and measures, chiefly those of Great Britain and France. London: Lockingston et al., 1816.
King, Henry C. The history of the telescope. Cambridge, MA: Sky publishing, 1955.
Kleinert, Andreas. "Physik zwischen Aufklärung und Romantik: Die 'Anfangsgründe der Naturlehre' von Erxleben und Lichtenberg." In Bernhard Fabian, Wilhelm Schmidt-Biggemann, and Rudolf Vierhaus, eds. Deutschlands kulturelle Entfaltung. Die Neubestim- mung des Menschen. Munich: Kraus International, 1980. Pp. 99– 113.
Koeman, Cornelis. "Instruments et methodes pour les levers du ter- rain ä l'epoque du comte du Ferraris." In Cartographie (1978), 289–98.
Konvitz, J.V. "Redating and rethinking the Cassini geodetic surveys of France, 1730–1750." Cartographica, 19 (1982), 1–15.
Konvitz, J.V. Cartography in France, 1660–1848. Science, engineering, and statecraft. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987.
Krafft, Fritz. "Der Weg von den Physiken zur Physik an den deutschen Universitäten." Berichte zur Wissenschaftsgeschichte, 1 (1978), 123–62.
Krafft, J. Ch. Recueil d'architecture civile, contenant les plans, coupes et elevations des chateaux, maisons de compagne, et habitations rurales, jardins anglais, temples, chaumieres, kiosques, ponts, etc. Paris: Bance et al., 1812.
Kuhn, T.S. "The caloric theory of adiabatic compression." Isis, 49 (1958), 132–40.
Kula, Witold. Les mesures et les hommes. Tr. Joanna Ritt. Paris: Maison des sciences de l'homme, 1984.
Lacombe, Henri, and Pierre Costabel, eds. La figure de la terre du xviiie siecle a Vere spatiale. Paris: Gauthier-Villars, 1988.
La Condamine, CM. de. "Extrait des operations trigonometriques, et des observations astronomiques, faites pour la mesure des degres du meridien aux environs de l'equateur." MAS, 1746, 618–88.
La Condamine, CM. de. "Nouveau projet d'une mesure invariable, propre ä servir de mesure commune ä toutes les nations." MAS, 1747, 489–514.
La Condamine, CM. de. Mesure des trois premiers degres du meridien dans l'hemisphere austral. Paris: Imprimerie royale, 1751.
Lacroix, S.F. Traite elementaire d'arithmetique, ä l'usage de l'Ecole cen- trale des quatre nations. Paris: Courcier, 1805.
Lafluente, Antonio. "L'aventure et la science dans l'expedition au Perou (1735–1743)." In Lacome and Costabel, Figure (1988), 139–50.
Lafuente, Antonio, and Antonio Mazuecos. Los Caballeros del Punto Fijo. Ciencia, politica y aventura en la expedition geodesica hispanofrancesca al virreinato del Peru en el siglo xviii. Barcelona: SERBAL/CSIC, 1987.
Lafuente, Antonio, and Jose L. Peset. "La question de la figure de la terre au xviiie siecle." RHS, 37 (1984), 235–54.
Lagarde, Lucie. "Contribution de l'abbe Picard ä la cartographic" In Picolet, Picard (1987), 247–61.
Lagrange, J.L. "Nouvelles recherches sur la nature et la propagation du son." Accademia delle scienze, Turin. Melanges de physique et mathematique, 2 (1760–61), 11–172.
Laissus, Yves. "Deux lettres de Laplace." RHS, 14 (1961), 285–96.
Lambton, William. "An abstract of the results deduced from the measurement of an arc on the meridian." PT, 108 (1818), 486– 517.
Laplace, P.S. de. "Lecons de mathematiques donnees ä l'Ecole Nor- male en 1795." In Oeuvres (1878), 14, 10–177.
Laplace, P.S. de. Exposition du Systeme du monde. Paris: Imprimerie du Cercle-Social, 1796.
Laplace, P.S. de. "Des refractions astronomiques." In Oeuvres (1878), 4, 349–417. Text of 1805.
Laplace, P.S. de. "Sur Faction capillaire." In Oeuvres (1878), 4, 233–277. Text of 1806.
Laplace, P.S. de. "Sur la theorie des tubes capillaires." JP, 62 (1806); Oeuvres (1878), 14, 217–27.
Laplace, P.S. de. "Sur le mouvement de la lumiere dans les milieux diaphanes." MSA, 2 (1809), 111–42.
Laplace, P.S. de. "Considerations sur la theorie des phenomenes capillaires." JP, 89 (1819), 259–64; Oeuvres (1878), 259–64.
Laplace, P.S. de. Oeuvres completes. 14 vols. Paris: Gauthier-Villars, 1878–1912.
Lavoisier, A.L. "De la combinaison de la matiere du feu avec les fluides evaporables, et de la formation des fluides elastiques aeriformes," MAS, 1777, 420–32; Oeuvres (1878), 2, 212–24.
