[Footnotes]

[Footnotes]
1
L. Hodde- son, P. Henriksen, R. Meade, and C. Westfall, Critical assembly: A technical history of Los Alamos during the Oppenheimer years, 1943–1945 (New York, in press)
L. Hoddeson, "Mission change in the large laboratory: The Los Alamos implosion pro- gram, 1943–1945," in P. Galison and B. Hevly, eds., Big science: The growth of large- scale research (Stanford, CA, 1992), 265–289.
3
Hoddeson et al. (ref. 1)
4
P. Galison, How experiments end (Chicago and London, 1987), 1–19.
5
J.L. Heilbron and R. Seidel, Lawrence and his laboratory: A history of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Vol. 1 (Berkeley, 1990), 461–464, 512–513
G.T. Seaborg, "The discovery of plutonium in the cyclotron," in A.S. Coffinberry and W.N. Miner, eds., The metal plutonium (Chicago, 1961), 9–12.
6
W.F. Libby, "Stability of uranium and thorium for natural fission," PR, 55 (1939), 1269.
7
N. Bohr and J.A. Wheeler, "The mechanism of nuclear fission," PR, 56 (1940), 426-50.
8
L. Hoddeson, 23 Jul and 2 Dec 1985.
9
K. Petrzhak and G.N. Flerov, Akademiia Nauk SSSR, Doklady, 28 (1940), 500
G.N. Flerov and K.A. Petrzhak, "Spontaneous fission of uranium," Journal of physics, 3: 4–5 (1940), 275–280
G.N. Flerov, "Soviet research into nuclear fission before 1942," in James W. Behrens et al. eds., 50 years with nuclear fission (La Grange Park, IL, 1989), 53–59.
10
Heilbron and Seidel (ref. 5).
11
ref. 8
L. Hoddeson, on 23 and 30 Jul, 24–25 Sep 1985
13
Segre interviews (ref. 8)
Farwell interviews (ref. 11)
L. Hoddeson, 31 Jul 1985.
14
ref. 13
ref. 8
15
D. Hawkins, Project Y: The Los Alamos story (Los Angeles, 1983). Originally printed as "Manhattan district history, Project Y, the Los Alamos project," LAMS–2532 (Los Alamos, 1961), 94.
16
"Resonance in uranium and thorium disintegration and the phenomenon of nuclear fission,"PR, 55 (1939), 418–419.
L.A. Turner, "Nuclear fission," BMP (1940), 1–29.
17
G. Seaborg, "History of Met. Lab., sec. C–1, April 1942
April 1943
Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory Publication 112, Feb 1977.
18
Hoddeson et al. (ref. 1).
19
D. McKibbin card file of Los Alamos scientists (LAA)
Farwell interview (ref. 11)
Clyde Wiegand by L. Hoddeson, 29 May 1987.
20
ref. 8
21
ref. 11
ref. 19
Hawkins, Project Y (ref. 15), 94.
22
ref. 8
23
Hawkins, Project Y (ref. 15), 95.
25
Hawkins, Project Y (ref. 15), 95, 73.
26
Ibid., 95.
27
Hawkins, Project Y (ref. 15), 95.
28
P-Division Progress Report, 15 Jul 1943, LAMS–4, pp. 4–5, and 1 Aug 1943, LAMS–5
ref. 19
29
ref. 11
ref. 19
E. Segfe and C. Wiegand, "Boron Trifluoride neutron detector for low neutron intensities," Reviews of scientific instruments, 18 (1947), 86–89.
30
ref. 19
31
P-Division Progress Report, 1 Aug 1943, LAMS–5
32
P-Division Progress Report, 1 Oct 1943, LAMS–20.
33
W. Maurer and H. Pose, "Neutronemission des Urankerns als Folge seiner spon- tanen Spaltung," Zeitschrift für Physik, 121 (1943), 285–292.
34
P-Division Progress Report, 15 Nov 1943, LAMS–28.
35
E. Segfe and C. Wiegand, "Average number of neutrons emitted per spontaneous fission by plutonium 240," LA–491, 11 Nov 1946.
