[Footnotes]

[Footnotes]
1
Julius Stratton, "A technological university," in Science and the educated man (Cambridge, 1966), 137–149.
2
John Servos, "The industrial relations of science: Chemical engineering at MIT 1900–1939," Isis, 71 (1980), 531–549
Larry Owens, "MIT and the Federal 'angel.' Academic R&D and Federal-private cooperation before World War II," Isis, 81 (1990), 188–213
Roger Geiger, To advance knowledge: The growth of American research univer- sities (New York, 1986)
Alex Pang, "Edward Bowles and radio engineering at MIT, 1920–1940," HSPS, 20:2 (1990), 313–337.
3
David Noble, Forces of production (New York, 1984)
Stuart Leslie, "Profit and loss: The military and MIT in the postwar era," HSPS, 21:1 (1990), 59–85
Michael Dennis, "'Our first lines of defense:' University laboratories and the making of the postwar state," unpubl. ms, 1992
Paul Forman, "Behind quantum electronics: National security as a basis for physical research in the United States," HSPS, 18:1 (1987), 149– 229.
4
Sylvan Schweber, "Big science in context: Cornell and MIT," in Peter Galison and Bruce Hevly, eds., Big science: The growth of large scale research (Stanford, 1992), 149– 183.
5
Henry Etzkowitz, "The making of an entrepreneurial university: The traffic among MIT, industry, and the military, 1860–1960," in Everett Mendelsohn, Peter Weingart, eds., Science, technology and the military (Dordrecht, 1988), 515–540.
6
Hunter Dupree, Science in the federal government (Cambridge, 1957)
Clark Kerr, The uses of the university (Cambridge, 1963)
Charles Kidd, American universities and federal research (Cambridge, 1959)
Robert Rosenzweig, The research universities and their patrons (Berkeley, 1982).
7
Lily Kay, The molecular vision of life: Caltech, The Rockefeller Foundation, and the rise of the new biology (Oxford, 1992).
8
Rebecca Lowen, "Transforming the university: Administrators, physicists and the industrial and federal patronage at Stanford, 1935-1949," History of education quarter- ly, 31 (1991), 365–388.
Lowen, 44 'Exploiting a wonderful op- portunity:' Stanford University, industry, and the federal government, 1937–1965" (Ph.D. thesis, Stanford, 1990).
Peter Galison, Bruce Hevly, Lowen, "Control- ling the monster: Stanford and the growth of physics research, 1935–1962" in Galison and Hevly, Big science (Stanford, 1992), 46–77.
9
James Killian, The education of a college president (Cambridge, 1985), 158– 165
Stratton, "Karl Taylor Compton: Educator and administrator" (ref. 1), 153–167
Vannevar Bush, Oral history, 47A–50, MC 143, MIT/ASC
Ivan Getting, All in a life- time (New York, 1989), 36–38
William Coolidge to Killian, 10 Nov 1964, JSC, MIT/ASC
10
Servos, "The industral relations of science: Chemical engineering at MIT, 1900-1939," Isis, 71 (1980), 531–549.
11
George Harrison, Karl Compton, unpubl. msc. (1961), MC 105, MIT/ASC
Killian (ref. 9), esp. 421–425
Robert Kohler, Partners in science foundations and natural scientists 1900–1945 (Chicago, 1991), 255–260
Robert Kargon, "Karl Compton, Isaiah Bow- man, and the politics of science in the Great Depression," Isis, 76 (1985), 301–318.
12
Servos (ref. 2), 539–545
W. Bernard Carlson, "Academic entrepreneurship and engineering education: Dugald C. Jackson and the MIT-GE Cooperative engineering course, 1907–1932," TC, 29 (1988), 536–567.
13
Kohler (ref. 11), 206–210.
14
"Electrical discharges in gases, Part 1. Survey of fundamental processes," Re- views of modem physics, 2 (1930), 123–242
Compton to Swope, 23 Oct 1950, AC4/236/G. Swope, 50–58, MIT/ASC.
15
"Report of the visiting committee of the Corporation," 1923, in AC13–5– 128
Dugold Jackson to Everett Morss, 22 Dec 1924, in AC13-14–-411
"Visiting com- mittee reports, 1. Electrical engineering," 1925, in AC 13–5–129
Jackson to Swope, 22 Dec 1926, in AC13–19–564
"Report of the visiting committees of the Departments of Electrical Engineering and Physics," 1926, in AC 13–5–129, MIT/ASC
Swope to Strat- ton, 2 Jan 1926, in AC 13–19–564.
