[Footnotes]

[Footnotes]
1
J. Fraunhofer, "Bestimmung des Brechungs- und Farbenzerstreuungs-Vermögens verschiedener Glasarten, in Bezug auf die Vervollkommung achromatischer Fernröh- re[!]," Akademie der Wissenschaften, Munich, Denkschriften, 5 (1814/15), 193–226, esp. plate II.
2
Frank A.J.L. James, "The establishment of spectro-chemical analysis as a practical method of qualitative analysis, 1854-1861," Ambix, 30 (1983), 30–53.
3
Heinrich Konen, entries "Spektralanalyse" and "Spektroskopie," in Handwörterbuch der Naturwissenschaften, 1st ed. (Jena, 1913) 9, 205–214, 222–251, esp. 223
4
Deborah Jean Warner, "Rowland's gratings: Contemporary technology," ViA, 29 (1986), 125–130, on 125f.
5
Th.D. Cope, "The Rittenhouse diffraction grating," Franklin Institute, Journal, 214 (1932), 99–104, resp.
Fraunhofer (ref. 1).
6
David Brewster as quoted in Warner (ref. 4), on 126
Fraunhofer's "superior powers and means of investigation."
7
Konen (ref. 3), 227.
8
"President's address" (p. 481) in H.A. Rowland, "Remarks on the award of the Rumford Medals," PA, 19 (1883/84), 482–483
Edward Charles Cyrill Baly, Spectroscopy, 3rd ed. (London, 1929), 1, 28.
9
A.A. Michelson, "On the application of interference methods to spectroscopic measurements," PM, 30 (1891), 338–346, and 34 (1892), 280–299
Michelson, Benoit, Fabry and Perot (ref. 155)
Weber (ref. 169).
10
R.T.G. in Nature, 64 (1901), 16–17
T.C. Mendenhall, BMNAS, 5 (1905), 115–140
J.S. Ames, Science, N.S., 73(1901), 681–684
DAB, 76(1935), 198–199
H.F. Reid, APJ, 25(1941), 117–119
H. Crew, AJP, 17 (1949), 576–577
DJ. Kevles, DSB, 11/12 (1981), 577–579
A.D. Moore, Scientific American, 246 (1982), 118–126
S. Rezneck, "The education of an American physicist—Henry August Rowland," AJP, 28 (1960), 155–162.
11
Biographical Record of the Officers and Graduates of the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute 1824—1886 (Troy, 1887), 115, 117, 164.
12
S. Rezneck, "An American physicist's year in Europe, Henry Rowland," AJP, 30 (1962), 877–886
John David Miller, "Rowland and the nature of electric currents," Isis, 63 (1972), 5–27.
13
Robert Hugh Kargon, "Henry Rowland and the physics discipline in America," ViA, 29 (1986), 131–136
"List of scientific apparatus," Harvard University, Library Bulletin, 11–12, 302–304, 350–353, esp. 351–353, for the Baltimore Physical Laborato- ry.
14
William McGucken, Nineteenth-century spectroscopy. Development of the under- standing of spectra (Baltimore, 1969), esp. 135.
15
Pieter Zeeman, Researches in magneto-optics (London, 1913), on 9ff.
16
Robert Bezler, "Zur Geschichte des grossen Rowland-Gitters am Physikalischen Institut der Universität Tübingen," Bausteine zur Tübinger Universitätsgeschichte, 3 (1987), 141–178.
17
J.R. Rydberg, "On a certain asymmetry in Prof. Rowland's concave grat- ings," PM, (5) 35 (1893), 190–199
A4, 12, 439–448.
18
Whipple Museum of the History of Science lists Rowland grat- ings in the former possession of the Cavendish laboratory, the Institute of Astronomy, the Department of Physical Chemistry and of R.S. Whipple.
19
W.E. Adeney and J. Carson, "On the mounting of the large Rowland spectrome- ter in the Royal University of Ireland," PM (5), 46 (1898), 223–227.