Lavoisier, A.L. "Memoire sur la combustion en general." MAS, 1777, 592–600; Oeuvres (1862), 2, 225–33.
Lavoisier, A.L. Elements of chemistry [1789]. Tr. Robert Kerr. Edin- burgh: William Creech, 1790.
Lavoisier, A.L. Oeuvres, vol. 2. Memoires de chimie et physique. Paris: Imprimerie imperiale, 1862.
Lavoisier, A.L., and P.S. Laplace. "Memoire sur la chaleur." MAS, 1780, 355–408. In Lavoisier, Oeuvres (1862), 2, 283–333. Tr. as Memoir on heat by Henry Guerlac. New York: Neale Watson, 1982.
Lefevre, A. Guide pratique et memoratif de Varpenteur, particuliere- ment destine aux personnes qui n'ont point etudie la geometric Paris: Bachelier, 1833.
Legendre, Adrien-Marie. "Suite du calcul des triangles qui servent ä determiner la difference de longitude entre l'Observatoire de Paris et celui de Greenwich." MAS, 1788, 747–54.
Lemay, Pierre, and Ralph E. Oesper. "Pierre Louis Dulong, his life and work." Chymia, 1 (1948), 171–90.
Lemmonier, —, and L.M. Normand. Paris moderne. Paris: Normand, 1843.
Lemoine-Isabeau. "L'elaboration de la carte de Ferraris." In Carto- graphie (1978), 39–58.
Lervig, Philip. "Les experiences de Gay-Lussac sur Fexpansion adia- batique des gaz." In j. Coyac et al., eds. Gay-Lussac: La carriere et Voeuvre d'un chimiste francais durant la premiere moitie du xixe siecle. Palaiseau: Ecole polytechnique, 1980. Pp. 203–11.
Leslie, John. "Observations and experiments on light and heat, with some remarks on the enquiries of Dr Herschel, respecting those objects." Nicholson's journal 4 (1800–01), 344–50, 416–21.
Leslie, John. An experimental inquiry into the nature and propagation of heat. London: J. Mawman, 1804.
Leslie, John. Tracts historical and physical.. .respecting the election of Mr Leslie to the professorship of mathematics. 2 vols. Edinburgh: Creech et al., 1806.
Leslie, John. "Dissertation fifth: Exhibiting a general view of the progress of mathematical and physical science chiefly during the eighteenth century." Encyclopedia britannica. 7th edn. London: Edinburgh: A. and C. Black, 1842. Vol. 1. Pp. 691–793.
Lessing und die Zeit der Aufklärung. Göttingen: Vandenhoek and Ruprecht, 1968.
Levallois, Jean-Jacques. "L'Academie royale des sciences et la figure de la terre." La vie des sciences, 3 (1986), 261–301.
Levallois, Jean-Jacques. "Picard geodesien." In Picolet, Picard (1987), 227–46.
Levallois, Jean-Jacques. "L'Academie royale des sciences et la figure de la terre." In Lacombe and Costabel, Figure (1988), 41–75.
Levallois, Jean-Jacques. "La meridienne de Dunkerque ä Barcilone et la determination du metre (1792–1799)." In Scientifiques et societes (1990), 423–40.
Levere, Trevor H. "Lavoisier: Language, instruments, and the chem- ical revolution." In Levere and W.B. Shea, eds. Nature, experi- ment, and the sciences. Dordrecht: Kluwer, 1990. Pp. 207–23.
Levy, Jacques. "Picard createur de Tastronomie moderne." In Picolet, Picard (1987), 133–41.
Levy, Maurice. "Allocution dans la seance publique." Academie des sciences, Paris. Comptes rendus, 131 (1900), 1019–40.
Libes, Antoine. Trattato elementare di fisica esposto in un ordine nuovo secondo le moderne scoperte. 2 vols. Florence: G. Piatti, 1803.
Libes, Antoine. Histoire philosophique des progres de la physique. Paris: the author, 1810.
Liesganig, J.X. Dimensio graduum meridiani Viennensis et Hungarici, Augustoruum jussu et auspiciis suscepta. Vienna: A. Bernardi, 1770.
Lilley, S. "Attitudes to the nature of heat about the beginning of the nineteenth century." Archives internationales d'histoire des sci- ences, 1 (1948), 630–9.
Lodwig, T.H., and W.A. Smeaton. "The ice calorimeter of Lavoisier and Laplace and some of its critics." AS, 31 (1974), 1–18.
Lorenz, Martina. "Rezeption und Bewertung des Newtonschen Gravitationgesetzes in Physikbüchern im Zeitalter der Aufklärung in Deutschland." NTM. Schriftenreihe für Geschichte der Natur- wissenschaft- Technik-Medezin, 27 (1990:1), 25–39.
Lorette, Jean. "La fortune de la carte de Ferraris. Son emploi par la France de 1792 ä 1816." In Cartographie (1978), 77–117.
Lovell, DJ. "Herschel's dilemma in the interpretation of thermal radiation." Isis, 59 (1968), 46–60.