16
Compton (1945)
Killian (ref. 9), 421–425.
17
Compton to Swope, 3 Oct 1930
AC4–236–G. Swope (1930/39).
Bush (ref. 9), 294–295.
18
Compton, "Memorandum of conversation with Mr Arnett," 8 Nov 1930, in AC4– 217–2 (old classification), and also Killian (ref. 9), 425.
19
Frederick Keyes, "Memorandum regarding outside work, chemistry department," Jan 1931, in AC4–217–2 (old classification).
20
"Report of Massachusetts Institute of Technology visiting committee of the Corporation on the Division of Industrial Cooperation and Research," 9 Mar 1927, in AC13–16–138
Charles Norton to Samuel Stratton, 26 Apr 1927, 18 Dec 1928, and 13 Feb 1929, in AC 13–25–176 1
Millard to Norton, 4 Sep 1929, AC4–217–1 (old classification).
21
Schweber (ref. 4), 179.
23
Compton to Coolidge, 5 May 1939, in AC4–3–7 (old classification), on 3
24
Leroy Foster, "Sponsored research at MIT 1900–1968," unpubl. msc, 1984, MIT/ASC.
25
Morse, In at the be- ginnings: A physicist's life (Cambridge, 1977), 100–101.
26
Kohler (ref. 11), 313–321
Francis Schmitt, The never ceasing search (Philadel- phia, 1990), 121–140.
27
Compton, Report of the President (Cambridge, October 1933), 17.
A history of the Departments of Chemis- try and Physics at MIT 1865–1933 by Tenney Davis and Harry Goodwin (Cambridge, 1933).
28
Maurice Holland, Architects of avi- ation (New York, 1951), 7–25.
29
Proctor to Killian, June 1942, in AC4–192–R, Proctor.
32
Compton, Report of the President (Cambridge, 1931), 11.
33
Compton, (ref. 27), 11.
34
Compton (ref. 27), 26.
36
Servos (ref. 2)
Geiger (ref. 2).
37
Bemis, Worcester, Proctor, Coolidge, "Report of the visiting committee of the Corporation," TR, 35 (1932), 24–26.
Compton, "To junior members of the staff," 2 Nov 1934, in AC64, MIT/ASC.
38
"Meeting of the visiting committee and staff of the Division of Industrial Cooperation and Research," 10 Mar 1932, AC4–216–14 (old classification).
39
"Report of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology visiting committee of the Corporation on the Division of Industrial Cooperation and Research," 11 Mar 1931, 5, AC4–216–13 (old classification).
ref. 38
"Principles concerning the obligations of fulltime members of the staff," 13 Mar 1934, AC64, MIT/ASC.
40
Rima D. Apple, "Patenting university research: Harry Steenbock and the Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation," Isis, 80 (1989), 375–394
Charles Weiner, "Universities, professors, and patents: A continuing controversy," TC, 89 (1986), 32- 43.
41
Weiner (ibid.), 32–43
Owens (ref. 2), 188–213.
Owens, "Patents, the 'Frontiers' of American invention, and the Monopoly Committee of 1939: Anatomy of a discourse," TC, 32 (1991), 1076–1093.
42
"Statement concerning patent policy for the 1936 Annual Meeting of the Corporation," 14 Oct 1936
"Agreement between Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Research Corporation," 4 Jan 1937
Compton, "Memorandum concerning in- ventions," 23 Mar 1937, all in C64 (Cl box only).
43
Compton, "Memorandum on relations of MIT to GE Com- pany," 30 June 1950, AC4–85–2 (old classification). In 1939
Compton to Coolidge, 5 May 1939, AC4–3–7 (old classification).
44
Bush (ref. 9), 50–50A and 616–617.
Bush to Whitman, 1 May 1935, 77.9 /U-2, MIT/ASC.
45
Lowen (ref. 8), 365–388.
46
Timothy Lenoir, "The discipline of nature and the nature of disciplines," in Ellen Messer-Davidow and David Schumwaz, eds., Disciplinarity and the production of knowledge: New perspectives on discipline formation (Ann Arbor, in press).
