[Footnotes]

[Footnotes]
234
Seebeck to Hegel, 13 June 1811, in Hoffmeister (ref. 35), 1, 371.
235
Ibid., 373.
236
LA, I: 5, 19-30.
N.M. Ribe, "Goethe's critique of Newton: A recon- sideration," in Studies in history and philosophy of science, 16 (1985), 315-335.
237
Seebeck to Goethe, 25 Apr 1812, in Bratranek (ref. 1), 318.
238
Seebeck, "Geschichte der entoptischen Farben" (1817), LA, I: 8, 11–15.
239
Seebeck, "Einige neue Versuche" (ref. 130), 260.
240
Ibid., 261.
241
Ibid., 281.
242
Ibid., 269.
243
Seebeck, "Von den entoptischen Farbenfiguren und den Bedingungen ihrer Bil- dung in Gläsern," JCPM, 72 (1814), 1–16, on 1.
Butler (ref. 87), 696.
244
Seebeck, "Einige neue Versuche" (ref. 130), 294.
245
Seebeck, "Über Farbenfiguren. Schreiben an den Herausgeber," JCPM, 11 (1814), 471.
246
J.B. Biot, Tratte de physique experimentale et mathematique (4 vols., Paris, 1816), 4, 542, 569–573.
247
Goethe to Seebeck, 23 Feb 1815, WA, IV: 27, 206–208.
248
Biot (ref. 246).
249
Seebeck (ref. 243), 16c–16d.
250
Seebeck to Goethe, 12 Nov 1815 (GSA).
251
Seebeck, "Einige neue Versuche" (ref. 130), 287.
252
Seebeck to Goethe, 30 Jan 1816 (GSA).
253
Seebeck to Biot, 26 Feb 1816, in Biot "Sur un point de l'histoire de l'optique re- latif aux phenomenes de polarisation," Academie des Sciences, Comptes rendus, 15 (1842), 962–975.
254
Seebeck to Goethe, 15 Mar 1816 (GSA).
255
M.A. Hoskin, DSB, s.v. "Herschel, William."
256
Seebeck to Goethe, 29 Dec 1814, Ruland (ref. 1), 161.
257
Seebeck to Goethe, 5 Apr 1816 (GSA).
258
Seebeck to Goethe, 27 May 1816 (GSA).
259
Seebeck, "Einige neue Versuche" (ref. 130), 288.
260
Seebeck (ref. 243), 16f.
261
Seebeck to Goethe, 12 Nov 1815 (GSA).
262
Seebeck to Goethe, 30 Dec 1815 (GSA).
263
P. Groth, Entwicklungsgeschichte der mineralogischen Wissenschaften (Berlin, 1926), 95
Biot (ref. 253), 975.
264
Seebeck to Goethe, 30 Dec 1815 (GSA).
265
Seebeck to Goethe, 29 Dec 1814 (GSA).
266
Burke (ref. 33), 59–61.
267
Ibid., 142.
268
D. Brewster, "On the laws of polarization and double refraction in regularly crystallized bodies," Royal Society of London, Philosophical Transactions, 108 (1818), 199–273, on 258.
269
Burke (ref. 33), 144.
270
A.E.H. Tutton, Crystals (London, 1911), 89–92.
271
Groth(ref. 263), 59–60.
272
Burke (ref. 33), 154.
273
Groth (ref. 263), 70
W.T. Holser, DSB, s.v. "Weiss, C.S."
274
C.S. Weiss, "On the methodical and natural distribution of the different systems of crystallization," The Edinburgh philosophical journal, 8 (1823), 103–110.
275
Seebeck to Goethe, 15 Mar 1816 (GSA).
276
Ibid.
277
Seebeck to Goethe, 27 May 1816 (GSA).
278
Ibid.
279
Ibid.
280
Seebeck to Goethe, 15 June 1816 (GSA).
281
Seebeck to Goethe, 9 Sep 1816 (GSA).
282
Seebeck to Schelling, 24 Jul 1816 (ADW).
283
H. Steffens, Was ich erlebte. Aus den Erinnerungen niedergeschrieben von Hein- rich Steffens (10 vols., Breslau, 1840–1844), 8, 404.
284
Seebeck to Weiss, 14 Sep 1818 (SPK-M).