Lundgren, Anders. "The changing role of numbers in 18th-century chemistry." In Frängsmyr, Spirit (1990), 245–60.
Malus, Etienne. "Sur une propriete de la lumiere reflechie." MSA, 2 (1809), 143–58.
Malus, Etienne. "Sur une propriete des forces repulsives qui agissent sur la lumiere." MSA, 2 (1809), 254–67.
Malus, Etienne. "Theorie de la double refraction." Institut des sci- ences, lettres et arts, Paris. Memoires de mathematiques et de phy- siques presentes.. .par divers savans, 2 (1811), 303–508.
Manley, Gordon. "Dalton's accomplishment in meteorology." In Cardwell, John Dalton (1968), 140–58.
Marguet, F.P. Histoire de la longitude a la mer au xviiie siecle, en France. Paris: Challamel, 1917.
Marquet, Louis. "Le pendule ä secondes et les etalons de longueur utilises par l'expedition ä FEquateur: la toise de Perou." In Lacombe and Costabel, Figure (1988), 191–206.
Martin, J.P. La figure de la terre: Recit de l'expedition francaise en Laponie suedoise (1736–1737). Cherbourg: Isoete, 1987.
Maskelyne, Nevil. "Introduction to the following observations [of Mason and Dixon]." FT, 58 (1768), 270–4.
Maskelyne, Nevil. "Postscript." FT, 58 (1768), 323–8.
Makelyne, Nevil. "Concerning the latitude and longitude of the Royal Observatory at Greenwich, with remarks on a memorial of the late M. Cassini de Thury." FT, 77 (1787), 151–87.
Mauskopf, S.H. "Haiiy's model of chemical equivalence: Daltonian doubts exhumed." Ambix, 17 (1970), 182–91.
May, W.E. "Early reflecting instruments." Nautical magazine, 145 (1945), 21–6.
May, W.F., and H.D. Howse. "How the chronometer went to sea." Vistas in astronomy, 20 (1976), 135–7.
Mayer, Tobias. "Nova methodus perficiendi instrumenta geometrica et novum instrumentum geometricum." Akademie der Wissen- schaften, Göttingen. Commentarii, 2 (1752), 325–36.
Mayer, Tobias. Tabulae motuum solis et lunae novae correctae; quibus accedit Methodus longitudinum promota. London: Richardson, 1770.
McKeon, Robert M. "Les debuts de l'astronomie de precision. I. His- toire de la realisation du micrometre astronomique." Physis, 13 (1971), 225–88.
McKeon, Robert M. "Les debuts de Tastronomie de precision. II. Histoire de Tacquisition des instruments de Tastronomie et de geodesie munis d'appareil de visee optique." Physis, 14 (1972), 221–42.
McKie, Douglas, and N.H. de V. Heathcote. The discovery of specific and latent heat. London: Arnold, 1935.
Mechain, P.F.A., and J.BJ. Delambre. Base du Systeme metrique decimal, ou Mesure de l'arc du meridien compris entre les parelleles de Dunkerque et Barcelona. 3 vols. Paris: Baudouin, 1806–1810.
Melhado, E.M. "Chemistry, physics, and the chemical revolution." Isis, 76 (1985), 195–211.
Melhado, E.M. "Metzger, Kuhn, and 18th-century disciplinary his- tory." In Freudenthal, Etudes (1989), 111–34.
Metirier, Michel, Pierre Costabel, and Pierre Dugac, eds. Simeon- Denis Poisson et la science de son temps. Palaiseau: Ecole polytech- nique, 1981.
Middleton, W.E. Knowles. The history of the barometer. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1964.
Middleton, W.E. Knowles. Invention of the meteorological instruments. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1969.
Miller, David P. "Essay review." History of science, 19 (1981), 284– 92.
Miller, John Philip. "Between hostile camps." BJHS, 16 (1983), 1–47.
Miller, John Riggs. Speeches in the House of Commons upon the equal- ization of the weights and measures of Great Britain; with notes, observations, etc., etc., also, a general standard proposed for the weights and measures of Europe.. .together with two letters from the Bishop of Autun to the author, upon the uniformity of weights and measures. London: J. Debrett, 1790.
Miller, Samuel. A brief retrosepct of the 18th century. 2 vols. New York: T. and J. Swords, 1803.
Miliin, Eleutherophile. Annuaire du republicain, ou Legende physico- economique. Paris: Droubin, an ii.
Molard, CP., et al., eds. Description des machines et procedes specifies dans les brevets d'invention, de perfectionnement et d'importation, dont la duree est expiree. 93 vols. Paris: Huzard, etc., 1811–74.
Moreau, Richard. "Jean-Baptiste Biot, voluntaire de la Republique." In Scientifiques et societes (1990), 117-44.
Mori, Attilo. "Studi, trattative e proposte per la costruzione di una carta geografica della toscana nella seconda rneta del secolo xviii." Archivio storico italiano, 35 (1905), 369-424.
