[Footnotes]

[Footnotes]
1
A. Silverstein, A history of immunology (San Diego, 1989), 175–176, 184, 239.
2
Ibid., 176.
3
R. Maulitz, "Pathologists, clinicians, and the role of pathophysiology," in G. Geis- on, ed., Physiology in the American context 1850–1940 (Baltimore, 1987), 1–11.
4
H. Zinsser, "Studies on the tuberculin reaction and on specific hypersensitiveness in bacterial infection," JEM, 34(1921), 495–524.
5
Rockefeller Institution for Medical Research, "Annual report 1928: Buildings and operations," 14
G. Corner, A history of the Rockefeller Institute, 1901–1953 (New York, 1964).
6
S. Wright and P. Lewis, "Factors in the resistance of guinea pigs to tuberculosis, with especial regard for inbreeding and heredity," American naturalist, 55 (1921), 20– 50.
7
P. Lewis and D. Loomis, "Allergic irritability, I: The formation of anti-sheep hemolytic amboceptor in the normal and tuberculous guinea pig," JEM, 40 (1924), 503–515
"Allergic irritability, III: The influence of chronic infections and of trypan blue on the formation of specific antibodies," JEM, 43 (1926), 263–273.
8
P. Lewis and D. Loomis, "Allergic irritability, II: Anaphylaxis in the guinea pig as affected by the inheritance." JEM, 41 (1925), 327–335.
9
Lewis and Loomis, "Allergic irritability, III" (ref. 7).
10
L. Dienes, E. Schoenheit, and L. Scheff, "The chemical composition and an- tigenic properties of the tubercle bacillus," American review of tuberculosis, 11 (1925), 151– 162
L. Dienes and J. Freund, "On the antigenic substances of the tubercle ba- cillus," JIM, 12 (1926), 137–152
L. Dienes and E. Schoenheit, "The antigenic sub- stances of the tubercle bacillus, V: The antigenic substances of the synthetic culture medium," JIM, 18 (1930), 285–314.
11
L. Dienes, "The immunological significance of tuberculous tissue," JIM, 15 (1928), 141–152.
12
L. Dienes, "Further observations concerning the sensitization of tuberculous guinea pigs," JIM, 75 (1928), 153–174.
13
L. Dienes, "The technic of producing the tuberculin type of sensitization with eggwhite in tuberculous guinea pigs," JIM, 17 (1929), 531–538.
14
L. Dienes, "The specificity of the tuberculin type of sensitiveness produced with the different protein substances of the eggwhite," JIM, 18 (1930), 279–283.
15
Silverstein (ref. 1), 232–233.
16
Dienes (ref. 13)
L. Dienes, "Über die Wirkung des tuberkulsen Krankheitsherder auf die Immunitäts-reaktionen des Organismus," Zeitschrift für Immunittsforschung, 68 (1930), 13–43.
17
L. Dienes, "Comparative study of anaphylactic and tuberculin type hypersensi- tiveness, I: General reactions similar to the tuberculin shock in tuberculous guinea pigs," JIM, 20 (1931), 221–238
"Comparative study of anaphylactic and tuberculin type hypersensitiveness, II: The influence exerted by the nature of the antigen on the development of the different types of hypersensitiveness," JIM, 20 (1931), 333–345.
18
L. Dienes and T. Mallory, "Histological studies of hypersensitive reactions," American journal of pathology, 8 (1932), 689–709.
19
Dienes and Freund (ref. 10).
20
J. Freund and H. Henderson, "Distribution of antibodies in the serum and organs of rabbits, VI: The antibody content of the bile of immunized rabbits," JIM, 18 (1930), 325–330.
21
J. Freund, "The influence of age upon antibody formation," JIM, 18 (1930), 315–324.
22
J. Freund, "Method of immunization with carbohydrate haptens adsorbed on col- lodion particles," Science, 75 (1932), 418.
23
J. Freund, "The influence of age on the skin sensitiveness of tuberculous guinea pigs," JIM, 13 (1927), 285–288
"The sensitiveness of tuberculous guinea pigs one month old to the toxicity of tuberculin," JIM, 17 (1929), 465–471
"Hypersensitivi- ty and antibody formation in tuberculous rabbits," JEM, 64 (1936), 573–582.
24
J. Freund and E. Opie, "Sensitization and antibody formation with increased resistance to tuberculous infection induced by heat killed tubercle bacilli," JEM, 68 (1938), 273–298.
25
J. Freund, "The mode of action of immunological adjuvants," Advances in tuber- culosis research, 7(1956), 130–148.
26
A. Saenz, "Acroissement de l'etat allergique et titrage de la sensibilite tubercu- linique conferes au cobaye par l'innoculation sous-cutane des bacilles tuberculeux morts enrobes dans l'huile de vaseline," CR, 120 (1935), 1050–1053.