47
Compton, (ref. 27), 18–19.
48
Pang (ref. 2), 313–337.
49
Owens (ref. 2), 188–213
Kargon (ref. 11), 301–318.
Lewis Auer- bach, "Scientists in the New Deal: A pre-war episode in the relations between science and government in the United States," Minerva, 3 (1964/5), 457–482.
50
Daniel Kevles, The physicists. The history of a scientific community in modern America (New York, 1979), 258–259.
52
Owens (ref. 2).
53
Foster, "Sponsored research at MIT 1900–1968," unpubl. msc. (1984), MIT/ASC.
54
Compton, "Science in an American program for social progress," 28 May 1936, AC4-198-6 (old classification).
55
Compton, "Presentation of work of the Division to faculty," 9 Nov 1932, in Foster (ref. 24), MIT/ASC.
56
MIT (1926)
Killian (ref. 9).
57
"The Research Associates of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. An outline, for Discussion, of Possible Ways to Increase the Effectiveness of the Group and Enlarge its Membership," 1939, AC4–246–7 (old classification).
Killian, "Memorandum for the Dinner Called by Dr Compton at the Algonquin Club on May 5," 25 Apr 1939
Norton to Compton, 4 May 1939
Foster (ref. 24), MIT/ASC.
58
Compton to Lamont DuPont, 11 Nov 1942, AC4–246–14 (old classification).
59
John Trump to Killian, 13 Dec 1946, AC4–55–77 (old classification).
60
"Agreement of association," Aug 1941, AC4–325–10 (old classification).
61
Hoddeson, "The entry of quantum theory of solids into the Bell Telephone La- boratories, 1925–1940: A case study of the industrial application of fundamental sci- ence," Minerva, 18, (1980), 422–447.
62
K. Compton, "Memorandum of relations of MIT to GE Company," 30 June 1950, AC4–85–2 (old classification)
64
Karl Wildes and Nilo Lindgren, A century of electrical engineering and computer science at MIT, 1882–1982 (Cambridge, 1985), 184.
65
Morse (ref. 25), 213.
66
Pang (ref. 2), 334, note 95
Harrison's biography of K. Compton (ref. 11), chapt. 25, MC 105
Stratton, "Learning and action," (ref. 1), 95–96.
67
John Burchard, MIT in World War II: Q.E.D. (Cambridge, 1948)
Henry Guerlac, Radar in World War II {"Los Angeles, 1987)
Ernest Pollard, Radiation. One story of the MIT Radiation Laboratory (Durham, 1982).
Ernest Pollard, Radiation. One story of the MIT Radiation Laboratory (Durham, 1982).
68
Compton, Report of the President, 1944–1945 (Cambridge, 1945), 8.
69
Compton, "Memorandum to Mr Killian - Commenting on a Letter from Julius Stratton," 26 Oct 1944, in AC4–33–12 (old classification).
70
Chemical and engineering news, 31 (1953), 2581–2582.
71
Compton (ref. 11), 390
Killian (ref. 9).
72
Galison, Image and logic (forthcoming), chapt. 4
Jack Goldstein, A different sort of time: The life of Jerrold Za- charias (Cambridge, 1992), 69–122
Leslie (ref. 3), 59-85.
73
Galison, ibid.
74
Leslie (ref. 3), 59–85.
75
Soderberg, oral history project, session 5, 77–37/77–106, MIT/ASC.
76
Morse (ref. 25), 218–219.
77
"Government supported research at MIT. An historical survey beginning with World War II. The origins of the instrumentation and Lincoln Laboratories," May 1969, MIT/ASC.
Annals of the history of computing, 5 (1983).
78
Stratton to Killian, 23 Oct 1944, AC4–33–12 (old classification).
80
Hill, "RLE.. .Why the military?" TR, May 1966, 48–49 and 68.
81
Forman(ref. 3), 149–229.
82
Zacharias, "The subject of nuclear power at MIT," 11 Feb 1947, 4 (AC4–237–1 (old classification).
83
Comp- ton, Report of the President (Cambridge, 1942).
84
Soderberg (ref. 74).
85
Noble (ref. 3), 106–229
J. Francis Reintjes, Numerical control making a new technology (Oxford, 1991).
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