[Footnotes]

[Footnotes]
2
K. Bergwitz, V. Hess, W. Kolhörster, and E. Schweidler, "Feststellungen zur Geschichte der Entdeckung und Erforschung der kosmischen Höhenstrahlung (Ultra- gammastrahlung)," PZ, 29 (1928), 705–707 on 705
R.A. Millikan and G.H. Cameron, "New results on cosmic rays," Nature, 121 (1928), suppl., 19–26.
3
Y. Sekido and H. Elliot, eds., Early history of cosmic ray studies (Dordrecht, 1985)
Q. Xu and L.M. Brown, "The early history of cosmic ray research," American journal of physics, 55 (1987), 23–33
C.A. Ziegler, "Technology and the process of scientific discovery: The case of cosmic rays," Technology and culture, 30 (1989), 939– 963.
4
Hess, "Über Beobachtungen der durchdringenden Strahlung bei sieben Freiballon- fahrten," PZ, 75 (1912), 1084–1091, on 1090.
5
Hess, "Aeronautische Radiumforschung," Österreichischer Aero-Klub, Jahrbuch, 1912 (Vienna, 1913), 204
Ziegler (ref. 3), 950.
6
Atmosphäre," PZ, 12 (1911), 998–1001.
7
R. Steinmaurer, "Erinnerungen an V. Hess, den Entdecker der kosmischen Strahlung, und an die ersten Jahren des Betriebes des Hafelekar Labors," in Sekido and Elliot (ref. 3), 17–31
Hess, "The discovery of cosmic radiation," Thought: Fordam University quarterly, 75:57(1940), 225–236.
8
Bergwitz, Die gamma-Strahlung des Erdkörpers und ihr Anteil an der spontanen Ionisierung der Atmosphäre (Habilitationsschrift, Braunschweig, 1910)
Gockel, "Luf- telektrische Beobachtungen bei einer Ballonfahrt," PZ, 11 (1910), 280–282
"Messungen der durchdringenden Strahlung bei Ballonfahrt," PZ, 12 (1911), 595–597
T. Wulf, "Beobachtungen über die Strahlung hoher Durchdringungsfähigkeit auf dem Eiffel- turm," PZ, 11 (1910), 811–813.
9
Kolhörster, "Über einer Neukonstruktion des Apparate zur Messung der durch- dringenden Strahlung nach Wulf und die damit bisher gewonnenen Ergebnisse," PZ, 14 (1913), 1066–1069
"Messungen der durchdringenden Strahlung in Freiballon in gros- seren Höhen," PZ, 14 (1913), 1153–1156
"Messungen der durchdringenden Strahlungen bis in Höhen von 9300m.," DPG, Verhandlungen, 76 (1914), 719–721.
10
Schweidler, Elster und Geitel Festschrift (Braunschweig, 1915), 411
R. Seeliger, "Über den Ursprung der durchdringenden atmosphärischen Strahlung," Münchner Ber- ichte (1918), 1–46.
11
Gockel, "Beiträge zur Kenntnis der in der Atmosphäre vorhandenen durchdrin- genden Strahlung," PZ, 76 (1915), 345–352, on 345, 351.
12
Gockel, Meteorologische Zeitschrift, 33 (1916), 15; Neue denkschrift d. Schweiz, na- turgesellschaft, 54 (1917), 197
Deutsche Schweiz naturgesellschaft, 59 (1917), 1.
13
Kolhörster, "Dauerbeobachtungen der durchdringenden Strahlung in Waniköi," Zeitschrift für Physik, 11 (1922), 379–395.
14
Hess and M. Kofier, "Ganzjährige Beobachtungen der durchringenden Strahlung auf dem Obir," PZ, 18 (1917), 585–595.
15
Kolhörster, "Intensitäts-und Richtungsmessungen der durchdringenden Strahlung," DPG, Berichte, 34 (1923), 366–377, on 375, 377.
16
Kolhörster, Die durchdringenden Strahlung in der Atmosphäre (Hamburg, 1924); Nernst, Das Weltgebäude im Lichte der neueren Forschung (Berlin, 1923).