27
A. Saenz, "Retard de dispersion des germes de surinfection chez les cobayes prepares avec des bacilles tuberculeux morts enrobes dans l'huile de vaseline," CR, 124 (1937), 1161–1164.
28
A. Saenz, "Vaccination du cobaye contre la tuberculose avec des bacilles morts enrobes dans l'huile de vaseline," CR, 125 (1937), 495–498.
29
J. Freund, J. Casals, and E. Hosmer, "Sensitization and antibody formation after injection of tubercle bacilli and paraffin oil," SEBM, 37 (1937), 509–513.
30
Freund (ref. 25).
31
Freund et al. (ref. 29)
32
J. Casals and J. Freund, "Sensitization and antibody formation in monkeys in- jected with tubercle bacilli in paraffin oil," JIM, 36 (1939), 399–404.
33
J. Freund, J. Casals-Ariet, and D. Genghof, "The synergistic effect of paraffin-oil combined with heat-killed tubercle bacilli," JIM, 38 (1940), 67–79.
34
J. Freund, and R. Gottschalk, "Standardization of tuberculin with the aid of guinea pigs sensitized by killed tuberculosis bacilli in liquid petrolatum," Archives of pathology, 54(1942), 73–74.
35
K. Landsteiner and M. Chase, "Studies on the sensitization of animals with sim- ple chemical compounds, VII: Skin sensitization by interperitoneal injections," JEM, 71 (1940), 237–245.
36
J. Freund and K. McDermott, "Sensitization to horse serum by means of adju- vants," SEBM, 49 (1942), 548–553.
37
J. Freund and A. Walter, "Saprophytic acidfast bacilli and paraffin oil as adju- vants in immunization," SEBM, 56 (1944), 47–50.
38
J. Freund and M. Bonanto, "The effect of paraffin oil, lanolin-like substances, and killed tubercle bacilli on immunization with diphtheria toxoid and Bacteroides typhosum," JIM, 48 (1944), 325–334.
39
J. Freund, H. Sommer, and A. Walter, "Immunization against malaria: Vaccina- tion of ducks with killed parasites incorporated with adjuvants," Science, 102 (1944), 200–202
J. Freund, K. Thomson, H. Sommer, A. Walter, and E. Schenkein, "Immuni- zation against malaria: Vaccination of rhesus monkeys with killed parasites incorporat- ed with adjuvants," ibid., 202–204.
41
P. Mazumdar, "Introduction: Working out of the theory," in P. Mazumdar, ed., Immunology 1930–1980: Essays on the history of immunology (Toronto, 1989), 1–11.
42
F.M. Burnet, Cellular immunology: Books I and II (Cambridge, 1969), 593.
43
T. Rivers, D. Sprunt, and G. Berry, "Observations on attempts to produce acute disseminated encephalomyelitis in monkeys," JEM, 58 (1933), 39–54.
44
J. Lewis, "The immunological specificity of brain tissue," JIM, 24 (1933), 193– 211
F. Schwentker and T. Rivers, "The antibody response of rabbits to injections of emulsions and extracts of homologous brain," JEM, 60 (1934), 559–574
T. Rivers and F. Schwentker, "Encephalomyelitis accompanied by myelin destruction experimentally produced in monkeys," JEM, 61 (1935), 689–702.
45
L. Kopeloff and N. Kopeloff, "The production of antibrain antibody in the mon- key," JIM, 48 (1944), 297–303.
46
J. Freund, E. Stern, and T. Pisani, "Isoallergic encephalomyelitis and radiculitis in guinea pigs after one injection of brain and mycobacteria in water-in-oil emulsion," JIM, 57(1947), 179–194.
47
E. Kabat, A. Wolf, and A. Bezer, "The rapid production of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis in rhesus monkeys by injection of heterologous and homologous brain tissue with adjuvants," JEM, 85 (1947), 117–130
I. Morgan, "Allergic encephalomyel- itis in monkeys in response to injections of normal monkey nervous tissue," JEM, 85 (1947), 131–140
48
P. Olitsky and R. Yager, "Experimental disseminated encephalomyelitis in white mice," JEM, 90 (1949), 213–224
L. Thomas, P. Paterson, and B. Smithwick, "Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis following immunization with homologous brain ex- tracts, I: Studies on the role of circulating antibody in the production of the condition in dogs," JEM, 92 (1950), 133–152.
