[Footnotes]

[Footnotes]
1
Bruno Latour, Science in action (Cambridge, 1987).
2
Steven Shapin, "Pump and cir- cumstance: Robert Boyle's literary technology," SSS, 14 (1984), 481–520
"The house of experiment," Isis, 79 (1988), 373–404
Shapin and Simon Schaffer, Leviathan and the air pump (Princeton, 1985)
Latour and Steve Woolgar, Laboratory life (Beverly Hills, 1979)
Peter Galison, "Bubble chambers and the experimental workplace," in Peter Achinstein and Owen Hannaway, eds., Observation, experiment, and hypothesis in modern physical science (Cambridge, 1985), 309–373
How experiments end (Chi- cago, 1987)
James A. Secord, "The geological survey of Great Britain as a research school," History of science, 24 (1986), 223–275
Roy Porter, "Gentlemen and geology: The emergence of a scientific career, 1660-1920," The historical journal, 20 (1978), 809–836
David Gooding, Trevor Pinch, Simon Scharfer, eds., The uses of experiments (Cambridge, 1989).
3
Boelie Elzen, "Two ultracentrifuges: A comparative study of the social construc- tion of artifacts," SSS, 16 (1986), 621–662
Yakov Rabkin, "Technological innovation in science: The adoption of infrared spectroscopy by chemists," Isis, 78 (1987), 31–54
Timothy Lenoir, "Models and instruments in the development of electrophysiology, 1845–1912," HSPS, 77(1987), 1–54.
4
Bonnie Clause, "The Wistar rat" (Unpublished paper, University of Pennsylvania, 1988).
5
George W. Beadle, "Biochemical genetics," Chemical reviews, 37 (1945), 15–96
Sewall Wright, "The physiology of the gene," PR, 21 (1941), 487–527.
6
Beadle and Sterling Emerson, "Further crossing over in attached-X chromosomes of Drosophila melanogaster" Genetics, 20 (1935), 192–208
Beadle and Alfred H. Stur- tevant, "X chromosome inversions and the meiosis in Drosophila melanogaster" PNAS, 21 (1935), 384–390.
Beadle to Demerec, 9 Jan 1932 (MD).
7
Ephrussi to L.C. Dunn, 12 Dec 1932
6 and 20 Feb, 17 Sep 1933
21 Jan, 26 Feb, late Apr 1934
Dunn to Ephrussi, 12 Mar, 2 May 1934
Sturtevant to Demerec, 21 Jan [1934]
Demerec to Sturtevant, 3 Feb 1934
8
Sturtevant, "The use of mosaics in the study of the developmental effect of genes," Vlth International Congress of Genetics, Proceedings (1932), I, 304–307
"The ver- million gene and gynandromorphism," PSEBM, 77(1920), 70–71
E.B. Lewis, DSB, s.v. "Sturetevant."
9
Richard M. Burian, Jean Gayon, and Doris Zallen, "The singular fate of genetics in the history of French biology, 1900-1940," JHB, 21 (1988), 357–402, on 391–393
Boris Ephrussi, "The absence of autonomy in the development of the effects of certain deficiencies in Drosophila melanogaster," PNAS, 20 (1934), 420–422
"The behavior in vitro of tissues from lethal embryos," JEZ, 70 (1935), 197–204.
10
Beadle, "Recollections," Annual review of biochemistry, 43 (1974), 1–13, on 5–6
Beadle, "Foreward," in Sturtevant, Genetics and evolution (San Francisco, 1961), iii–iv
Beadle to Schultz, 2 Jul 1970 (JS)
Garland Allen, Thomas Hunt Morgan (Princeton, 1978), 388.
11
Elof Carlson, "The Drosophila group: The transition from the Mendelian unit to the individual gene," JHB, 7 (1974), 31–48
Genes, radiation, and society: The life and work of H.J. Muller (Ithaca, 1981), chapt. 5
Jack Schultz, "Innovators and contro- versies," Science, 757(1967), 296–301
Allen (ref. 10), 188–208.
12
Schultz to Beadle, 31 Jul 1970 (JS).
13
Beadle, "Alfred Henry Sturtevant," American Philosophical Society, Yearbook (1970), 166–171, on 170.