Morichini, Domenico. "Second memoire sur la force magnetisante du bord extreme du rayon violet." JP, 77 (1813), 293-308.
Morris, R.J. "Lavoisier and the caloric theory." BJHS, 6 (1972), 1-38.
Mudge, William. "An account of the measurement of an arc of the meridian, extending from Dunlove...to Clifton." PT, 93 (1803), 383-508.
Muncke, G.W. "Wärme." In J.S.T. Gehler, Physikalisches Wörterbuch, 10 (Leipzig: Schmickert, 1841), 52-1178.
Newton, Isaac. Mathematical principles of natural philosophy. Ed. Florian Cajori. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1934.
Newton, Isaac. Philosophiae naturalis principia mathematica. 3rd edn. (1726). Ed. Alexandre Koyre and LB. Cohen. 2 vols. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1972.
Newton, Isaac. Opticks. Ed. LB. Cohen. New York: Dover, 1952.
Nicholson, William. An introduction to natural philosophy. 3rd edn. 2 vols. London: J. Johnson, 1790.
Nicholson, William. The first principles of chemistry. 2nd edn. Lon- don: Robinson and Robinson, 1792.
Nikolic, Djordje. "Roger Boskovic et la geodesie moderne." Archives internationales d'histoire des sciences, 14 (1961), 315-35.
Nischer-Falkenhof, Ernst von. "The survey by the Austrian General Staff.. .during the years 1749-1854." Imago mundi, 2 (1964), 83- 8.
Nordmann, Claude J. "L'expedition de Maupertuis et Celsius en Laponie." Cahiers d'histoire mondiale, 10 (1966), 74-97.
Oldenburg, Henry. Correspondence. Ed. and tr. A. Rupert Hall and Marie Boas Hall. 9 vols. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press, 1965-73.
Olmsted, J.W. "The scientific expedition of Jean Richer to Cayenne (1672-1673)." Isis, 34 (1942), 117-28.
Olmsted, J.W. "The 'application' of telescopes to astronomical instruments, 1667-1669." Isis, 40 (1949), 213-25.
Olson, Richard. "A note on Leslie's cube in the study of radiant heat." AS, 25 (1969), 203-8.
Olson, Richard. "Count Rumford, Sir John Leslie, and the study of the nature and propagation of heat at the beginning of the 19th century." AS, 26 (1970), 273–304.
Olson, Richard. Scottish philosophy and British physics 1750-1880. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1975.
Oseen, C.W. Johan Carl Wilcke, experimental-fysiker. Uppsala: Almqvist and Wiksells, 1939.
Outram, Dorinda. "The language of matured power: The eloges of Georges Cuvier and the public language of 19th-century sci- ence." History of science, 16 (1978), 153–78.
Paldus, Josef. Die militärischen Aufnahmen im Bereiche der Habsbur- gischen Länder aus der Zeit Kaiser Josephs II. Vienna: A. Holder, 1919. (Akademie der Wissenschaften, Vienna. Phil.-Hist. Klasse. Denkschriften, 63:2.)
Paolucci, N., G. Tagliaferri, and P. Tucci. "Le vicende scientifiche ed extrascientifiche della realizzazione della prima carta geografica della lombardia con metodi astronomici." Congresso nazionale di storia della fisica, VIII. Atti. Milan: Gruppo nazionale di coordi- namento per la storia della fisica, 1988. Pp. 383–409.
Pattison, W.D. Beginnings of the American rectangular land survey system, 1784–1800. Chicago: University of Chicago, Department of Geography, 1957.
Pepys, Samuel. Diary. Ed. Robert Latham and William Matthews. 11 vols. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1970–83.
Perrin, C.E. "Research traditions, Lavoisier, and the chemical revo- lution." Osiris, 4 (1988), 53–81.
Perrin, C.E. "Chemistry as peer of physics: A response to Donovan and Melhado on Lavoisier," Isis, 81 (1990), 259–70.
Petit, A.T. "Theorie mathematique de Faction capillaire." Ecole polytechnique. Journal, 9:16 (1813), 1–40.
Petit, A.T., and P.L. Dulong. "Recherches sur quelques points importans de la theorie de la chaleur." ACP, 10 (1819), 395–413.
Pötzer, A. "Zur Geschichte des Rheinisch-Westfälischen Katasters. Johann Jacob Vorlaender—ein Vorkämpfer des preussischen Ver- messungswesen." ZsV, 42 (1913), 1–7, 40–9.
Picard, Jean. Mesure de la terre. Paris: Imprimerie royale, 1671.
Picard, Jean. "Mesure de la terre [1671]." MAS, 1666–1699, 7 (1729), 133–90.
Picolet, Guy, ed. Jean Picard et les debuts de Vastronomie de precision au xviie siede. Paris: CRNS, 1987.
Picon, Antoine. "Les ingenieurs et la mathematisation. L'exemple du genie civil et de la construction." RHS, 42 (1989), 155-72.