20
Horace W. Babcock, "Diffraction gratings at the Mount Wilson Observatory," Vi A, 29 (1986), 153–174
Physics today, 39 (1986), 34-42, on 34
21
Frank L.O. Wadsworth, "On the aberration of the concave grating, when viewed as an objective spectroscope," PM, 6 (1903), 119–156, on 121.
22
Miller (ref. 12), n. 2
Kevles (ref. 10), 579
Warner (ref. 4), 129
John Alfred Brashear: The autobiogra- phy of a man who loved the stars, ed. W. Lucien Scaife (Boston, 1925), 76
23
Rowland (ref. 8), 482.
24
Hugo Schroeder, "Ueber die Verwendung des Diamanten in der Präzisions- Mechanik," Zeitschrift für Instrumentenkunde, 7 (1887), 261–269, 339–347
J.S. Arnes, "Henry August Rowland," Johns Hopkins University, Alumni magazine, Jan 1916, 92– 99, on 96.
25
Edward W. Morley, "Memoir of William August Rogers," BMNAS, 4 (1899), 187–199
W. Rollmann, "Friedrich Adolph Nobert," Naturwissenschaftlicher Vereine van Nue-Vorpommern und Rügen im Greifswald, Mittheilungen, 15 (1884), 38–58
G.L.E. Turner, "The contributions to science of F.A. Nobert," Institute of Physics, Bul- letin, 18 (1967), 338–348
B.A. Gould, "Memoir of Lewis Morris Rutherfurd," BMNAS, 5(1895), 417–441.
26
William A. Rogers, "On the first results from a new diffraction ruling engine," AJS 19 (1880), 54–59, on 54; Morley (ref. 25)
DJ. Warner, "Lewis M. Rutherfurd: Pioneer astronomical photographer and spectroscopist," TC, 12 (1971), 190–216, on 214f.
27
W.A. Rogers, "On a possible explanation of the method employed by Nobert in ruling his test plates," PA, 11 (1875), 237–255
28
C.S. Peirce, "Note on the progress of experiments for comparing a wave length with a metre," AJS, 18 (1879), 51
H.A. Rowland, "On concave gratings for optical pur- poses," PM, 16 (1883), 197–210
American journal of mathematics, 1879
A.A. Michelson, "On the spectra of imperfect gratings," APJ, 18(1903), 278–286.
29
H.A. Rowland, "A few notes on the use of gratings," JHUC, 8 (1889), 73–74.
30
H.A. Rowland, "Screws," Encyclopaedia Britannica (9th edn.), 21 (1884), 552– 553
The physical papers of Henry Augustus Rowland (Baltimore, 1902), 506–511.
31
Rowland, Papers (ref. 30), on 519.
32
Ames (ref. 24), on 97
34
Charles and John Jacob Holtzapfel, Turning and mechanical manipulation (5 vols., London, 1881), 4
J.J. Holtzapfel, Hand or simple turning: Principles and practice (New York, 1976), esp. chapt. 10.
35
Rowland (ref. 8), on 482.
36
ibid.
37
T.C. Mendenhall, "On the determination of the coefficient of expansion of a diffraction grating by means of the spectrum," AJS, 21 (1881), 230–232.
38
Rowland to Lord Rayleigh, 6 Mar 1882, as quoted in Strutt 136f. and in Warner (ref. 4), 128 (emphasis orig.)
Warner (ref. 26), 215.
39
Lord Rayleigh, "President's address," British Association for the Advancement of Science, Report 1884, 17
40
H.A. Rowland, "Preliminary notice of the results accomplished in the manufac- ture and theory of gratings for optical purposes," PM, 13 (1882), 469–474, on 471.
41
H. Kayser, Erinnerungen aus meinem Leben, unpubl. typescript [1936], 187.
42
Ertel, Fraunhofer's successor in Munich, Thomas Grubb in Dublin, and Adam Hilger in London
Warner (ref. 4)
43
Rowland, Papers (ref. 30), Appendix
J.S. Ames, "The present condition of Rowland's ruling machines," JHUC, 4 (1906), 62–65.