285
Seebeck to Goethe, 24 Oct 1818, in Bratranek (ref. 1), 326–329.
286
Mitscherlich to Berzelius, 22 Feb 1822, in Mitscherlich, Gesammelte Schriften (Berlin, 1896), 57.
287
Mitscherlich to Missen, 25 May and 14 Jul 1819 (ibid., 38, 42).
288
Seebeck to [Weiss], 18 May 1820 (SPK-M).
289
Seebeck to Goethe, [15] Dec 1812, in Hecker (ref. 1), 183.
290
Goethe to Seebeck, 22 Dec 1812, ibid., 169.
291
Goethe to Seebeck, 13 Apr 1813, WA, IV: 23, 312.
292
Goethe to Schweigger, 25 Apr 1814, WA, IV: 24, 225–228.
293
Schopenhauer to Goethe, 11 Nov 1815, in K.L. Mandelkow, Briefe an Goethe (2 vols., Munich, 1982), 1, 167–176.
294
Goethe to Schopenhauer, 23 Oct 1815, WA, IV: 26, 111.
295
Schopenhauer to Goethe, 11 Nov 1815, in Mandelkow (ref. 293), 174.
296
Goethe to Schopenhauer, 16 Nov 1815, WA, IV: 26, 153.
297
Goethe's diary, 29 Aug and 1 Sep 1815, WA, III: 5, 179.
298
Goethe to Schopenhauer, 16 Nov 1815, WA, IV: 26, 153.
299
Goethe to Seebeck, 11 May 1816, in Hecker (ref. 1), 176.
300
"Lesarten" in WA, IV: 26, 400.
301
Seeref. 185.
302
Goethe to Seebeck, 21 Jan 1816, in Hecker (ref. 1), 171.
303
Seebeck to Goethe, 30 Jan 1816 (GSA).
304
Schultz to Goethe, 6 Apr 1816, in Mandelkow (ref. 293), 2, 184.
305
Goethe to Seebeck, 8 Nov 1816, WA, IV: 27, 230.
306
Seebeck to Goethe, 29 Jul 1817 (GSA).
307
Goethe to Seebeck, 8 Jul 1817.
Hecker (ref. 1), 177–178.
308
Goethe to Schopenhauer, 23 Oct 1815, WA, IV: 26, 111.
309
Ref. 247.
310
Goethe to Seebeck, 11 May 1816, in Hecker (ref. 1), 175–176.
311
Goethe to Seebeck, 7 Jul 1816, WA, IV: 27, 107.
312
Goethe to Seebeck, 8 Nov 1816, WA, IV: 27, 228.
313
Goethe, "Entoptischen Farben," LA, I: 8, 45
"Elemente der entoptischen Farben," ibid., 21–24.
314
Goethe, "Entoptischen Farben," LA, I: 8, 94–138.
ref. 313.
315
Goethe to Knebel, 1 May and 7 Nov 1816, WA, IV: 27, 1
7 Nov 1816, ibid., 27, 225
Schultz, 11 Mar 1816, ibid., 26, 417.
316
Goethe, "Entoptische Farben" (ref. 314), 94.
317
Goethe to Schultz, 16 Jul 1816, WA, IV: 27, 109.
318
Goethe (ref. 314), 116–118.
319
Ibid., 118–120, 127.
320
Ibid., 108–109.
321
Ibid., 135.
322
Fischer (ref. 107), 121.
323
Goethe (ref. 314), 135.
324
Seebeck to Goethe, 16 Feb 1808 (GSA).
325
Seebeck to Goethe, 29 Jan 1811 (GSA).
326
T. Young, "Malus, Biot, Brewster on light," The quarterly review, 11 (1814), 42–57.
327
Seebeck to Goethe, 29 Dec 1814, in Ruland (ref. 1), 158–159.
328
Seebeck (refs. 130, 243).
329
Seebeck (ref. 238), 14.
330
ref. 253
Biot, "Note sur le developpement des forces polarisantes par la pression," Societe phi- lomatique, Paris, Bulletin des sciences (1816), 49–51.
Biot (ref. 253)
331
Biot (ref. 246), 4, 542.
332
Seebeck to Goethe, 15 Mar 1816 (GSA)
Academie des sciences, Paris, Proces verbaux, 6 (Paris, 1915), 11, 25.