14
Carlson, Muller (ref. 11), chapt. 5.
15
Schultz to Beadle, 31 Jul 1970
Schultz to T. Caspersson, 31 Aug 1940, 18 Dec 1942 (JS).
16
Sturtevant to Stern, 6 Sep [1934]
Dobzhansky to Stern, 14 Jan 1935 (CS).
17
Morgan, "Genetics and the physiology of development," AN, 60 (1926), 489–515
E.E. Just, "Phenomena of embryogenesis and their significance for a theory of develop- ment and heredity," AN, 71 (1937), 97–112
E.W. Sinnott, "The genetic control of developmental relationships," ibid., 113–119.
18
Jan Sapp, Beyond the gene: Cytoplasmic inheritance and the struggle for authority in genetics (New York, 1987), chapts. 3–4
Richard B. Goldschmidt, Physiologische theorie der Vererbung (Berlin, 1927)
Physiological genetics (New York, 1938)
Curt Stern, "Richard Benedict Goldschmidt," BMNAS, 39 (1967), 141–192.
19
F.R. Lillie, "The gene and the ontogenic process," Science, 64 (1927), 361–368.
20
Lily E. Kay, "Selling pure science in wartime: The biochemical genetics of G.W. Beadle," JHB, 22 (1989), 73–101, on 77
Beadle, "Recollection" (ref. 10), 5.
21
Beadle, "Genes and chemical reactions in Neurospora," Science, 129 (1959), 1715–1719, on 1716.
22
Sturtevant (ref. 10), 320–326
F.J. Ayala, "Theodosius Dobzhansky," BMNAS, 55 (1985), 163–228
Morgan, "Calvin Blackman Bridges," BMNAS, 22 (1931), 31–48
T.F. Anderson, "Jack Schultz," BMNAS, 44 (1975), 393–427.
23
Selig Hecht to Schultz, 13 Dec 1940
Schultz to Morgan, 3 Jan 1929
24
Schultz, "Aspects of the relation between genes and development in Drosophila," AN, 69 (1935), 30–54, on 30–31.
25
Hanson, "Diary," 4–5 Sep 1936 (RF, 1.1 205D 7 88).
26
Beadle, "Recollections" (ref. 10), 6.
27
Ephrussi to Schultz, 7 Nov 1934 (JS)
Ephrussi to Dunn, 13 Dec 1934 (LCD)
Ephrussi, "The cytoplasm and somatic cell variation," Journal of cellular and compara- tive physiology, 52 (1958), suppl. 1, 35–53, on 36.
28
Beadle, "Recollections" (ref. 10), 6–7.
29
Ibid.
Beadle (ref. 21), 1716
Beadle to Demerec, 5 June 1935 (MD).
30
Ephrussi to Schultz, 7 Nov 1934 (JS).
Burian et al. (ref. 9), 391–394.
31
Beadle to Demerec, 5 June 1935 (MD).
32
Ibid.
33
Ibid.
Beadle, Genetics and modern biology (Philadelphia, 1963), 11–12
Beadle (ref. 21), 1716
Ephrussi and Beadle, "A technique of transplantation for Drosophila" AN, 70 (1936), 218–225
Ephrussi to Beadle, 9 Sep 1938 (GWB, 1 26).
34
Ephrussi and Beadle, "La transplantation des disque imaginaux chez la Droso- phile," CRAS, 201 (1935), 98–100
"Transplantation in Drosophila;' PNAS, 21 (1935), 642–646
Sturtevant, "The use of mosaics" (ref. 8), 307.
35
Hanson, "Diary," 14–27 Aug 1935 (RF, 1.1 205D 7 87)
Demerec to Beadle, 27 Sep 1935 (MD)
A.F. Blakeslee to J.C. Merriam, 25 Jan 1936 (MD)
Demerec, "Memorandum of work of Dr. G.W. Beadle," 27 Nov 1935, in folder, "Gene Study" (MD).
36
Ephrussi and Beadle (ref. 33), 224
Ephrussi to Demerec, 26 Apr 1937 (MD)
Beadle, "Collection of eggs," Drosophila information service, 4 (1935), 64.