Kevles (ref. 10)
44
Rowland, as quoted in John Strong, "Rowland's diffraction-grating art," ViA, 29 (1986), 137–142, on 137.
45
Ibid.
46
Ibid.
Joh. Adolf Repsold, Zur Geschichte der Astronomischen Messwerkzeuge (2 vols., Leipzig, 1908–14), 2, 140f
47
Strong (ref. 44), 141
Ames, "A description of the dividing engines designed by Professor Rowland," in Rowland, Papers (ref. 30), 691–697
plates 1–5.
48
Rogers (ref. 26), 238: "Nobert has well kept the secret of his process;" John May- all, "Nobert's ruling machine," Royal Society of Arts, Journal, 33 (1885), 707–715
Mendenhall (ref. 10), 124.
L.M. Rutherfurd, "On the construction of the spectroscope," AJS, 39 (1865), 129–132
A.M. Mayer, "Spec- trum," Appleton's Cyclopedia [2nd edn.], 75 (1878), 238–254, 243f
Rowland's, H.A. Rowland, "Preliminary notice on the results accomplished in the manufacture and theory of gratings for optical purposes," JHUC, 17 (1882), 248–249, also in PM, 13, (1882), 469–474
Nature, 26, (1882), 211–213
J.S. Ames, "The concave grating in theory and practice," JHUC, 73 (1889), also in PM, 27, (1889), 369–384.
49
F.A. Nobert, "Ueber Kreistheilung im Allgemeinen und über einige, bei einer Kreistheilmaschine angewendete Verfahren zur Erziehung einer grossen Vollkom- menheit der Theilung derselben," Verein zur Beförderung des Gewerbefleisses in Preussen, Verhandlungen, (1845), 202–212
W. Rollmann (ref. 25), on 53
Rogers (ref. 26), 237: "You properly ask me if I can reproduce these rulings. I frankly answer that I cannot."
50
B.A. Gould (ref. 25)
Warner (ref. 26).
51
Rowland (ref. 40)
Henry Draper, "On diffraction spectrum photography," AJS, 6 (1873), 401–409, also in PM, 46, 417–425
CA. Young, "Note on the use of a diffraction grating as a substitute for the train of prism in a solar spectroscope," AJS, 5 (1873), 472–473, on 472: "the spectra furnished by these plates far exceed in brilli- ance and definition anything of the kind ever before obtained."
52
"Death of Prof. Rowland," The S&gtun [Baltimore], 17 Apr 1901, p. 4, col. 2
ibid., p. 12, col. 1–3
"Great men mourn," ibid., 4-5.
53
H.D. and H.W. Babcock, "The ruling of diffraction gratings at the Mount Wilson Observatory," Optical Society of America, Journal, 41 (1951), 776–786
Strong (ref. 44)
Babcock (ref. 20)
R.F. Jarrell, "Gratings, production of," Encyclopedia of spec- troscopy (New York, 1960), 174.
54
Kayser (ref. 41), 190
Ames (ref. 43), 62.
55
Mendenhall (ref. 10), 125
Warner (ref. 4), 129
J.A. Brashear (ref. 22).
56
Kayser (ref. 41), 190f.
57
Babcock (ref. 29), 154
A.A. Michelson, "The ruling and performance of a ten inch diffraction grating," American Philosophical Society, Proceedings, 54 (1915), 137–142.
58
J. Hartmann, "A revision of Rowland's system of wave-lengths," APJ, 18 (1903) 167-190, on 169
Konen (ref. 76), 792.
59
Rowland (ref. 29), 199.
60
Anon (ref. 52)
Ames (ref. 24), 95
Strong (ref. 44), 138ff.
62
C.F. Brackett, "Note on the Littrow form of spectroscope," AJS, 24 (1882), 60-61
Konen (ref. 3), 223, 226.
63
Rowland (ref. 28)
W. Baily, "On the spectra formed by curved diffraction grat- ings," PM 15 (1883), 183–187
R.T. Glazebrook, "On curved diffraction-gratings," PM 15 (1883), 414–423
E. Mascart, "Sur les resaux metalliques de M. H.-A. Rowland," Journal de physique, 2 (1883), 5–11
Wadsworth, "The modern spectroscope," APJ, 5(1896), 47–62, esp. 54–60.