333
Seebeck to Biot, 8 Feb 1816 (ref. 330).
335
Seebeck to Biot, 26 Feb 1816, in Biot (ref. 253).
336
Biot (ref. 253), 965–966.
337
Ibid.
338
T.M. Lowry, "Optical rotatory dispersion," Nature, 777(1926), 271–275.
339
Seebeck to Biot, 26 Feb 1816, in Biot (ref. 253).
340
P.S. Laplace, Traite de mecanique celeste (5 vols., Paris, 1799–-1825), 5, 99.
R. Fox "The rise and fall of Laplacian physics," HSPS, 4 (1974), 89–136.
341
Seebeck to Geothe, 29 Dec 1814, in Ruland (ref. 1), 161.
342
Ibid., 160.
343
Seebeck to Goethe, 12 Nov 1815 (GSA)
J.T. Mayer, "De apparentiis colorum a polaritate lumino pendentibus," Academie der Wissenschaften, Göttingen, Commen- tarii, 3(1814–1815).
344
Ibid.
345
Goethe (ref. 314), 129.
D.L. Sepper, "Goethe against New- ton: Towards saving the phenomenon," in Armine (ref. 93), 175–194.
346
Schweigger to Döbereiner, 1823, in Schiff (ref. 119), 558.
347
Seebeck to Goethe, 12 Nov 1815 (GSA).
348
Seebeck to Knebel, 28 Nov 1815 (BJV).
349
Goethe to Seebeck 14 Jan 1817, WA, IV: 27, 316
Goethe to Seebeck, 25 Feb 1815, in Ruland (ref. 1), 164.
350
Goethe, "Annalen 1820," WA, I: 36, 161.
351
D.L. Sepper, Goethe contra Newton. Polemics and the project for a new science of color (Cambridge, 1988), 63.
352
Fox(ref. 340), 128–134.
353
Goethe's diary, 17–21 June 1818, WA, III: 6, 218–220.
354
Seebeck to Goethe, 5 Jul 1818 (GSA).
E. Amburger, Die Mitglieder der Deutschen Aka- demie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin 1700-1950 (Berlin, 1960), 110, 24.
ref. 2
355
Seebeck to Goethe, 29 Dec 1814
26 Jul 1816 (GSA).
356
Goethe to S. Boisseree, 1 May 1818, in Nicolin (ref. 36), 173.
357
Altenstein to State Chancellor Hardenberg, 1 Oct 1819, in Harnack (ref. 199), 2, 417–419.
358
Zelter to Goethe, 25 Jan 1832, WA, IV: 43, 429
Seebeck to Goethe, 24 Oct 1818 (GSA).
359
Steffens (ref. 283), 8, 405.
360
Seebeck to Altenstein, 29 Jan 1819 (SPK-D).
361
Hegel to Niethammer, 26 Mar 1819, Butler (ref. 87), 442–443.
362
Harnack (ref. 199), 2, 419.
363
Ref. 360.
364
Weiss to Oersted, 2 Aug 1820, in Harding (ref. 24), 7, 266–270.
365
Weiss to Oersted, "Briefwechsel über Atomistik und Öynamik. Über die Kan- tische Grundkräfte," ibid., 1, 298–309.
366
Weiss to Oersted, 11 Nov 1825, in Harding (ref. 24), 1, 275
M. Seebeck to Goethe, 20 Dec 1831, in K. Fischer, "Erinnerungen an Moritz Seebeck," Beilage zur allgemeinen Zeitung, Munich, Nr. 186, 7 Jul 1885, 2729–2730.
367
Poggendorff (ref. 2), 37–38.
368
E. Arnhold, Goethes Berliner Beziehungen (Gotha, 1925), 186–187
J. Zeitler, Goethe Handbuch (3 vols., Stuttgart, 1916–1918), 3, 316–317.
Rupprecht Matthaei (R. Matthaei, "Neues von Goethes entoptischen Studien," Goethe. Viermonatsschrift der Goethe-Gesell-schaft, 5 (1940), 71–96.)
M. Hecker (ref. 1)
K. Fischer (ref. 365)
369
Goethe to Seebeck, 8 Jul 1817, in Hecker (ref. 1), 177–178.