17
A. Wigand, "Die durchdringende Höhenstrahlung," PZ, 25 (1924), 445–463.
18
Ibid., 452.
"nothing essentially new," Kolhörster (ref. 16), 57.
19
Millikan, and I.S. Bowen, "Penetrating radiation at high altitudes," PR, 22 (1923), 198
R.M. Otis, "The variation of penetrating radiation with altitude," and "The penetrating radiation on Mt. Whitney," ibid., 198, 199.
20
Otis and Millikan, "The source of the penetrating radiation found in the earth's atmosphere," PR, 23 (1924), 778.
21
Millikan, "Some scientific aspects of the meteorological work of the U.S. Army," American Philosophical Society, Proceedings, 58 (1919), 133–149.
R. Kargon, The rise of Robert Millikan (Ithaca, 1982), 134–150
Robert W. Seidel, Physics research in California: The rise of a leading sector in Ameri- can physics (PhD dissertation, University of California, Berkeley, 1978), 262–306
M. De Maria and A. Russo, "Cosmic ray romancing: The discovery of the latitude effect and the Compton Millikan controversy," HSPS, 19:2 (1989), 211–266.
22
Millikan to R.S. Woodward, President of the CIW, 6 May 1919
Woodward to Millikan, 14 May 1919 (MP, 20/14).
23
A.A. Noyes to J.C. Merriam (President of the CIW), 17 Sep 1921
G.H. Hale to the Carnegie Corporation, 17 Sep 1921 (MP, 20/15).
24
CIW, Yearbook, 21 (1922), 286
Millikan, "Atoms and ethereal radiations," Na- ture, 114 (1924), 141–143.
25
Ibid., 143
26
"Goes up on Pike's Peak to study radiation," New York Times, 20 Sep 1923, 2.
27
Millikan (ref. 24), 143.
28
"Another American Nobel prize winner," New York Times, 15 Nov 1923, 18.
(Boston and Chicago, 1924).
Kargon (ref. 21)
R. Tobey, The American ideology of nation- al science, 1919–1930
(Pittsburgh, 1971), 133 ff.
29
Millikan, "High-frequency rays of cosmic origin," American Academy of Science, Proceedings, 12 (1926), 48–55.
Science, 62 (20 Nov 1925), 445–448
Na- ture, 116 (5 Dec 1925), 823–825.
Millikan, "Cosmic rays," Dec 1925 (MP, 59/51), published in Scientific American, 134:3 (Mar 1926), 149–150.
30
Millikan, "High frequency" (ref. 29), 48.
31
Ibid., 50.
32
Ibid.
33
Ibid., 51–52
Millikan noted from Kolhörster (ref. 15).
34
Ibid., 53.
35
Science Service, Daily science news bulletin, 11 Nov 1925 (Science Service Pa- pers, National Museum of American History, Washington, D.C.).
36
"Dr. Millikan discovers strange new rays, 10 miles above the earth, coming from the void," New York Times, 11 Nov 1925, 24.
37
"Millikan rays," New York Times, 12 Nov 1925, 24
Science, 62 (20 Nov 1925), 461–462.
38
"America and pure science," New York Times, 28 Oct 1926, 24.
39
Millikan and Bowen, "High frequency rays of cosmic origin. I. Sounding balloon observations at extreme altitudes," PR, 27 (1926), 353–361
Millikan and Otis, "High frequency rays of cosmic origin, II. Mountain peak and airplane observations," ibid., 645–658
Millikan and G.H. Cameron, "High frequency rays of cosmic origin, III. Measurements in snow-fed lakes at high altitudes," ibid., 851–868.
40
CIW, Yearbook, 25 (1925–1926), 410.
41
Bruno Rossi, Cosmic rays (London, 1964), 8
Hugh Carmichael, "Edinburgh, Cambridge, and Baffin Bay," in Sekido and Elliot (ref. 3), 99–113, on 99.
42
Hess, "Über den Ursprung der Höhenstrahlung," PZ, 27 (1926), 159–164.