49
J. Fulch and M. Lees, "Distributions and properties of proteolipide fractions," in M. Kies, and E. Alvord, eds., Allergic encephalomyelitis (Springfield, IL, 1959), 253- 262
E. Roboz-Einstein, D. Robertson, J. DiCaprio, and W. Moore, "The isolation from bovine spinal cord of a homogeneous protein with encephalitogenic activity," Journal of neurochemistry, 9 (1962), 353–361
F. Wolfgram, "Macromolecular constituents of mye- lin," New York Academy of Sciences, Annals, 122 (1965), 104–115.
50
E. Kabat, A. Wolf, and A. Bezer, "Studies on acute disseminated encephalomyel- itis produced experimentally in Rhesus monkeys, VII: The effect of cortisone," JIM, 68 (1952), 265–275
J. Thomson and R. Austin, "Effects of 6-mercaptopurine on suscep- tibility of guinea pigs to experimental allergic encephalomyelitis," SEBM, 111 (1962), 121–123
M. Brandriss, "Methotrexate suppression of experimental allergic encephalo- myelitis," Science, 140(1963), 186–187.
51
B. Waksman and L. Morrison, "Tuberculin type sensitivity to spinal cord antigen in rabbits with isoallergic encephalomyelitis," JIM, 66 (1951), 421–444
B. Waksman, "Further studies of skin reactions in rabbits with experimental allergic encephalomyel- itis," Journal of infectious diseases, 99 (1956), 258–269.
52
K. Landsteiner and M. Chase, "Experiments on the transfer of cutaneous sensi- tivity to simple compounds," SEBM, 49 (1942), 688–690.
53
B. Waksman, "Evidence favoring delayed sensitization as the mechanism under- lying experimental allergic encephalomyelitis," in Kies and Alvord (ref. 49), 419–443.
54
M. Chase, "A critique of attempts at passive transfer of sensitivity to nervous tis- sue," in Kies and Alvord (ref. 49), 348–374
ibid., 374–387
55
P. Paterson, "The transfer of allergic encephalomyelitis in rats by means of lymph node cells," JEM, 11 (1960), 119–136.
56
S. Stone, "Transfer of allergic encephalomyelitis by lymph node cells in inbred guinea pigs," Science, 134 (1961), 619–620.
57
E. Unanue and F. Dixon, "Experimental glomerulonephritis: Immunological events and pathogenic mechanisms," Advances in immunology, 6 (1967), 1–90.
58
S. Shulman, "Thyroid antigens and autoimmunity," Advances in immunology, 14 (1971), 85–185.
59
Landsteiner and Chase (ref. 52)
M. Chase, "The cellular transfer of cutaneous hypersensitivity to tuberculin," SEBM, 59 (1945), 134–135.
60
Freund and Walter (ref. 37).
61
J. Uhr, S. Salvin, and A. Pappenheimer, "Delayed hypersensitivity, II: Induction of hypersensitivity in guinea pigs by means of antigen-antibody complexes," JEM, 105 (1957), 11–24.
62
S. Salvin, "Occurrence of delayed hypersensitivity during the development of Arthus type hypersensitivity" JEM, 107(1958), 109–124.
63
P. Gell and B. Benacerraf, "Studies in hypersensitivity, II: Delayed hypersensi- tivity to denatured proteins in guinea pigs," Immunology, 2 (1959), 64–70.
64
P. Medewar, "The immunology of transplantation," Harvey lectures, 52 (1958), 144–176.
65
L. Old, E. Boyse, B. Bennet, and F. Lilly, "Peritoneal cells as an immune popula- tion in transplantation studies," in B. Amos and H. Koprowski, eds., Cell-bound antibo- dies (Philadephia, 1963), 89–99.
66
P. Gell, "Experimental allergic lesions in animals with special reference to histo- logical appearances," International archives of allergy, 13 (1958), 112–121
B. Waksman, "A comparative histopathological study of delayed hypersensitive reaction," in G. Wol- stenholme and M. O'Conner, eds., Ciba Foundation, Symposium on cellular aspects of immunity (Boston, 1959), 373–404
B. Goldberg, F. Kantor, and B. Benacerraf, "An electron microscopic study of delayed sensitivity to ferritin in guinea pigs," British jour- nal of experimental pathology, 43 (1962), 621–626.
67
G. Voisin and F. Toullet, "Modifications of capillary permeability in immunolog- ical reaction mediated through cells," in Wolstenholme and O'Conner (ref. 66), 373– 404.
68
R. McClusky, B. Benacerraf, and J. McClusky, "Studies on the specificity of the cellular infiltrate in delayed hypersensitivity reactions," JIM, 90 (1963), 466–477.
69
M. Chase, "Differentiation between roles of white cells in transfer of contact der- matitis and the development of antibody," Federation proceedings, 14 (1955), 458–459
J. Bauer and S. Stone, "Isologous and homologous lymphoid transplants, I: The transfer of tuberculin hypersensitivity in inbred guinea pigs," JIM, 86 (1961), 177–189
J. Coe, J. Feldman, and S. Lee, "Immunologie competence of thoracic duct cells, I: Delayed hypersensitivity," JEM, 123 (1966), 267–279.