37
Beadle and Ephrussi, "The differentiation of eye pigments in Drosophila as stu- died by transplantation," Genetics, 21 (1936), 225–247, on 226–227.
38
Morgan, C. Bridges, and Sturtevant, "The genetics of Drosophila'9 Bibliographia genetica, 2 (1925), 1–262, on 40–53.
39
Beadle to Demerec, 16 Jul and 13 Sep 1935 (MD)
40
Beadle and Ephrussi (ref. 37), 230
Beadle (ref. 21), 1716–1717.
41
Beadle and Ephrussi (ref. 37), 242–244
Ephrussi and Beadle, "Development of eye colors in Drosophila: Transplantation experiments on the interaction of vermillion with other eye colors," Genetics, 22 (1937), 65–75
"Development of eye colors in Drosophila: Diffusable substances and their interrelations," Genetics, 22 (1937), 76–86, on 80–81.
42
Beadle and Ephrussi (ref. 41), 85.
43
Schultz (ref. 24), 42, 31–33, 41–43.
44
H. Roman, "Boris Ephrussi," ARG, 14 (1980), 447–450
A. Meyer to Wilbur Tis- dale, 2 Mar 1936, suppl. Ill, 2–4
Ephrussi, "Report, 1937–1938;"
Faure-Fremiet memo, 13 Jul 1938, all in RF, 1.1 500D 12 127.
Ephrussi to Dunn, 20 Nov 1935 (LCD)
Demerec to Hanson, 7 Mar 1936 (MD).
45
Ephrussi report, 25 Apr 1939 (RF, 1.1 500D 12 127), 8
Ephrussi to Demerec, 4 Oct 1936 (MD)
Andre Lwoff, "Recollections of Boris Ephrussi," Somatic cell genetics, 5 (1979), 677–679.
46
Beadle to Demerec, 15 Feb and 13 Apr 1936
G.L. Streeter to Beadle, 8 Jan 1936
Demerec to Beadle, 17 Jan, 3 Apr 1936 (MD).
47
Joshua Lederberg, "Edward Lawrie Tatum," ARG, 13 (1979), 1–5
BMNAS, 59(1990), 357–386.
48
C.V. Taylor to Weaver, 5 Apr 1937
Hanson to R.L. Wilbur, 3 May 1937
Hanson, "Diary," 6 May 1937
13–23 Apr 1938 (RF, 1.1 205D 8 105-106).
49
C.H. Danforth, "Charles Vincent Taylor, 1885–1946," BMNAS, 25 (1949), 205– 225
Hanson, "Diary," 7–8 Nov 1934
Taylor to Weaver, 1 Mar 1935
W. Weaver, "Diary," 11 Mar 1936
27 Jan 1937
28 Jan 1939 (all in RF, 1.1 205D 8 103–107)
Taylor to Weaver, 23 Aug 1938 (RF, 1.1 205D 10 135).
50
Ephrussi report, 25 Apr 1939 (RF, 1.1 500D 12 127), 7–8.
51
Burian et al. (ref. 9), 397–400
Meyer to Tisdale, 2 Mar 1936 (RF, 1.1 500D 12 127.7), 3–4, suppl. III, 2–4
Demerec to Ephrussi, 13 Nov 1936 (MD)
Beadle and Ephrussi (ref. 34).
52
R.B. Howland, B.P. Sonnenblick, and E.A. Glancy, "Transplantation of wing- thoracic primordia in Drosophila melanogaster" AN, 71 (1937), 158–166
C.W. Robert- son, "The metamorphosis of Drosophila melanogaster, including an accurately timed ac- count of the principal morphological changes," Journal of morphology, 59 (1936), 351– 399
Glancy and Howland, "Transplantation of mutant and wild type bristle-bearing tis- sues in Drosophila melanogaster," BB, 75 (1938), 99–105.
53
Beadle and Ephrussi (ref. 41)
Beadle, "The development of eye colors in Droso- phila as studied by transplantation," AN, 71 (1937), 120–126.
54
Ephrussi, "Chemistry of 'eye color hormones' of Drosophila," QRB, 17 (1942), 327–338, on 327–328, 331–332.
56
Ephrussi (ref. 54), 330–332.