Millikan (ref. 29).
43
Ibid., 160.
44
Ibid., 164.
45
Millikan and Bowen (ref. 39), 359–360.
46
Hess, "Bemerkungen zur Abhandlung von R.A. Millian und J.S. Bowen: 'Hochfrequenzstrahlen kosmischen Ursprungs,' I (Pilotballonbeobachtungen in grossen Höhen)," PZ, 27 (1926), 405–406.
47
Kolhörster, "Zur Arbeit von R.A. Millikan und J.S. Bowen, 'Hochfre- quenzstrahlen kosmischen Ursprungs,' I. Pilotballon-beobachtungen in grossen Höhen," Zeitschrift für Physik, 38 (1926), 404–406, on 404
Naturwissenschaften, 14 (1926), 290–295, 313–319, on 313, 314, 316.
48
Ibid., 405.
49
Ibid., 406.
50
Kolhörster, "Bemerkungen zu der Arbeit von R.A. Millikan: 'Kurzwellige Strahlen kosmischer Ursprungs,'" Annalen der Physik, 80 (1926), 621–628, on 622
Mil- likan, ibid., 79 (1926), 572–582
Millikan (ref. 29).
51
Ibid., 625, 627.
52
Ibid., 625–626.
ref. 15, 377
Millikan (ref. 29), 51.
53
Ibid., 627.
54
DJ. Kevles, "'Into hostile political camps:' The reorganization of international science in World War I," Isis, 62 (1970), 47–60
B. Schröder-Gudehus, "Challenge to transnational loyalties: International scientific organizations after the First World War," Science studies, 3 (1973), 93–118
Montreal, 1978
World War I," Isis, 64 (1973), 151–180.
55
Ausland (Berlin, 29 Jan 1925), 4.
56
Einstein to Millikan, 1 Sep 1925
DJ. Kevles, The physicists (New York, 1978), 196.
57
Millikan, "The new opportunity in science," Science, 50 (1919), 285–297.
58
Millikan to Hess, 24 Jul 1926 (MP, 40/9).
59
Millikan and Cameron (ref. 39).
60
Millikan to Oldenburg, 20 Dec 1926 (MP, 22/1).
61
Kargon (ref. 21), 145–150
Tobey (ref. 28), 137–150
Russo (ref. 21).
62
Millikan and Cameron, "High altitude tests on the geographical, directional, and spectral distribution of cosmic rays," PR, 31 (1928), 163–173
"New precision in cosmic ray measurements, yielding extension of spectrum and indications of bands," ibid., 921–930.
63
Millikan and Cameron (ref. 2), 19.
64
Ibid., 23, 26.
65
Millikan and Cameron, "The origin of cosmic rays," PR, 32 (1928), 533–557.
66
"Creation continues," New York Times, 18 Mar 1928, 1
W. Kaempffert, "Super x-rays reveal the secret of creation," New York Times, 25 Mar 1928, 3.
67
Bergwitz et al. (ref. 2).
68
Millikan, "History of research on cosmic rays," Nature, 126 (1930), 14.
69
Ibid., 30.
70
Ziegler (ref. 3), 959–963.
D.H. DeVorkin, Race to the stratosphere (New York, 1989), 20–29.
71
De Maria and Russo, "The discovery of the positron," Rivista di storia della scienza, 2:2 (1985), 237–286
Russo, "I raggi cosmici e la nascita della fisica delle parti- celle elementari," Eighth National Congress on the History of Physics (1987)
Atti (Mi- lan, 1988), 429–471.
72
P. Galison, "The discovery of the muon and the failed revolution against quan- tum electrodynamics," Centaurus, 26 (1983), 262–316,
(Chi- cago, 1987), 75–133.
73
Russo (ref. 21).
74
A.H. Compton to M. Vallarta, 13 Oct 1939
B. Rossi to Compton, 6 Oct and 28 Dec 1940 (Compton Papers, Washington University, St. Louis, 2/5).
75
E. Condon in Review of scientific instruments, 6 (1935), 89–91
Nature, 756 (1935), 320–321.
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