Pictet, Marc August. "Considerations on the convenience of measuring an arch of the meridian, and of the parallel of longi- tude, having the Observatory of Geneva for their common inter- section." PT, 81 (1971), 106-27.
Playfair, John. Outlines of natural philosophy. 2 vols. Edinburgh: A. Constable, 1812-14.
Playfair, John. The works. 4 vols. Edinburgh: A. Constable, 1822.
Poisson, S.D. "Memoire sur la theorie du son." Ecole poly technique. Journal, 7:14 (1808), 319–92.
Poisson, S.D. "Extrait d'un memoire sur la distribution de l'electricite ä la surface des corps conducteurs." JP, 75 (1812), 229–37.
Poisson, S.D. "Sur la vitesse du son." ACP, 23 (1823), 5–16.
Pommies, Michel. Manuel de l'ingenieur du cadastre. Paris: Imprimerie imperiale, 1808.
Pottier, Adrien. Arithmetique pratique et demontree, pour reduire les anciennes mesures en nouvelles, pßr une methode courte et propre a faciliter les personnes qui desirent prendre connaissance, par prin- cipes, de ce Systeme. Paris: Bernard Moutardier, an viii.
Prevost, Pierre. "Memoire sur l'equilibre du feu." JP, 38 (1791), 314–23.
Prevost, Pierre. Du calorique rayonnant. Paris: J.J. Paschoud, 1809.
Prieur, C.A. Instruction sur le calcul decimal, applique principalement au nouveau Systeme des poids et mesures. Paris: Imprimerie de la Republique, Germinal an iii.
Pringle, John. Six discourses, delivered.. .on occasion of six annual assignments of George Copley's medal. To which is prefaced the life of the author, by Andrew Kippis. London: W. Straham and T. Cadell, 1783.
Projets d'architecture et autres productions de cet art qui ont merites les grands prix accordes par I'Academie, par ITnstitut National de France, et par des Jury du choix des artistes ou du gouvernement. Paris: Detourelle, 1806.
Prony, Gaspar de. "Discours preliminaire." In William Roy. Description des moyens employees pour mesurer la base de Hounslow-Heath. Tr. G. Prony. Paris: Didot, 1787. Pp. i-xx. Puissant, L. Traite de topographie, d'arpentage et de nivellement. Paris: Courcier, 1807.
Randall, Wyatt W. The expansion of gases by heat. Memoirs by Dalton, Gay-Lussac, Regnault and Chappuis. New York: American Book, 1902.
Ramond de Carbonnieres, L.F.E. Memoires sur la formule barometrique de la mecanique celeste, et les dispositions de Vatmosphere qui en modifient les proprietes. Clermont-Ferrand: Landriot, 1811.
Ravetz, J.R. "The representation of physical quantities in 18th cen- tury mathematical physics," Isis, 52 (1961), 7–20.
Rayleigh, J.W. Strutt, 3rd baron. Scientific papers. 6 vols. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1899–1920.
Regnault, H.V. "Recherches sur la dilation des gaz." ACP, 4 (1842), 5–63, and ACP, 5 (1842), 57–83.
Reichmann, Eberhard. Die Herrschaft der Zahl. Quantitatives Denken in der deutschen Aufklärung. Stuttgart: B. Metzler, 1968.
Repsold, J.A. Zur Geschichte der astronomischen Messwerkzeuge, 1450-1830. 2 vols. Leipzig: Engelmann, 1908.
Richeson, A.W. English land measuring to 1800: Instruments and prac- tices. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1966.
Rider, R.E. "Measure of ideas, rule of language: Mathematics and language in the 18th century." In Frängsmyr, Quantifying spirit (1990), 113-40.
Rigaud, S.P. "Memoire." In Bradley, Miscellaneous works (1832), i- lxx.
Robison, John. A system of mechanical philosophy. 4 vols. Edinburgh: J. Murray, 1822.
Rodriguez, Joseph. "Observations on the measurement of three degrees of the meridian in England by Lieut. Col. William Mudge." PT, 102 (1812), 321–51.
Rodriguez, Joseph. "Observations on the measurement of three degrees of the meridian conducted in England by Lieut.-Colonel William Mudge." Philosophical magazine, 41 (1813), 20–31, 90– 100.
Rondelet, J.B. Tratte theorique et pratique de l'art de bätir. 4 vols. in 5, + 3 vols. of plates. Paris: the author, 1802–1817.
Rosenberger, Ferdinand. Die Geschichte der Physik. 3 vols. Braun- schweig: Vieweg, 1882–90.
Rosmorduc, Jean. "Des idees de Gay-Lussac sur la lumiere." In Col- loque Gay-Lussac (1980), 213–40.
Rousseau, G.S., and Roy Porter, eds. The ferment of knowledge: Stu- dies on the historiography of 18th-century science. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1980.
Rowlinson, J.S., ed. f.D. van der Waals: On the continuity of the gase- ous and liquid states. Amsterdam: North-Holland, 1988.
Roy, William. "Experiments and observations made in Britain, in order to obtain a rule for measuring heights with the barometer." PT, 67 (1777), 653–770.