70
B. Benacerraf and P. Gell, "Studies on hypersensitivity, I: Delayed and Arthus- type skin reactivity to protein conjugates in guinea pigs," Immunology, 2 (1959), 53–63
S. Leskowitz, "Immunochemical study of antigen specificity in delayed hypersensitivity, II: Delayed hypersensitivity to polytyrosine-azobenzene arsonate and its suppression by haptens," JEM, 117 (1963), 909–923
F. Borek, Y. Stupp, and M. Sela, "Immuno- genicity and the role of size: Response of guinea pigs to oligotyrosine and tyrosine derivatives," Science, 750(1965), 1177–1178.
71
P. Mazumdar, "The template theory of antibody formation and the chemical syn- thesis of the twenties," in Mazumdar (ref. 41), 13–32
Silverstein (ref. 1), 126–130.
72
M. George and J. Vaughn, "In vitro cell migration as a model for delayed hyper- sensitivity," SEBM, 111 (1962), 514–521.
73
J. David, S. Al-Askari, H. Lawrence, and L. Thomas, "Delayed hypersensitivity in vitro, I: The specificity of inhibition of cell migration by antigens," JIM, 93 (1964), 264–273.
74
B. Bloom and B. Bennett, "Mechanism of a reaction in vitro associated with delayed-type hypersensitivity," Science, 153 (1966), 80–82
David et al. (ref. 73).
75
J. David, H. Lawrence, and L. Thomas, "Delayed hypersensitivity in vitro, II: Effect of sensitive cells on normal cells in the presence of antigen," JIM, 93 (1964), 274–278
Bloom and Bennett, 1966 (ref. 74).
76
J. David, "Delayed hypersensitivity in vitro: Its mediation by cell-free substances formed by lymphoid cell-antigen interaction," National Academy of Sciences, Proceed- ings, 56 (1966), 72–77
Bloom and Bennett (ref. 74).
77
P. Nowell, "Phytohemagglutinin: An initiator of mitosis in cultures of normal hu- man leukocytes," Cancer research, 20 (1960), 462–466.
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G. Pearmain, R. Lycette, and P. Fitzgerald, "Tuberculin induced mitosis in peri- pheral blood leukocytes," Lancet, 1 (1963), 637–638.
79
J. Mills, "The immunological significance of antigen induced lymphocyte transformation in vitro," JIM, 97 (1966), 239–247
J. Oppenheim, R. Wolstencroft, and P. Gell, "Delayed hypersensitivity in the guinea pig and its relationship to in vitro transformation of lymph node, spleen, thymus, and peripheral blood lymphocytes," Im- munology, 72(1967), 89–102.
80
G. Loewi, A. Temple, and T. Vischer, "The immunological significance in the guinea pig of in vitro transformation of lymphocyte, spleen, and peripheral blood lym- phocytes," Immunology, 14 (1968), 257–264
D. Benezra, I. Gery, and A. Davies, "The relationship between lymphocyte transformation and immune responses, II: Correla- tions between transformation and humoral and cellular responses," Clinical and experi- mental immunology, 5 (1970), 155–161.
81
F. Bach and K. Hirschhorn, "Lymphocyte interaction: A potential histocompati- bility test in vitro," Science, 143 (1964), 813–814
D. Wilson and R. Billingham, "Lym- phocytes and transplantation immunity," Advances in immunology, 7 (1967), 189–273.
82
N. Rist, "Les lesions metastatiques produites par les bacilles tuberculeux morts enrobes dans les paraffines," Institut Pasteur, Annales, 61 (1938), 121–171.
83
Freund et al. (ref. 33).
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M. Herdegen, S. Halbert, and S. Mudd, "Persistence of antigen at the site of in- noculation of vaccine emulsified in oil," JIM, 56 (1947), 357–364.
85
J. Freund, "The effect of paraffin oil and mycobacteria on antibody formation and sensitization," American journal of clinical pathology, 27 (1951), 645–656.
86
D. Talmage and F. Dixon, "The effect of adjuvants on the elimination of soluble protein antigens and the associated antibody responses," Journal of infectious diseases, 95(1953), 176–180.
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W. Herbert, "Antigenicity of soluble protein in the presence of high levels of an- tibody: A possible mode of action of the antigen adjuvants," Nature, 210 (1966), 747– 748.
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Burnet (ref. 42), 210.
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91
J. Freund, E. Schryver, M. McGuiness, and M. Geitner, "Diphtheria antitoxin formation in the horse at the site of injection of toxoid and adjuvants," SEBM, 81 (1952), 657–658.
92
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