[Footnotes]

[Footnotes]
1
F. Kedrov, Kapitza: Life and discoveries (Moscow, 1979).
2
G.M.Spruch, "Pyotr Kapitza, octogenarian dissident," Physics today (Sep 1979), 34–45.
3
P.E. Rubinin in Ogonyek, 25 (1989), 18–22
Priroda, 3 (1989), 98.
4
A.M. Biew, Kapitza: Der Atom-Zar (Munich, 1954)
Jeanne Vronskaya, Biographical dictionary of the Soviet Union, 1917–1988 (London, 1989), s.v.
"Kapitza." One very unreliable report concern- ing Kapitza is in the B.I. Nicolaevsky collection, Hoover Institute, Archives, 412/9.
5
Kapitza, "Pis'ma k materi (1921–1926)," Novyi Mir (1986), 5, 192– 216, 6, 194–218
"Trebuetsya smelost, razmakh i derzanie. Pyat pisem academika P.L. Kapitzy N.S. Khruschevu," Znamya, 5 (1989), 200–208
"Za nenabnost'yu vernut grazhdaninu Kapitze," Sovetskaya Kul'tura (21 May 1988)
Pis'ma o nauke i vlasti (Moscow, 1990).
6
D. Schoenberg, "Piotr Leonidovich Kapitza, 9 July 1894–1898," Royal Society of London, Biographical memoirs, 31 (1985), 325–374.
7
David Joravsky, "Return of the native," in New York Times Review of Books (1985), 35
D.J. Lockwood, ed., P.L. Kapitsa: Letters to mother (Ottawa, 1989).
8
Kapitza, "Pis'ma k materi" (ref. 5), 204, 206
ibid., "Pis'ma k materi," Puti v neznaemoe (1986), 455.
10
L. Trotsky (1925), L.Kamenev (1929)
N.Bukharin (1930–1932).
11
Lawrence Badash, Kapit- za, Rutherford, and the Kremlin (New Haven, 1985).
12
Kapitza to Molotov, 7 May 1935 (PN).
14
Kapitza to A. Kapitza, 5 Apr 1935, in Badash (ref. 11), 67.
15
P. Kapitza to A. Kapitza, 21 May 1935 (PN).
16
Boag, J.W., P.E. Rubinin, and David Schoenberg, eds., Kapitza in Cambridge and Moscow: Life and letters of a Russian physicist (Amsterdam, 1990), 267.
17
Kapitza, "Khleb, maslo, no ne dzhem," in ibid., Kratkii mig torzhestva (Moscow, 1989), 297–307.
18
Kapitza to Bohr, 15 Nov 1933 (BA).
19
Proceedings, 29 Apr 1938 (AAN).
20
Gamow to Bohr, 20 Jan 1935 (AHQP)
Bohr of 24 Nov 1933, 13 June 1934
1 June 1935
21
AAN, 459/3/10.
22
Pravda, 9 Jul 1936.
23
N.S. Khruschev, "Reminiscences," Znamya, 9 (1989), 3–39, on 31.
N.Khrushchev, Khruschev remembers, trans. Jerrold L. Scheter (Boston, 1970).
25
Badash (ref. 11), 20–36.
26
Kapitza to Bohr, 20 Oct 1936 (BA).
27
Kapitza to A. Kapitza, 23 Feb 1935 (PN)
Boag et al. (ref. 16), 225–227.
28
Kapitza to A. Kapitza, 4 Dec 1934 (PN)
Boag et al. (ref. 16), 213–214.
29
Kapitza to Molotov, 5 Jul 1935 (KA).
30
Kapitza to Mezhlauk, 19 Dec 1936 (PN).
31
Kapitza to Mezhlauk, 26 Apr 1936 (PN)
Boag et al. (ref. 16), 328.
32
Kapitza to Rutherford, 2 Mar 1936 (PN)
Badash (ref. 11).
33
Kapitza to Molotov, 7 May 1935 (PN).
34
Kapitza, "Za nenadobnost'yu" (ref. 5).
35
Kapitza to A. Kapitza, 16 Feb 1935 (KA).
36
"Dvadtzaf dva otcheta akademika Kapitzy," Kratkii mig torzhevstva (Moscow, 1989) 252–287.
Kapitza, Deshevyi kislorod narodnomu khozyaistvu (Moscow, 1986), 64
Kapitza, "Oxygen," in Kapitza, Experiment, theory, practice (Dordrecht, 1980), 35-46.