Roy, William. "An account of the measurement of a base on Hounslow-Heath." PT, 75 (1785), 385–480.
Roy, William. "An account of the mode proposed to be followed in determining the relative situation of the Royal observatories of Greenwich and Paris." PT, 77 (1787), 188–226.
Roy, William. "An account of the trigonometric operation, whereby the distance between the meridians of the Royal observatories of Greenwich and Paris has been detertmined." PT, 80 (1790), 111–270.
Rumford, Benjamin Thomson, Count. "An inquiry concerning the nature of heat and the mode of its communication." PT, 94 (1804), 77-182; Works (1968), 2, 323–433.
Rumford, Benjamin Thomson, Count. "Historical review of the vari- ous experiments of the author on the subject of heat." In Works (1968), 1, 443-96. Text of 1804.
Rumford, Benjamin Thomson, Count. "Reflections on heat." In Works (1968), 1, 301–22. Text of 1804.
Rumford, Benjamin Thomson, Count. "Research on heat, second memoir." MIT, 1806, 79–87; Works (1968), 1, 434–41.
Rumford, Benjamin Thomson, Count. The collected works. Ed. S.C. Brown. 5 vols. Cambridge: MIT Press, 1968–70.
Sabra, A.I. Theories of light, from Descartes to Newton. London: Old- bourne, 1967.
Sadoun-Goupil, Michelle. "Gay-Lussac disciple de Berthollet?" In Collocjue Gay-Lussac (1980), 59–75.
Sarton, George, et al. "Documents nouveaux concernant Lagrange." RHS, 3 (1950), 110–32.
Saussure, H.B. de. Voyage dans les alpes. 4 vols. Geneva: S. Fauche 1779–96.
Saveney, Edgar. "L'ancienne academie et les academiciens." Revue de deux mondes, 84 (1869:6), 199–226.
Schilling, C. Wilhelm Olbers. Sein Leben und seine Werke, 2. Briefwechsel zwischen Olbers und Gauss. 2 vols. Berlin: Springer, 1900-09 (Gauss. Werke. Ergänzungsreihe, 4.)
Schimank, Hans. "Stand und Entwicklung der Naturwissenschaften im Zeitalter der Aufklärung." In Lessing und die Zeit der Aufklärung. Göttingen: Vandenhoek and Ruprecht, 1968. Pp. 30- 76.
Schmidt, Johann Jacob. Biblischer Mathematicus, oder Erläuterung der heil. Schrift aus den mathematischen Wissenschaften. Züllichau: G.B. Fromann, 1736.
Schmidt, Rudolf. Die Kartenaufnahme der Rheinlande durch Tranchot und v. Muffling, 1801-1828. 1. Geschichte des Kartenwerkes und ver- messungstechnische Arbeiten. Cologne and Bonn: Hanstein, 1973- 75. (Gesellschaft für Rheinische Geschichtskunde, Publicationen, 12.)
Schmidt, Rudolf. "Die Kartenaufnahme der Rheinlande unter Tran- chot und v. Muffling 1801–1828." In Cartographie (1978), 275– 86.
Scientifiques et societes pendant la Revolution et l'Empire. Paris: Com- ite des travaux historiques et scientifiques, 1990. (Congres national des societes savants, CXIV, 1989. Section histoire des sciences et des techniques. Actes.)
Scott, E.L. "Richard Kirwan, J.H. de Magellan, and the early history of specific heat." AS, 38 (1981), 141-53.
Sebastiani, Fabio. "La memoria voltiana interno al colore." Physis, 23 (1981), 89–113.
Sebastiani, Fabio. "Le teorie caloristiche di Laplace, Poisson, Sadi Carnot, Clapeyron e le teoria dei fenomeni termici nel gas formu- lata da Clausius nel 1850." Physis, 23 (1981) 397–438.
Sebastiani, Fabio. "Le teorie microscopico-caloricistiche dei gas di Laplace, Ampere, Poisson e Prevost." Physis, 24 (1982), 197–236.
Seguin, Armand. "Observations generates sur le calorique." AC, 3 (1789), 148–242.
Seguin, Armand. "Seconde memoire sur le calorique." AC, 5 (1790), 191–271.
Shapin, Steven, and Simon Schaffer. Leviathan and the air pump. Hobbes, Boyle, and the experimental life. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1985.
Shuckburgh, G.E. "Account of the equatorial instrument." PT, 83 (1793), 67–128.
Shuckburgh, G.E. "An account of some endeavors to ascertain a standard of weight and measure." PT, 88 (1798), 133–82.
Sigrist, Rene. Les origines de la Societe de physique et d'histoire naturelle (1790–1822). La science genevoise face au modele francais. Geneva: ATAR, 1990. (Societe de physique et d'histoire naturelle de Geneve. Memoires, 45:1.)
Silliman, Robert H. "Fresnel and the emergence of physics as a dis- cipline." HSPS, 4 (1974), 137–62.