64
Rowland (ref. 28), 203–204.
65
Ibid., 205.
66
Zeeman (ref. 15), 12
Kayser (ref. 41), 235f
H. Konen, "Über die Kruppsche Git- teraufstellung im physikalischen Institut der Universität Bonn," ZwPh, 1 (1903), 325- 342.
67
Kayser (ref. 41), 120, 235f
H. Konen (ref. 66).
68
G.C. Gerrits, "Zeeman," in Grote Nederlanders (Leiden, 1948), "Zeeman," 473– 501, on 480.
69
Kayser (ref. 41), on 119–120.
Kayser's letters to Rowland, 31 Jul and 19 Nov 1882
11 May and 4 Aug 1883
71
Adeney and Carson (ref. 19), 223
note 96.
72
Kayser (ref. 41), 146.
73
Rowland (ref. 8), 483
Jon Darius, Beyond vision (Oxford, 1984), for the history of scientific photography.
74
H.A. Rowland, Photographic map of the normal solar spectrum (Baltimore, 1888), and Photographic map of the B and D lines and carbon bands of the solar spectrum (Bal- timore, 1889).
75
R.T.G. (ref. 10), 16–17.
76
H. Kochen, "Der rote Teil des Eisenbogenspektrums," ZwPh, 5 (1907), 285–299, on 290
Konen, "Wellenlängenmessang," Handbuch der Physik, 79(1928), 777–801, 792
77
H.A. Rowland, "On the relative wave-lengths of the lines of the solar spectrum," AJS, 33 (1887), 182–190, on 183
PM, 22, 257–265.
78
Rowland (ref. 28), 204f.
79
H.A. Rowland, "A new table of standard wave-lengths," American Academy of Arts and Sciences, Memoirs, 12 (1896), 101–186, on 105
Rowland (ref. 28), 209.
80
Rowland (ref. 79), 102f.
81
Konen (ref. 67), 780.
82
Charles Edward St. John et al., Revision of Rowland's tables of solar spectrum wave lengths with an extension to the present limit of the infra-red (Washington, 1928)
Charlotte Emma Moore, M.G.J. Minnaert, and J. Houtgast, The solar spectrum 2935 A to 8770 A; second revision of Rowland's preliminary table of solar spectrum wave- lengths (Washington, 1966).
83
Rowland (ref. 79), 116
Rowland (ref. 77), 186.
84
Rowland, Preliminary table of solar spectrum wave-lengths (Chicago, 1896), signed Dec 1894, on 6.
85
L.E. Jewell, "The coincidence of solar and metallic lines. A study of the appear- ance of lines in the spectra of the electric arc and the sun," APJ, 3 (1896), 89–113, on 89
Johannes Hartmann, "A revision of Rowland's system of wave-lengths," APJ, 18 (1903) , 167–190, on 168ff
Heinrich Kayser, "On standards of wave-lengths," APJ, 19 (1904) , 157–161, on 158f.
86
C.E. St. John, "The displacement of solar spectrum lines," Observatory, 43 (1920), 260–262.
87
Charles Augustus Young, The sun and the phenomena in its atmosphere (New Haven, 1872)
Robert Emden, Gaskugeln (Leipzig, 1907).
89
Schroeder (ref. 24)
Richard Tousey, "Solar spectroscopy from Rowland to SOT," Vi A, 29(1986), 175–200, on 176.
90
Ibid.
Jewell (ref. 85), 89f.
91
Ibid.
92
Eric Gray Forbes, "A history of the solar red shift problem," AS, 17 (1961), 129–164.
93
Kayser(ref. 41), 205f.
95
Jewell to Rowland, 10 Dec 1893 (RP).
Samuel Pierpont Langley (1834–1906)
CD. Walcott, BMNAS, 7 (1917), 247–268.
96
Jewell to Rowland, 3 Oct 1898 (RP).