370
Seebeck to Goethe, 29 Jul 1817 (GSA).
371
Seebeck to Goethe, 1 June 1819 (GSA).
372
Goethe to Schultz, 15 June 1819, WA, IV: 57, 183.
373
Seebeck to Goethe, 11 Dec 1819 (GSA).
374
Goethe to Seebeck, 30 Dec 1819, WA, IV: 32, 133.
375
Goethe to Seebeck, 6 Oct 1820, WA, IV: 37, 293.
376
Goethe to Seebeck, 16 Apr 1823, WA, IV: 27, 16–17.
377
Hegel to Goethe, 2 Aug 1821, in Butler (ref. 87), 700.
378
Arnhold (ref. 368), 178–179.
379
Hegel to Goethe, 15 Sep 1822, in Butler (ref. 87), 707.
380
Günther Schmid, Goethe und die Naturwissenschaften. Eine Bibliographie (Halle, 1940), 338.
381
Mitscherlich to Berzelius, 30 May 1827, in Mitscherlich (ref. 286), 77.
382
Schopenhauer to Charles Eastlake, 1840, in Mandelkow (ref. 293), 2, 650.
383
M. Seebeck to Goethe, 20 Dec 1831, in Fischer (ref. 366), 2729–2730.
384
Mitscherlich to his father, 17 Sep 1819, in Mitscherlich (ref. 286), 45.
385
Mitscherlich to Berzelius, 22 Feb 1822, ibid., 58.
386
Harnack(ref. 199), 1:2, 680.
387
Mitscherlich to Berzelius, 18 Jul 1826, in Mitscherlich (ref. 286), 75–76.
388
Weiss to Oersted, 5 Aug 1838, in Harding (ref. 24), 1, 346.
389
Weiss to Oersted, 2 Aug 1820, ibid., 266–270.
390
P.L. Dulong to J.J. Berzelius, 2 Oct 1820, in Söderbaum (ref. 229), 2:4, 18.
391
Weiss to Oersted (ref. 389), 269–270.
392
Ibid., 267.
393
CS. Weiss to Oersted, "Briefwechsel über Atomistik und Dynamik. Über die Kantischen Grundkräfte," in Harding (ref. 24), 1, 298–309.
394
Ibid., 307.
Weiss to Oersted, 12 May 1829, in Hard- ing (ref. 24), 7, 279–280.
395
Weiss (ref. 392), 301–302.
396
Seebeck, "Ueber den Magnetismus der Galvanischen Kette, bearbeitet nach Vorlesungen, welche den 14. December 1820 und den 8. Februar 1821 gehalten wor- den, nebst einigen später hinzugefügten Zusätzen," Akademie der Wissenschaften, Ber- lin, Abhandlungen, 1822, 280–346.
Ostwalds Klassiker der exakten Wissen- schaften, Nr. 63 (Leipzig, 1895)
"Ueber Elektromagnetismus. Auszug aus einer Abhandlung welche in der Sitzung der Königl. Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin vom 14. Dec. 1820 vorgetragen wurde," JCPM, 32 (1821), 27–38
"Ueber den Magnetismus der galvanischen Kette," JCPM, 57(1823), 21-36.
397
G.W. Muncke, "Theorien von Transversalmag- netismus," in Gehler's Physikalisches Wörterbuch (11 vols., Leipzig, 1825–1845) 7, 625–647.
398
H.C. Oersted, "Experiments on the effect of a current of electricity on the mag- netic needle," Annals of philosophy, 16 (1820), 273–276.
399
Seebeck (ref. 396), 298.
C.H. Pfaff, Der Elektro-Magnetismus, eine historisch-kritische Darstellung der bisherigen Entdeckungen auf dem Gebiete desselben, nebst eigenthümlichen Versuchen (Hamburg, 1824), 121.
400
Seebeck (ref. 396), 296.
401
Ibid., 337, 291.
402
Seebeck (ref. 91).
403
Ibid., 11.
404
H. Davy, "On the laws of chemical changes," in Davy, Collected works (ref. 47), 4, 43–140.
405
Seebeck (ref. 396), 289, 334.
406
Oersted, "Thermo-electricity," in The Edinburgh encyclopedia; conducted by Da- vid Bremter (Edinburgh, 1830), quoted in K. Meyer, ed., H.C. Oersted. Scientific papers (3 vols., Copenhagen, 1920) 2, 357.