Skelton, R.A. "The origins of the Ordnance Survey of Great Bri- tain." Geographical journal, 128 (1962), 415–26.
Smeaton, John. "Observations on the graduations of astronomical instruments; with an explanation of the method invented by the late Mr. Henry Hindley, of York, clock-maker, to divide circles into any given number of parts." PT, 76 (1786), 1–47.
Smith, J.R. From plane to spheroid: Determining the figure of the earth from 3000 B.C. to the 18th-century Lapland and Peruvian expedi- tions. Rancho Cordova, CA: Landmark Enterprises, 1986.
Sombart, Werner. Der Bourgeois. Zur Geistesgeschichte des modernen Wirtschaftsmenschen. Munich and Leipzig: Duncker and Humblot, 1913.
Spurgin, C.B. "Gay-Lussac's gas-expansivity experiments and the traditional mis-teaching of 'Charles law'." AS, 44 (1987), 489– 505.
Stafford, B.M. "Science as fine art: Another look at Boullee's ceno- taph for Newton." Studies in 18th century culture, 11 (1982), 241–78.
Stimson, A. "The influence of the Royal Observatory at Greenwich upon the design of 17th and 18th century angle-measuring instruments at sea." Vistas in astronomy, 20 (1976), 123–30.
Tables de comparaison entre les mesures anciennes en usage dans le Departement du Mont-Tonnerre et les nouvelles mesures repub- licaines. Mainz: Pfeipfer, an x.
Tagliaferri, Guido, and Pasquale Tucci. "La visita dei Paesi bassi nel diario di viaggio di Barnaba Oriani (1752–1832), astronomo milanese del settecento." Incontri, 4 (1989), 59–83.
Talleyrand-Peroigord, CM. de. Proposition faite a VAssemblee nationale, sur les poids et mesures. Paris: Imperimerie nationale, 1790.
Taton, Rene. "Picard et la Mesure de la terre." In Picolet, Picard (1987), 207–26.
Taton, Rene. "L'expedition geodesique de Laponie (avril 1736-aout 1737)." In Lacombe and Costabel, Figure (1988), 115–37.
Ten, Antonio E. "Les expeditions de Mechain et Biot-Arago et le prolongement de la meridienne de Paris jusqu'aux iles baleares." In Lacombe and Costabel, Figure (1988), 245–64.
Ten, Antonio E. "Le probleme du 45e parallel et les origines du Systeme metrique decimal." In Scientifiques et societes (1990), 441–52.
Terrall, Mary. "Representing the earth's shape: The polemics sur- rounding Maupertuis' expedition to Lapland." Isis, 83 (1992), 218–37.
Thinon, A. Lecons sur le Systeme metrique et sur les applications nouvelles de Varithmetique; a la mesure des longueurs, des surfaces, des volumes, des angles, du temps, des poids specifiques, au jaugeage des tonneaux, a la cubature des bois, etc. 12th ed. Paris and Bar- le-duc, Dezobry and Magdelleine, 1860.
Thomson, Thomas. A system of chemistry. 4 vols. Edinburgh: Bell et al., 1802.
Tilling, Laura. "Early experimental graphs." BJHS, 8 (1975), 193– 213.
Todhunter, Isaac. A history of the mathematical theories of attraction and the figure of the earth from the time of Newton to that of Laplace. 2 vols. London: Macmillan, 1873.
Topping, Michael. "Measurement of a base line upon the sea beach, near Porto Novo, on the coast of Coromandel." PT, 82 (1792), 99-114.
Tremery, Jean-Louis. "Observations sur les rapports qui lient la theorie du magnetisme ä celle de l'electricite, et sur le condensa- teur de Volta." Societe philomatique, Bulletin, 3 (1813), 291–6. (Memoir of May 1813).
Tremery, Jean-Louis. "Observations sur les experiences ä l'aide desquelles les physiciens demontrent la reflexion du calorique." Societe philomathique, Bulletin, 3 (1813), 323–8.
Truchot, P. "Les instruments de Lavoisier." ACP, 18 (1879), 289– 319.
Tweedie, Charles. James Stirling; a sketch of his life and works along with his scientific correspondence. Oxford: The Clarendon Press, 1922.
Vannereau, Marie-Antoinette. "L'oeuvre cartographique des Cas- sini." In Cartographie (1978), 227–34.
Viel, C.F. De la construction des edifices publics sans Vemploi du fer, quel en doit etre Vusage dans les batimens particuliers. Paris: H.L. Perronneau, 1803.
Villain, Georges. "Etude sur le calendrier republicain." La Revolution francaise, 7 (1884), 451–9, 535–53; 8 (1885), 623–56, 740–58, 830–54, 883–8.
Volpicelli, P. "Del calorimetro a ghiaccio e suoi usi." Giornale arcad- ico di scienze, lettere ed arti, 60 (1833), 50–71.
Volta, Alessandro. "Del modo di render sensibilissima la piü debole elettricitä sia naturale, sia artificale." PT, 72 (1782), 237–80.