97
Ames (ref. 48), 63
L.E. Jewell, "The revision of Rowland's system of wave- lengths," APJ, 21 (1905), 23–34.
98
Donald E. Osterbrook, "Failure and success: Two early experiments with con- cave gratings in stellar spectroscopy," Journal for the history of astronomy, 17 (1986), 119–129, esp. on 124
99
Jewell to Kunz, May 1910, JHC no. 137, Eisenhower Library, Baltimore.
100
Ibid.
101
Jewell to Kunz, 3 June 1910, ibid.
102
Ames to George F. Kunz of Tiffany's, 1910 (ibid.)
Jewell to Kunz, May 1910, JHC no. 137
103
Ames to Kunz, 26 Mar 1910, JHC no. 137.
104
Jewell to Kunz, May 1910, ibid.
105
Ibid.
106
Osterbrock (ref. 98), 127
Babcock (ref. 20), 155.
107
McGucken (ref. 14), chapt. 1
James (ref. 2).
108
Anders Jonas Angström, "On the Fraunhofer lines visible in the solar spec- trum," PM, 24 (1862), 1–11.
Euler's Theoria lucis
109
Henry Enfield Roscoe, "On Bunsen and Kirchhoff s spectrum observations," Royal Institution of Great Britain, Notice of the proceedings, 3 (1861), 323–328, on 328.
110
Ibid.
111
Gustav Robert Kirchhoff, "Ueber das Sonnenspectrum," Naturhistorisch- Medicinischer Verein zu Heidelberg, Verhandlungen, 1 (1857–59), 251–255, on 254f.
112
John Tyndall, "On the physical basis of solar chemistry," PM, 22 (1861), 147– 156, on 155
Angström (ref. 108), 3f.
113
Angstrom (ref. 108), on 4.
114
Ibid.
115
Tyndall (ref. 112), on 149
116
Friedrich Brasack, "Das Luftspectrum," Naturforschende Gesellschaft Halle, Abhandlungen, 70(1866), 1–42, on 7.
117
Alfred Fowler in PRSL, 104A (1923), i–xiv
Herbert Dingle in DSB, 8 (1973), 440–443
William McGucken (ref. 14), 83ff
A.J. Meadows, Science and controversy. A biography of Sir Norman Lockyer (Cambridge, MA, 1972).
118
J.N. Lockyer, "On the necessity for a new departure in spectrum analysis," Na- ture, 27 (1879), 5–8, on 6.
119
J.N. Lockyer, Chemistry of the sun (London, 1887), 369
Konen (ref. 3), 235.
120
McGucken (ref. 14), on 83ff
H.W. Vogel, "Lockyer's dissociation theory," Na- ture, 27(1883), 233.
121
Lockyer (ref. 119), 370
Lockyer (ref. 118)
"Solar physics—chemistry of the sun," Nature, 24 (1881), 267–274, 315–324, 365–370, 391–399.
122
J.N. Lockyer, "Discussion of 'Young's list of chromospheric lines,'" PRSL, 28 (1879), 432–444, on 444 (original emphasis omitted).
123
the Research Station of the Mt. Weather Observatory and professor of meteorological physics at George Washington University in 1911
124
WJ. Humphreys and J.F. Möhler, "Effect of pressure on the wavelengths in the arc-spectra of certain elements," APJ, 3 (1896), 114–137, on 114.
125
Louis Duncan, Rowland and R.I. Todd, Electrical world, 22 (1893), 101
Humphreys and Möhler (ref. 124), 115f.
126
J. Plücker and W. Hittorf, "On the spectra of ignited gases and vapours," PTRS, 155 (1865), 1–30
E. Frankland, "On the combustion of hydrogen and carbonic oxide under great pressure," PRSL, 16 (1868), 419–422
E. Frankland and J.N. Lockyer, "Preliminary note on researches on gaseous spectra in relation to the physical condition of the sun," PRSL, 17 (1869), 288–291, and 18 (1869), 79–80
A. Wüllner, "Ueber die Spectra einiger Gase bei hohem Drucke," Annalen der Physik, 137 (1869), 337–361
127
Humphreys and Möhler (ref. 124), 115
128
Ibid., 117.