57
Ephrussi to Demerec, 30 Nov 1936 (MD)
Ephrussi to Beadle, 18 Oct 1937 (GWB, 1 26)
Ephrussi report, 25 Apr 1939 (RF, 1.1 500D 12 127)
Yvonne Khouvine, Ephrussi, and M.H. Harnly, "Extraction et solubilite des substances intervenant dans la pigmentation des yeux de Drosophila melanogaster" CRAS, 203 (1936), 1542–1544.
58
Kenneth Thimann and Beadle, "Development of eye colors in Drosophila: Ex- traction of the diffusible substances concerned," PNAS, 23 (1937), 143–146.
59
Beadle and L.W. Law, "Influence on eye color of feeding diffusible substances to Drosophila melanogaster" PSEMB, 57(1938), 621–623
Ephrussi to Beadle, 4 Aug 1937 (GWB, 1 26).
60
Ephrussi to Beadle, 7 Aug, 18 and 22 Oct 1937 (GWB, 1 26).
61
Ephrussi to Beadle, 25 Mar, 8 May, 2, 13, 16, and 29 June, 4 Nov, 5 Dec 1938, 4 Mar
23 Oct 1939 (GWB, 1 26).
62
Ephrussi to Beadle, 9 Jan 1938 (misdated 1937)
8 May, 26 Dec 1937 (GWB, 1 26).
63
Edward Tatum and Beadle, "Development of eye colors in Drosophila: Some properties of the hormones concerned," JGP, 22 (1938), 239–253.
64
Ephrussi to Beadle, 2 June 1938, and 5 Dec 1938
4 Mar 1939 (GWB, 1 26).
65
Ephrussi to Beadle 18, 22 Oct, 8 Nov, 26 Dec 1937 (GWB, 1 26).
66
Ephrussi (ref. 54), 332–334
Khouvine, Ephrussi, and Simon Chevais, "Develop- ment of eye colors in Drosophila: Nature of the diffusable substances; effects of yeast, peptones, and starvation on their production," BB, 75 (1938), 425-446
Tatum and Beadle, "Effects of diet on eye-color development in Drosophila melanogaster," BB, 77 (1939), 415–422
Ephrussi to Beadle, 21, 25 Mar, and 8 June 1938 (GWB, 1 26).
67
Ephrussi to Beadle, 21 Jul 1939 (GWB, 1 26).
68
Ephrussi to Beadle, 8 May 1938 (GWB, 1 26).
69
Ephrussi to Beadle, 29 Nov, and 30 Dec 1937 (GWB, 1 26).
70
Ephrussi to Beadle, 15 Oct, 5 Dec 1938
4 Mar, 17 Apr, and 21 Jul 1939 (GWB, 1 26)
Harry Miller, "Diary," 1 June 1939 (RF, 1.1 500D 12 127).
71
Ephrussi (ref. 54)
Tatum and Beadle, "Effect of diet on eye-color development in Drosophila melanogaster" BB, 77 (1939), 415–422
Tatum, "Development of eye colors in Drosophila: Bacterial synthesis of v+ hormone," PNAS, 25 (1939), 486–490
Ephrussi to Beadle, 17 Apr 1939 (GWB, 1 26).
72
Ephrussi (ref. 54)
A. Butenandt, W. Weidel, and E. Becker, "Kynurenine als Au- genpigmentbildung auslösendes Agens bei Insekte," Die Naturwissenschaften, 28 (1940), 63
Tatum and Beadle, "Crystalline Drosophila eye-color hormone," Science, 91 (1940), 458.
73
Ephrussi to Beadle, 19 Jul, 4 Aug, 26 Dec 1937
14 Feb 1938 (GWB, 1 26)
Ephrussi, Khouvine, and Chevais, "Genetic control of a morphogenetic substance in Drosophila melanogaster?" Nature, 141 (1938), 204–205.
74
Ephrussi to Beadle, 17 Apr, 21 Jul, and 25 Jul 1941 (GWB, 1 26).
75
Beadle to Ephrussi, 17 Nov 1941 (GWB, 1 26).
76
Beadle and Tatum, "Experimental control of development and differentiation," AN, 75 (1941), 107–116
Sewall Wright, "The physiology of the gene," PR, 21 (1941), 487–527
Sturtevant, "Physiological aspects of genetics," Annual reviews of physiology, 3 (1941), 41–56.