Volta, Alessandro. Le opere. 7 vols. Milan: Hoepli, 1918–29.
Vuillemin, Jules. "Sur la generalisation de l'estimation de la force chez Laplace." Thales, 9 (1958), 61–75.
Wallis, H.M. "Geographie is better than divinitie: Maps, globes, and geography in the days of Samuel Pepys." In Norman J.W. Thrower, ed. The compleat plattmaker. Essays on chart, map, and globe making in England in the seventeeth and eighteenth centuries. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1978. Pp. 1–43.
Wallis, Helen. "Cartography in Great Britain in the 18th century." In Cartographie (1978), 165–75.
Wargentin, Peter. "Concerning the difference in longitude of the Royal observatories at Paris and Greenwich, resulting from the eclipses of Jupiter's first satellite." PT, 67 (1777), 162–86.
Warme, Vulfran. Eloge historique de M. Delambre. Amiens: Caron- Duquenne, 1824.
Weiss, Berghard. Zwischen Physikotherapie und Positivismus. Pierre Prevost (1751-1839) und die korpuskular-kinetische Physik der Genfer Schule. Frankfurt: P. Lang, 1988.
Westphal, A. "Die geodätischen und astronomischen Instrumente zur Zeit des Beginns exakter Gradmessungen." Zeitschrift für Instrumentenkunde, 4 (1884), 152-66, 189-202.
Westphal, A. "Basisapparate und Basismessungen." Zeitschrift für Instrumentenkunde, 5 (1885), 257-74, 333-45, 373-85, 420-32.
Whitehurst, John. "An attempt toward obtaining invariable meas- ures of length, capacity, and weight, from the mensuration of time, independent of the mechanical operations requisite to ascer- tain the center of oscillation, or the true length of pendulums." In John Whitehurst, The works. London: W. Bent, 1792. Item 2, pp. i-xiii, 1-34.
Whitman, Walt. The complete writings. Ed. R.M. Bücke et al. New York: Putnams, 1902.
Widmalm, Sven. "Accuracy, rhetoric, and technology: The Paris- Greenwich triangulation, 1784-88." In Frängsmyr, Quantifying spirit (1990), 179-206.
Widmalm, Sven. Mellam kartan och verkligheten. Geodesi och kartläggning, 1695-1860. Uppsala: Uppsala University, Institu- tionen för ide- och lärdomshistorie, 1990.
Wilcke, J.C. "Ron om varmens spänstighet och fördeling, i anledn- ing af ängors upstingande och kyla, uti förtunnad luft." Royal Academy of Sciences, Stockholm. Handlingar, 2 (1781), 143-63.
Williams, Edward, William Mudge, and Isaac Dalby. "An account of the trigonometrical survey carried out in the years 1791, 1792, 1793, and 1794, by order of his Grace the Duke of Richmond." PT, 85 (1795), 414-591.
Williams, Edward, William Mudge, and Isaac Dalby. "An account of the trigonometrical survey carried on in the years 1795 and 1796, by order of the Marquis Cornwallis." PT, 87 (1797), 432–541.
Wolf, C.J.E. Memoires sur le pendule, precedes d'une bibliographic 2 vols. Paris: Gauthier-Villars, 1889–1891.
Wolf, C.J.E. Histoire de VObservatoire de Paris de sa foundation a 1793. Paris: Gauthier-Villars, 1902.
Young, Thomas. A course of lectures on natural philosophy and the mechanical arts. London: J. Johnson, 1807.
Young, Thomas. "[Review of works by Malus et al.]" Quarterly review, 11 (1814), 42–56.
Zach, Franz Xaver von. "Zusätze des Herausgeber über die Lem- berger Sternwarte." Monatliche Correspondenz zur Beförderung der Erd- und Himmels-Kunde, 4 (1801), 550–8.
Zach, Franz Xaver von. "Beweis, dass die Oesterreichische Grad- messung des Jesuiten Liesganig sehr fehlerhaft, und zur Bestim- mung der Gestalt der Erde ganz untauglich sey." Monatliche correspondez zur Beförderung der Erd- und Himmelskunde, 8 (1803), 507-27; 9, 32-8, 120-30.
Zach, Franz Xaver von. "Memoire.. .sur le degre du meridien mesure en Piemont par le P. Beccaria." Turin: F. Galletti, 1811.
Zach, Franz Xaver von. Briefe Franz Xaver freiherrn von Zach.. .an P. Martin Alois David. Ed. Otto Seydl. Prague: Gesellschaft der Wissenshaften, 1938.
Zach, Franz Xaver von. Briefe Franz Xaver von Zachs in sein Vater- land. [Mostly to Ludwig Schedius in Pest.] Ed. Peter Brosche and Magda Vargha. Budapest: L. Eotvos University, 1984.
Zerubavel, Eviatar. Hidden rhythms. Schedules and calendars in social life. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1981.
This content is only available via PDF.

Article PDF first page preview

Article PDF first page preview