[Footnotes]

[Footnotes]
1
Thomas G. Manning, The U.S. Coast Survey vs. Naval Hydrographie Office: A nineteenth century rivalry in science and politics (Tuscaloosa, 1988), esp. chapt. 4
Gre- gory A. Good, "Geomagnetics and scientific institutions in 19th century America," The American Geophysical Union, Transactions (EOS), 66 (1985), 521–526.
2
H. Closs, "Die geophysikalische Reichsaufnahme und ihre Vorgeschichte,** in H. Birett, K. Heibig, W. Kirtz, and U. Schmuker, eds., Zur Geschichte der Geophysik: Festschrift zur 50jährigen Wiederkehr der Gründung der Deutschen Geophysikalischen Gesellschaft (Berlin, 1974), 115–130
D. Voppel, "Hundert Jahre Erdmagnetischer Dienst in Norddeutschland," ibid., 139–148
M. Eschenhagen, Bestimmung der erdmag- netischen Elemente an 40 Staionen im nordwestlichen Deutschland (Berlin, 1890)
R. Bock, F. Burmeister, and F. Errulat, Magnetische Reichsvermessung 1935 (Berlin, 1948).
3
John Servos, "To explore the borderland: The foundation of the Geophysical La- boratory of the Carnegie Institution of Washington," HSPS, 14 (1983), 147–185
Robert Multhauf and G.A. Good, A brief history of geomagnetism and a catalog of the collec- tions of the National Museum of American History (Washington, D.C., 1987)
Louis Bauer, "The general magnetic survey of the Earth," American Geographical Society, Bulletin, 46 (1914), 481–499
J.A. Fleming, "Geomagnetic secular variations and sur- veys," The Physical Society, Proceedings, 58 (1946), 213–247.
4
Anonymous, "Gulf Oil," Fortune, 16 (Oct 1937), 78–88
5
Alex Roland, "Science and war," Osiris (1985), 247–272, on 262
L.A. Bauer, "First report on the magnetic work of the Department of Terrestrial Magnetism at New London, Conn., October 11 to November 17, 1917," 28 Nov 1917 (CIW, DTM. Misc. 1904–17.1).
6
CIW, DTM departmental archives, "Navy"
7
S.L. Seaton, "Geophysical Institute, University of Alaska," Journal of geophysical research, 55 (1950), 100–101
E.H. Vestine Papers (DTM departmental archives, Alaska Correspondence); and RF, RG 1.1, series 202, 1/1–2.
8
Vestine Papers (CIW, DTM departmental archives, Navy Correspondence 1940– 45, NOrd-392).
9
Robert Muir Wood, The dark side of the Earth (Boston and Sydney, 1985)
Director's Files, 1936–48 (Scripps Institution of Oceanography, Archives, 82–106, box 1)
Walter M. Elsasser, Memoirs of a physicist in the atomic age (New York, 1978), chapt. 9.
10
IEB, series 1:2, 559/552–553
French In- stitut de Physique du Globe, IEB series 1:2, 34/475
Warren Weaver, "Diary," 1933, 1105 (RF)
Henry B. Bigelow, "Report of the Committee on Oceanography of the National Academy of Sciences with recommendations," (1927), in RF, RG 1.1, series 200, 153/1882.
11
"The Rockefeller Foundation/Agenda for Special Meeting," 11 Apr 1933 (RF, RG 3.1, series 900, 22/168. Pro–23), 31.
12
Vacquier (ref. 4).
13
Weaver to Lauder W. Jones, 18 Nov 1932 and 26 Jan 1933
Weaver to F.B. Hanson, 20 Apr 1933 (all in RF, RG 3, series 915, 1/1).
14
Ref. 11, 81–83.
15
Ibid., 87.
16
Vilhelm Bjerknes, Leipzig-Bergen. Fetvortrag zur 25-Jahrfeier des Geophysikal- ischen Instituts der Universität Leipzig (Braunschweig, 1938)
Zeitschrift für Geo- physik, 14 (1938), 49–62.
17
Herman Credner, "Das Paläontologische Institut und die Erdbebenwarte," in Festschrift zur Feier des 500 Jährigen Bestehens der Universität Leipzig, 4:2 (Leipzig, 1909), 123–130
Ludwig Weickmann, "Der Umbau des Leipziger Seismographen und die in den Jahren 1925, 1926 und 1927 aufgezeichneten Erdbeben," Berichte über die Verhandlungen, 80 (1928), 385–496, on 385–389
Ibid., 389
Weickmann to Rockefeller Foundation, 29 Sep 1933 (both in RF*).
18
Regierungseaurat (name illegible) to Weickmann, 31 May 1935, Ob- servatory Archives.
19
Jones to Weaver, 26 Jan 1933 (RF*)
Weickmann to Saxon Minister of Educa- tion, 14 June 1932, Observatory archives."
20
Jones to Weaver, 26 Jan 1933
Jones to Weickmann, 28 Oct 1932 (RF*).
21
Jones to Weaver, 26 Jan 1933
Weickmann to Rockfeller Foundation, 29 Sep 1933 (RF*).
22
Weaver to Jones, 14 Mar 1933 (RF*).
