[Footnotes]

[Footnotes]
1
J.L. Heilbron, "Volta's path to the battery," in G. Dub- pernell and J.H. Westbrook, eds., Selected topics in the history of electrochemistry (Princeton, 1978), 39–65.
G. Polvani, Alessandro Volta (Pisa, 1942), chapt. 8.
2
Polvani (ref. 1), 443
Heilbron (ref. 1)
3
VO, 2, 339.
4
[L. Galvani], Dell'uso e dell'attività dell'arco conduttore nelle contrazioni dei muscoli (Bologna, 1794).
M. Pera, La rana ambigua. La controversia sull'elletricità animale tra Galvani e Volta (Tu- rin, 1986).
5
W.D. Hackmann, "Eighteenth century electrostatic measuring devices," Istituto e Museo di Storia della Scienza, Florence, Annali, 3 (1978), 3–58
Hackmann, "The relationship between concept and instrument design in eighteenth-century experimental science," Annals of science, 36 (1919), 205–224.
6
VE, 3, 294.
7
VO, 1, 495–496.
8
VO, 1, 412.
9
Ibid.
10
VO, 1, 493n.
11
Ibid., 469, 473
ibid., 398.
12
PT, 78, (1788), 406–407.
13
VO, 1, 497.
14
Ibid., 499–500.
15
Ibid., 506.
16
Ibid., 166.
17
Ibid., 134, 137, 139, 238.
18
Ibid., 489.
19
Ibid., 263.
20
Ibid., 284.
21
Ibid., 463.
22
Ibid., 464.
23
Ibid., 545.
24
Ibid., 305.
25
Ibid., 304.
26
Ibid., 456–457.
27
Ibid., 475.
28
Ibid., 485–486.
29
T. Cavallo, A complete treatise on electricity, (3 vols., London, 1795), 3, 76f.
30
Ibid., "Of the method of manifesting the presence, and ascertaining the quality, of small quantities of natural or artificial electricity," PT, 78 (1788), 1–22, on 8.
31
A. Bennet, "An account of a doubler of electricity, or a machine by which the least conceivable quantity of positive or negative electricity may be continually doubled, till it becomes perceptible by common electrometers, or visible in sparks," PT, 77 (1787), 288–296.
32
Cavallo (ref. 29), 98f.
33
Ibid., 105.
34
W. Nicholson, "Description of an instrument which renders the electricity of the atmosphere and other weak charges very perceptible, without the possibility of an equivocal result," Journal of natural philosophy, chemistry, and the arts, 1 (1797), 16– 18
W. Nicholson, "Observations" on T. Cavallo, "On the multiplier of electricity," ibid., 394–399.
35
VE, 3, 349.
36
VO, 1, 443.
37
VO, 1, 439.
38
Galvani, Memorie sull'elettricità (Bologna, 1797).
39
A. von Humboldt, Expériences sur le galvanism (Paris, 1799), original German ed. (1797).
40
VO, 1, 517–555.
41
W.C. Walker, "Animal electricity before Galvani," Annals of science, 1 (1937), 84–113.
42
VO, 1, 559.
43
Ibid., 205–299.
44
Ibid., 3–4.
45
Ibid., 19.
46
Isaac Newton, Opticks, 4th ed. [1730] (London, 1931), 353–354.
47
VO, 7, 341.
48
LB. Cohen, "Introduction" to L. Galvani, Commentary on the effects of elec- tricity on muscular motion (Norwalk, 1953), lOf.
49
VO, 4, 457.
50
VO, 1, 8–12.
51
VO, 4, 453–457.
52
G. Mangili, "Autobiografia," Biblioteca Civica di Bergamo, ms. 79.R.8, f.ll.
53
VO, 1, 364.
54
Ibid., 125.
55
Ibid.
56
A. Scarpa, Tabulae neurologicae (Pavia, 1794), 6.
57
G. Mangili, De systemate nerveo hirundinis, lumbrici terrestris, aliorumque Vermi- um (Offprint, 1795), 249–261.
58
VO, 1, 340.
59
Ibid., 341.
60
Felice Fontana in A. von Haller, Mémoires sur les parties sensibles et irritables du corps animal (Lausanne, 1760), 207–208.
61
M. Girardi, "Saggio di osservazioni anatomiche intorno agli organi elettrici della torpedine," in Memorie di matematica e fisica della Società Italiana, 3 (1786), 553–570, 566.
62
VO, 7, 341.
63
Ibid., 339.
64
Ibid., 340.
65
VE, 3, 412–418.
66
J. Walsh, "Of the electric property of the torpedo," PT, 63 (1773), 461–480, on 476.
67
VO, 7, 340.
68
VMS, J 45.
69
VO, 7, 540.
70
Ibid., 551–552.
71
VMS, J 53.
72
VE, 3, 440
ibid., 436.
73
Ibid., 438f.
74
Ibid., 376–378.
75
Ibid., 466.
76
W. Nicholson, "Observations on the electrophore, tending to explain the means by which the torpedo and other fish communicate the electric shock," Journal of natural philosophy, chemistry, and the arts (1797),1, 355–359.
77
Ibid., 358–359.
78
VMS, H47, J54, J55, J56, J57, J67, J68.
79
Hackmann (ref. 5).
80
note 20
81
VO, 1, 285.
82
VMS, J 87B
VO, 2, 369.
VO, 2, 10.
83
D.J. DeSolla Price, "Of sealing wax and string," Natural history, 93 (1984), 49– 56.
85
A. von Humboldt, "De Tirritabilité de la fibre nerveuse et musculaire," Journal de physique, Prairial an VI (May 1798), 465–474, on 470.
86
G. Tabarroni, "Galvani, Aldini e la corrente elettrica," Istituto Technico In- dustriale Aldini-Valeriani, Annuario (1971), 43–54.
87
VO, 1, 572.
88
VO, 2, 62–63.
89
VMS, H 48.
90
Ibid., J 82.
91
VO, 2, 62.
92
R.J. Haüy, Traite élèmentaire de physique (2 vols., Paris, 1803), 2, 47–48.
93
Jean Noel Halle, "Esposition abregée des principales espériences répétées par M. Volta, en présence des commissoires de l'Institut national," Societe Philomatique, Bul- letin des sciences, 3, Nivose an X (Dec 1801), 74–80 and planche 4.
94
VO, 1, 205–299.
95
W. Nicholson, "Account of the new electrical or gal- vanic apparatus of Sig. Alex. Volta, and experiments performed with the same," Journal of natural philosophy, chemistry, and the arts, 4 (1800), 179–187, 181.
96
F.L. Holmes, Lavoisier and the chemistry of life. An exploration of scientific creativity (Madison, 1985), chapt. 18.
97
Pera (ref. 4), et passim.
98
ref. 34.
J.L. Heilbron, "A. Volta," in DSB, 14, 69–82.
99
J.L. Heilbron, Electricity in the 17th and 18th centuries (Berkeley, 1979), 431
Price (ref. 83).
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