129
Humphreys and Möhler (ref. 124), 119.
130
L.E. Jewell, J. Möhler, and W. Humphreys, "Note on the pressure of the 'revers- ing layer' of the solar atmosphere," APJ, 3 (1896), 138–140, on 139f.
131
Peter Galison, How experiments end (Chicago, 1987), § 4.17.
132
Humphreys and Möhler (ref. 122)
Jewell, Möhler and Humphreys (ref. 128)
W.G. Duffield, "The effect of pressure upon arc spectra," PRSL A, 79 (1907), 597-599
PTRSA, 205(1908), 111–162
209 (1908), 205–226
211 (1910), 33–50, 51–73
PRSL A, 84 (1911), 118–123
R. Rossi, "The effect of pressure on the band spectra," PRSL, A, 82 (1909), 518–523
"The effect of pressure upon arc spectra," PRSL A, 83 (1910), 414–420
"The widening of the hydrogen lines by high pressures," APJ, 34 (1911), 299–302
"The widening of the hydrogen lines in the spark spectrum," APJ, 40 (1914), 232–235
Arthur Scott King, "The effect of pressure upon furnace spectra," APJ, 34 (1911), 37–56
35 (1912), 37–56
G. Gouy, "Sur la pression existant ä la surface du soleil," CPAS, 155 (1912), 115–118.
133
J.F. Möhler, "The effect of pressure on wave-length," APJ, 4 (1896), 175–181, on 177
August Hagenbach, "Spektroskopische Untersuchungen des Bogens unter vermindertem Druck," PZ, 10 (1909), 649–657.
134
Duffield (ref. 132); W.J. Humphreys, "Arc spectra under heavy pressure," APJ, 26 (1907), 18–35
"Apparatus for obtaining electric arcs under heavy pressure," ibid., 36–40.
135
V. Weisskopf, "Die Breite der Spektrallinien in Gasen," PZ, 34 (1930), 1–24; Weisskopf and E.P. Wigner, "Berechnung der natürlichen Linienbreite auf Grund der Diracschen Lichttheorie," ZP, 63 (1930), 54–73
H. Kuhn, "Pressure shift and broaden- ing of spectral lines," PM, 18 (1934), 987–1003
H. Margenau and William W. Watson, "Pressure effects on spectral lines," Reviews of modem physics, 8 (1936), 22–53.
136
Jewell, Möhler, and Humphreys (ref. 130), 138 (quote)
G.E. Hale, "Note on the application of Messrs Jewell, Humphreys and Mohler's results to certain problems of astrophysics," APJ, 3 (1896), 156–161, on 156
Svante August Arrhenius in his Lehrbuch der kosmischen Physik (Leipzig, 1903), 32.
137
Hale(ref. 136), 161.
138
Hale (ref. 136), 159, thereby anticipated work by C.E. St. John, E.F. Freundlich, and others around 1915.
K. Hentschel, "The conversion of St. John," to appear in Sci- ence in context, 6 (1993)
Der Einstein-Turm, Erwin F. Freundlich und die Relativitätstheorie (Heidelberg and Berlin, 1992).
139
A. Schuster, "Note on the results of Messrs. Jewell, Humphreys and Möhler," APJ, 3 (1896), 292
George F. FitzGerald, "Note on the cause for the shift of spectral lines," APJ, 5 (1897), 210–211, on 210.
140
W.J. Humphreys, "A further study of the effect of pressure on the wave-lengths of lines in the arc-spectra of certain elements," APJ, 4 (1896), 249–262, on 251
APJ, 6 (1897), 169–232, on 183.
141
J.N. Lockyer, "The shifting of spectral lines," Nature, 53 (1896), 415–417, 415.
142
FitzGerald (ref. 139), 210–211.
143
Humphreys (ref. 140), 184.