23
Jones to Weaver, 22 Feb 1933 (RF, RG 3, series 915, 1/1)
Weaver and Jones, "Log of European tour," 3 May to 13 June 1933 (RF, RG 12.1, Weaver, "Di- ary").
24
Weaver diary, 28 and 29 May 1933, 48–52.
25
Ibid., 50.
26
Ibid., 50.
27
Ibid., 51.
28
Ibid., 51–52.
29
Ibid., 52.
30
Jones to Weickmann, 5 Jul 1933
Jones to Weaver, 30 Oct 1933
Weickmann to Rockefeller Foundation, 29 Sep 1933 (all in RF*).
31
Haurwitz to Weaver, 28 Sep 1933 (RF*).
32
Weaver to Haurwitz, 30 Sep 1933
Jones to Weaver, 30 Oct 1933
Jones to Weickmann 30 Oct 1933 (all in RF*).
33
Jones to Weaver, 15 Nov 1933
Minister of Education von Seydewitz to Weickmann, 8 Nov 1933 (RF*).
34
Kristie Macrakis, "Wissenschaftsförderung durch die Rockefeller-Stiftung im 'Dritten Reich.' Die Entscheidung, das Kaiser-Wilhelm-Institut für Physik finanziell zu unterstützen, 1934–39," Geschichte und Gesellschaft, 12 (1986), 348–379.
Weickmann for $17,500, or 50,000 RM (RF*).
35
Ibid., 359–361
J.L. Heilbron, The dilemmas of an upright man: Max Planck as spokesman for German science (Berkeley, 1986), 94–96, 161–164, 175–179
Alan Beyer- chen, Scientists under Hitler: Politics and the physics community in the Third Reich (New Haven and London, 1977).
36
Macrakis (ref. 35), 355–358, 362–369.
37
Jones to Weaver, 15 Nov 1933 (RF*).
38
Staff conference minute, 1 Dec 1933 (RF*).
39
Mason to George K. Strode and to Selskar M. Gunn, both 18 Dec 1933 (RF*).
40
Weaver to Weickmann, 22 Dec 1933
Weickmann to Weaver, 7 Jan 1934
Weaver, "Diary," 21 Mar 1934 (all in RF*).
41
Weaver to Weickmann, 25 Apr 1934 (RF*).
42
Tisdale, "Diary," 12 Jun 1934 (RF*).
43
Macrakis (ref. 35), 359–360.
44
Tisdale to Weickmann, 26 Jun 1934 (RF*)
Brigitte Schroeder-Gudehus, "The ar- gument for the self-government and public support of science in Weimar Germany," Minerva, 10 (1972), 537–570, on 543.
45
"Report of the Committee on Appraisal and Plan," 11 Dec 1934 (RF, RG 3, series 915, 4/29).
46
G.W. Kenrick (p. 1)
Ludwig Weickmann (pp. 96–100)
Victor F. Hess (pp. 110–111, 114–115)
Perry Byerly (pp. 168–169)
Benito Gutenberg (p. 181)
L.B. Slichter (p. 221)
V. Bjerknes (pp. 6–8)
T. von Karman and C. Millikan (p. 14)
R.A. Millikan (pp. 25–26)
J. Bjerknes (p. 32)
A.L. Day (p. 149).
47
RF, RG 1.1, series 200, 140/1731–35 (Bridgman project)
RG 1.1, series 418D, 2/11–12 (Apia Observatory, Somoa)
RG 1.1, series 200, 1/1 (auroral station in Fair- banks).
48
RF, RG 1.2, 27/193–197.
49
Richard M. Field to Frank Blair Hanson (Associate Director, Rockefeller Foun- dation), 14 Mar 1944 (RF, RG 1.1, series 200D, 124/1532)
RF RG 1.1, series 200D, "American Geophysical Union, 1943–47."
50
"Tentative divisional reports on the postwar program of the Rockefeller Founda- tion (To be discussed at officers' conference)," RF, RG 3, series 900, 23/175.
51
Weaver to L.H. Adams (President, American Geophysical Union), 5 May 1947 (RF, RG 1.1, series 200D, 124/1532).
52
P. Mildner, "Die instrumenteile Ausrüstung des Observatoriums," Geophysiches Institut, Leipzig, Veröffentlichungen, 10 (1938), 45–59
53
Heinz Lettau, "Die erdmagnetische Anomalie bei Reudnitz und ihre geophys- ikalisch-geologische Deutung," ibid., 83–89
R. Lauterbach, "Geomagnetische Unter- suchungen an Lamprophyrgängen in der Lausitz," ibid., 90–104
P. Mildner, "Mag- netische Messungen im Gebiete der Schwarzenberger Anomalie," ibid., 105–123.
54
Vilhelm Bjerknes (ref. 16), 61–62.
55
R. Penndorf, "Notes on Collm Observatory," Journal of geophysical research, 54 (1949), 78–79.
Dr Schminder (letter to Good, 6 Apr 1990)
56
Prof Dr Schweitzer (Rector, University of Leipzig) to Faculty, 25 June 1945
Weickmann to Schweitzer, 31 Oct 1945, Observatory archives.
57
Mason to Gunn, 18 Dec 1933 (RF, RG 3, series 915, 4/29).
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