37
Kapitza to Molotov, 20 Apr 1938 (PN)
Kapitza to Stalin, 28 Apr 1938 (KA).
38
Kapitza, "Expansion turbine producing low temperatures applied to air liquefac- tion," in Kapitza, Collected papers (4 vols., Oxford, 1965), 2, 521-550
Kapitza is "A new method of producing low temperatures for air liquefac- tion," in ibid., 3, 44–63.
39
"Dvadtzat" (ref. 37), 258.
42
Kapitza to Molotov, 6 Apr 1943 (KA).
43
Kapitza to Molotov, 6 Apr 1943 (PN).
46
Kapitza to Stalin, 10 May 1944 (KA).
47
Kapitza to Stalin, 24 Feb and 13 Oct 1944 (PN).
48
Kapitza to Stalin, 14 Mar 1945 (PN).
49
Pravda, 1 May 1945.
50
Kapitza to Stalin, 20 Jan, 14 Mar, and 13 Apr 1945 (PN).
51
M.K.Sukov to Stalin, 22 Aug 1945 (KA).
52
Kapitza to Malenkov, 27 Sep 1945 (PN).
53
Kapitza to Stalin, 3 Oct 1945 (PN).
54
USSR, Party and government officials of the So- viet Union (1917–1967) (Munich, 1969).
55
Izvestiya TsK KPSS, 1 (1991), 145.
56
Kapitza to Stalin, 3 Oct 1945 (PN).
David Holloway, "The scientist and the tyrant," The New York Review of Books (1 Mar 1990), 23-25, on 24
Boag et al. (ref. 16), 370.
57
Kapitza to Stalin, 25 Nov 1945 (PN).
Holloway (ref. 56), 25
Boag et al. (ref. 16), 372–377.
59
Stalin to Kapitza, 4 Apr 1946 (PN)
Boag et al. (ref. 16), 378.
60
PN, 258.
61
A. Avtorkhanov, Zagadka smerti Stalina: Zagovor Beria (Frankfurt, 1976)
W.G.Hahn, Postwar Soviet politics: The fall of Zhdanov and the defeat of modernization, 1946-1953 (Ithaca, 1982).
62
Kapitza to Beria, 2 Apr 1946 {PN).
63
Decree of the Council of Ministers, no. 832, 13 Apr 1946 (KA).
64
Committee of experts, "Conclusion," 23 Apr 1946 (KA).
65
Decree of the Council of Ministers, no. 1034, 14 May 1946 (KA).
66
Kapitza to Stalin, 19 May, and 19 May 1946 (PN).
67
V.A. Malyshev, "Conclusion," 14 June 1946 (KA).
68
Kapitza to Stalin, 2 June and 16 Jul 1946
Kapitza to Malenkov, 25 June 1946 (PN).
70
Decree of the Council of Ministers, no. 1815–782, 17 Aug 1946 (KA).
71
Academy of Sciences, "On the leadership of the Institute of Physical Problems," 20 Sep 1946, AAN
Kapitza's personal dossier (AAN, 411/3/445), 291.
74
Kapitza's personal dossier (AAN, 441/3/445)
PN, 291.
75
A.V. Shubnikov, "To, chto sokhzanila pamyat" in ibid., Sergei Ivanovich Vavilov: Ochezki i vospominaniya (Moscow, 1991), 171.
76
Kapitza to Stalin, 6 Aug 1948
30 Dec 1950
Kapitza to Malenkov, 25 June 1950 (PN).
71
All-Union Conference of Physicists, Central State Archives of the October Revolution (Moscow, 1949), 9396/1/244.
78
Kapitza to Malenkov, 22 Jul 1953 (PN).
79
Presidium of the Academy of Sciences, 28 Aug 1953
Kapitza's personal dos- sier (AAN, 411/3/445).
80
Kapitza to Andropov, 11 Nov 1980 (PN).
81
S.I. Vavilov, 'Tdeologiya sovzemennoi fiziki i zadachi sovetskikh fizikov" [1949]
Archives of the Academy of Sciences, Vavilov's collection (AAN 596/1/80).
82
Alan D. Beyerchen, Scientists under Hitler (New Haven, 1977)
J.L. Heilbron, The dilemmas of an upright man: Max Planck as spokesman for German science (Berkeley, 1986).
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