144
J. Wilsing, "Theoretical considerations respecting the dependencies of wave length on pressure which Messrs Humphreys and Möhler have observed in the arc- spectra of certain elements," APJ, 7 (1898), 317-329
C. Godfrey, "Note on Professor Wilsing's article on the effect of pressure on wave-length," APJ, 8 (1898), 114.
145
W.J. Humphreys, "An attempt to find the cause of the width and of the pressure shift of spectrum lines," APJ, 23 (1906), 233–247
J. Larmor, "Note on displacement of spectral lines," APJ, 26 (1907), 120–122.
146
O.W. Richardson, "A theory of the displacement of spectral lines produced by pressure," PM, 14 (1907), 557–578, on 558f.
WJ. Humphreys, "Bericht über die Verschiebung von Spktrakkinien durch Druck," JRE, 5 (1908), 324–374.
147
E. Haschek and H. Mache, "On the pressure in the spark," APJ, 9 (1899), 347– 357
12 (1900), 50–51
F. Exner and E. Haschek, "Über die Verschiebung der Spek- trallinien," Akademie der Wissenschaften, Vienna, Math.- Phys. Klasse, Sitzungsber- ichte, 116:2a (1907), 323–341.
148
J.M. Eder and E. Valenta, "Unveränderlichkeit der Wellenlänge im Funken- und Bogenspektrum des Zinks," ibid., 112:2a (1903), 1291–1304
G.W. Middlekauf, "The effect of capacity and self-induction upon wave-length in the spark spectrum," APJ, 21 (1905), 116–123
H. Kayser, "Die Veränderlichkeit der Wellen- längen im Funkenspektrum," ZwPh, 3 (1905), 308–310
"Die Konstanz von Wellenlängen von Spektrallinien," ZwPh, 5 (1907), 304–308
149
J.M. Eder and E. Valenta, "The invariability of the the wave-lengths in the spark and arc spectrum of zinc," APJ, 19 (1903), 251–262
Haschek and Mache (ref. 147)
J.F. Möhler, "Pressure in the electric spark," APJ, 10 (1899), 202-206.
150
Konen (ref. 76), 797.
151
W.M. Watts, Index of spectra (London, 1872)
Appendix M (Man- chester, 1902)
Appendix A.A. (Wescliff, 1931)
H. Kayser, "Standard lines in the arc spectrum of iron," APJ, 13 (1900), 329ff
Handbuch der Spektroskopie, 5(1910), 446ff.
7:1 (1924), 405ff.
Ch. Fabry and A. Perot, "Measures of absolute wave-lengths in the solar spectrum and in the spectrum of iron," APJ, 15 (1902), 73-96, 261–273
F. Exner and E. Haschek, Wellenlängen-Tabellen für Spektralanalytische Untersuchungen (2 vols., Vienna, 1902–04)
Die Spektren der Elemente bei normalem Druck (2 vols., Vienna, 1911-12)
J.M. Eder and E. Valenta (ref. 149), Atlas typischer Spektren (Vienna, 1911)
Wellenlängenmessungen des Lichtes (Braunschweig, 1926).
152
Jewell (ref. 97)
Gustav Eberhard, "Systematic errors in the wave-lengths of the lines of Rowland's solar spectrum," APJ, 17 (1903), 141–144
H. Kayser (refs. 148 and 152)
"Bericht über den gegenwärtigen Stand der Wellenlängenmessungen," ZwPh, 12 (1913), 296–308
Kuno Behner, "Über das Bogenspektrum des Titans von \= 7496 bis X = 2273," ZwPh, 23 (1925), 323–342
Hartmann (ref. 104), "The correction of the Stan- dards of wave-lengths," APJ, 20 (1904), 41–48
"Tabellen für das Rowlandsche und das internationale Wellenlängensystem," Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften, Göttingen, Abhandlungen, 10:2, 1–78
Konen (ref. 76), 781.
153
H. Kayser, "Standards of third order of wave-lengths on the inter- national system," APJ, 32 (1910), 217–225
Nobel Lectures 1901- 1925 (Amsterdam, 1967), 162.
154
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