78
Beadle, "Biochemical genetics, some recollections," in John Cairns, Gunther S. Stent, and James D. Watson, eds., Phage and the origins of molecular biology (Cold Spring Harbor, 1966), 23–32, on 29
Beadle (ref. 10), 7–8
Beadle (ref. 21), 1717
Kay (ref. 20), 80–81.
79
Beadle (ref. 21), 1717
Lederberg (ref. 47), 2
Beadle, "Chemical genetics," in L.C. Dunn, ed. Genetics in the twentieth century (New York, 1951), 221–239, on 224– 225.
80
Kay (ref. 20), 80.
81
Miller, "Diary," 1 June 1939 (RF, 1.1 500D 12 127), 3
Ephrussi (ref. 54), 336
Ephrussi to Beadle, 23 Oct, 4 Dec 1939
19 Feb, 2 May 1940
18 Apr, and 25 Jul 1941 (GWB, 1 26).
82
Sturtevant (ref. 76), 48.
83
Ephrussi (ref. 54), 337.
84
Beadle and Tatum (ref. 76), 114.
85
Tatum, "Nutritional requirements of Drosophila melanogaster" PNAS, 25 (1939), 490–497
"Vitamin B requirements of Drosophila melanogaster" PNAS, 27 (1941), 193–197.
86
Tatum, H.G. Wood, W.H. Peterson, "Growth factors for bacteria. V. Vitamin B, a growth stimulant for propionic acid bacteria," Biochemical journal, 30 (1936), 1898– 1904.
87
Beadle to Weaver, 18 Jan 1940, Hanson to R.J. Williams, 8 Oct 1940, Hanson, "Diary," 30 Dec 1940 (RF, 1.1 205D 10 135).
88
Beadle (ref. 10), 7–8
Weaver, "Diary," 17 Feb 1941 (RF, 1.1 205D 10 135).
89
F.W. Went to Beadle, 9 Nov 1942
Beadle to Went, 30 Nov 1942 (GWB 2 45–46)
Beadle, "Genetics and metabolism in Neurospora," PR, 25 (1945), 643–663, on 644–645
C.L. Shear and B.O. Dodge, "Life histories and heterothallism of the red bread-mold fungi of the Monila sitophila group," Journal of agricultural research, 34 (1927), 1019–1042
Beadle (ref. 21), 1717–1718.
90
Nils Fries, "Über die Bedeutung von Wuchsstoffen für das Wachstum verschien- dener Pilze," Symbolae botanicae upsalienses, 3 (1938), 1–188
Lederberg (ref. 47), 2.
C.C. Lindegren to Bea- dle, 17 Mar, 15 Dec 1941
20 Jul 1942
Beadle to Lindegren, 3 Feb 1943 (GWB, 1 41).
91
Beadle (ref. 89), 644–650
Arnold W. Ravin, "Francis J. Ryan (1916–1963)," Genetics, 84 (1976), 1–25, on 4–5
Joshua Lederberg, "Francis J. Ryan," in Wesley First, ed. University on the heights (Garden City, 1969), 105–109
Adrian Srb, "Beadle and Neurospora, some recollections," Neurospora newsletter, 20 (c. 1974), 8–9
F.J. Ryan, Beadle, and Tatum, "The tube method of measuring the growth rate of Neuros- pora," AJB, 30 (1943), 784–799
Beadle and Tatum, "Genetic control of biochemical reactions in Neurospora," PNAS, 27 (1941), 499–506
"The relation of genetics to growth factors and hormones," Growth, 6 (1942), suppl., 27–37.
92
Beadle (ref. 89), 646–650
Beadle and Tatum, "Neurospora II: Methods of pro- ducing and detecting mutations concerned with nutritional requirements," AJB, 32 (1945), 678–686
A.M. Srb and N.H. Horowitz, "The Ornithine cycle in Neurospora and its genetic control," JBC, 154(1944), 129–139.
93
Beadle to Lindegren, 25 Jul 1941
2 Jul 1942 (GWB, 1 41)
Beadle to Ephrussi, 1 Aug, and 17 Nov 1941 (GWB, 1 26).