Ansicht der chemischen Naturgesetze (1812), in Meyer, 2, 35– 169, on 99.
407
Oersted (ref. 398), 275.
408
Oersted, "Neuere Electro-Magnetische Versuche," JCPM, 29 (1820), 364–369
Meyer (ref. 406), 2, 219.
409
Seebeck (ref. 396), 308.
410
Ibid., 308–309.
411
Ibid., 311.
412
Ibid., 325.
413
Ibid., 334.
414
DSB, s.v. "Ampere."
415
Seebeck (ref. 396), 334.
416
"Zur Farbenlehre. Didaktischer Teil," § 334, §361 (LA, I: 4, 113, 123).
417
Seebeck (ref. 396), 337.
418
Ibid., 343.
419
Ibid., 318, 319, 324.
420
Ibid., 299.
421
Ibid., 345.
C.H. Pfaff, "Galvanismus," in Wörterbuch (ref. 397) 4, 554–1011, on 601–613.
422
Seebeck, "Magnetische Polarisation der Metalle und Erze durch Temperatur- Differenz," Akademie der Wissenschaften, Berlin, Abhandlungen 1822–1823 (printed in 1825), 265–273.
Ostwalds Klassiker der exakten Wissenschaften, Nr. 70 (Leipzig, 1895).
423
Ibid., 318.
424
Ibid., 266.
425
Oersted, "Thermo-electricity," in Meyer (ref. 406), 2, 384.
426
Seebeck (ref. 422), 273.
427
Edmond Hoppe, Geschichte der Elektrizität (Leipzig, 1884), 241.
428
Seebeck (ref. 422), 293–294.
429
Ibid., 296–297.
430
Ibid., 292.
431
Ritter to Oersted, 20 May 1803, in Harding (ref. 24), 2, 34.
432
Seebeck (ref. 91), 8.
433
Seebeck (ref. 422), 328–329.
434
Ibid., 334.
435
Ibid., 340.
436
Ibid., 341.
437
Oersted, Ansicht der chemischen Naturgesetze (ref. 406), 110–111, and 115.
438
L. Pearce Williams, The origins of field theory (New York, 1966), 46–48
439
Zur Farbenlehre, Didaktischer Teil, LA, I: 4, 205.
440
Seebeck (ref. 422), 372.
441
N. Nordenskiöld to Berzelius, 21 Nov 1820, in Söderbaum (ref. 229), 5:11, 33.
442
Mitscherlich to Berzelius, 30 May 1827, ibid., 6:13, 96.
443
Nordenskiöld to Berzelius (ref. 441), 34.
444
Seebeck to Goethe, 25 Apr 1812, in Bratranek (ref. 1), 2, 322.
445
Seebeck (ref. 422), 265.
446
Oersted to his wife, 2 Dec 1822, in M. Oersted, Breve (ref. 22), Anden Samling, 31.
447
Oersted to his wife, 4 Apr 1823, ibid., 59.
448
Oersted, "Nouvelles experiences de M. Seebeck sur les actions electro- magnetiques," Annales de chimie et de physique, 22 (1823), 199–201.
449
Oersted, "Sur quelques nouvelles experiences thermoelectriques faites par M. le baron Fourier et M. Oersted," Annales de chimie et de physique, 22 (1823), 375–389.
450
Ibid., 385–387.
451
Oersted to his wife (ref. 447), 59.
452
Oersted (ref. 449), 385.
453
Seebeck (ref. 422), 292.
454
ibid., 291
455
Ibid.
456
Berzelius to Nordenskiöld, 24 Apr 1823, in Söderbaum (ref. 229), 5:11, 65
Poggendorff (ref. 2), 34.
457
Proces verbaux (ref. 332), 8, 320, 322.
458
E. Crawford, "Learning from experience," in Faraday rediscovered (Basingstoke 1985), 211–228
G.N. Cantor, "Reading the book of nature: The relation between Faraday's religion and his science," ibid., 69–82.
D. Gooding, "In nature's school: Fara- day as an experimentalist," ibid., 105–136.
459
Gooding, ibid., 107.
460
Crawford (ref. 458), 222.
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