36
P-Division Progress Report, 1 Dec 1943, LAMS-33
SNB, 81.
37
P-Division Progress Report, 15 Oct 1943, LAMS–21
Segre interviews (ref. 8)
Segre to Fermi, 26 Nov 1943
39
ref. 11
ref. 19
40
P-Division Progress Report, 1 Dec 1943, LAMS-33.
41
ref. 11
42
S.K. Allison to A.H. Compton, 25 Jan 1944 (LAA).
43
Parsons, 6 Mar 1944 (LAA).
44
ref. 11
45
PDB, 137, 141.
46
P-Division Progress Report, 15 Apr 1944, LAMS–93, p. 15.
47
O. Chamberlain, G.W. Farwell, and E. Segre, "Plutonium 240 and its spontane- ous fission," LAMS–131, 8 Sep 1944
48
ref. 11
ref. 19
49
ref. 19
50
ref. 19
51
P-Division Progress Report, 15 June 1944, LAMS–114
P-Division Pro- gress Report, 1 Jul 1944, LAMS–117.
52
ref. 11
53
L. Hoddeson, 30 Jul 1984.
54
Ibid.
56
The "trips" file shows Fermi coming to Los Alamos from Chicago; May 1-11, 1944 and June 3–26, 1944.
"File sum- marizing Project Y trips" (LAA).
57
ref. 8
58
Ibid.
59
R.C. Smith to Lt. Col. Whitney Ashbridge, "Report of foreign personnel at Pro- ject Y,"2 Aug 1944 (LAA).
60
Trips file: "Findings of trip to L.A." 4 Jul 1944
Conant, RG 227, Bush-Conant Files (NARA).
61
Hoddeson et al. (ref. 1), chapt. 7.
62
ref. 60
63
P-Division Progress Report, 1 Jul 1944, LAMS–117.
R. Bacher, R. Dodson, E. Segre, and R. Wilson on "Shipment of Material," 28 June 1944 (LAA).
64
PDB, 128–131.
65
ref. 11
66
Hoddeson, et al. (ref. 1), chapt. 12.
67
Teletype, Oppenheimer to Groves, 14 Jul 1944 (LAA).
68
R.C. Hewlett, and O.E. Anderson, Jr., The new world, 1939/1946. A history of the United States Energy Commission, vol. 1 (University Park, 1962), 251.
69
J.H. Manley, "A new laboratory is born," in L. Badash, J. Hirschfelder, and H. Broida, eds., Reminiscences of Los Alamos, 1943–1945 (New York, 1980), 33.
70
Ibid.
71
Hewlett and Anderson (ref. 68), 251-252.
72
Groves, 18 Jul 1944 (LAA).
73
Ibid.
74
Administrative Board Minutes, 20 Jul 1944 (LAA).
75
Thomas to Groves, 21 Jul 1944 (LAA).
76
Hewlett and Anderson (ref. 68) 251, 684, note 45
N.F. Ramsey, "Summary of meeting of Project Y technical board on July 13, 1944
LAMS-113, 15 Jul 1944.
78
ref. 11
79
Ibid.
80
R.C. Smith to Ashbridge, "Report of foreign personnel at Project Y," 2 Aug 1944 (LAA).
81
Ibid.
82
SNB, 114, 141.
83
Farwell, "Further investigation of spontaneous fission in plutonium," LA–490, 25 Apr 1946.
84
ref. 11
85
ref. 83
86
O. Cham- berlain, G. Farwell, and E. Segre, "Plutonium 240 and its spontaneous fission," LAMS-131, 8 Sep 1944.
ref. 83
87
L. Hoddeson, "The Los Alamos implosion program in World War II: A model for postwar American research," in M. De Maria, M. Grilli, and F. Sebastiani, eds., International Conference on The Restructuring of Physical Sciences in Europe and the United States, 1945-1960, Proceedings (Singapore, 1989), 31-41.
88
Galison (ref. 4).
89
L. Hoddeson, "Innovation and basic research in the industrial laboratory: The repeater, transistor, and Bell Telephone System," in A. Sarlemijn and P. Kroes, eds., Between sci- ence and technology (North Holland, 1990), 181–214.
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