94
Ephrussi to Beadle, 5 Jan 1942 (GWB, 1 26)
Beadle (ref. 80), 29.
95
Beadle (ref. 21), 1717–1718
Beadle, "Progress report," 24 Sep 1942 (RF, 1.1 205D 10 142)
Beadle (ref. 92), 652.
96
Beadle to Hanson, 27 Jan 1943 (RF, 1.1 205D 10 143).
97
Hanson, "Diary," 15–18 Dec 1941
Beadle to Hanson, 28 Nov 1941
Beadle memo, 18 Dec 1941 (RF, 1.1 205D 10 141).
98
Weaver to Fosdick, 24 Dec 1941 (RF, 205D 1.1 10 141).
99
Kay (ref. 20), 88–90.
100
Ryan to Beadle, n.d. [1942?], 27 June 1942 (GWB, 2 23)
Beadle to Hanson, 24 Feb 1942
Beadle to Hanson, 3 Apr 1943 (all in RF 1.1 205D 10 142-143)
Beadle to Ephrussi, 1 Aug 1942 (GWB, 1 26)
N.H. Horowitz, "George Wells Beadle," Genetics, 124 (1990), 1–6
Horowitz to Beadle, 14 Feb 1942 (GWB, 1 33)
Srb (ref. 91)
B. McClintock to Beadle, 14 Dec [1942]
A. Hollaender to Beadle, 17 Dec 1942 (both in GWB, 1 34).
101
Ephrussi to Beadle, 22 Aug 1941 (GWB, 1 26).
102
Beadle to Ephrussi, 17 Nov 1941 (GWB, 1 26).
103
Beadle to Ephrussi, 1 Aug 1942
Ephrussi to Beadle, 25 Jul 1941
4 Aug 1942 (GWB, 1 26).
104
Beadle to Lindegren, 7 Jan, and 2 Jul 1942 (GWB, 1 41)
Beadle and Tatum (ref. 91)
Beadle, "Progress report," 24 Sep 1942 (RF, 1.1 205D 10 142)
Beadle to E. Brand, 11 Feb 1943 (GWB, 1 7).
105
Beadle to Hanson, 2 Nov 1944
Beadle to Miller, 24 Aug 1945, 6 Sep 1945 (RF, 1.1 205D 10 144–145).
106
Beadle to Hanson, 2 Dec 1944 (RF, 1.1 205D 10 144)
McClintock to Beadle, 9 Jan, 12, 22 Aug, 27 Nov 1944
8 May 1945 (GWB, 2 5)
McClintock, "Neurospora I: Preliminary observations of the chromosomes of Neurospora crassa," AJB, 32 (1945), 671–678
Beadle and V.L. Coonradt, "Heterocaryosis in Neurospora crassa" Genetics, 29(1944), 291–308.
107
Tatum and Beadle (ref. 91), 30, 34
Beadle to Hanson, 17 Jan 1944 (RF, 1.1 205D 10 144)
Beadle to Lindegren, 25 Jul 1941 (GWB, 141).
108
Beadle memo, 18 Dec 1941
Beadle to Hanson, 24 Feb 1942 (RF, 1.1 205D 10 141–142).
109
Beadle (ref. 10), 8–9.
110
Latour and Woolgar (ref. 2), chapt. 5.
111
Kay (ref. 20)
Beadle to Hanson, 15 Apr, and 13 Jul 1942 (RF, 1.1 205D 10 142).
112
Lederberg (ref. 47), 3–4.
113
Latour and Woolgar (ref. 2), chapt. 5.
114
Galison (ref. 2)
W.D. Hackmann, "The relationship between concept and in- strument design in eighteenth-century experimental science," Annals of science, 36 (1979), 205–224
Joel D. Howell, "Early perceptions of the electrocardiogram: From ar- rhythmia to infarction," BUM, 58 (1984), 83–98
Elzen (ref. 3)
James Wright, Jr., "The development of the frozen section technique, the evolution of surgical biopsy, and the origins of surgical pathology," BHM, 59 (1985), 295–326
Lenoir (ref. 3).
115
Beadle to Ryan, 4 Jan 1943 (GWB, 2 23)
Beadle to Brand, 4 Jan 1942 (GWB, 1 7).
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