[Footnotes]

[Footnotes]
1
Steve Heims, John von Neumann and Norbert Wiener (Cambridge, 1980), 482, n. 27
James Hershberg, "'Over my dead body': James B. Conant and the hydrogen bomb," to appear in E. Mendelsohn, P. Weingart, and M. Roe Smith, eds., Science, technology, and the military (Boston, 1989), 38–48.
2
Allen Brown, The legacy of Hiroshima (Garden City, 1962), 13–14
Teller to Leo Szilard, 2 Jul 1945, Gertrud Weiss Szilard and Spencer Weart, eds., Leo Szilard: His version of the facts (Cambridge, 1978), 208–209.
3
Bethe, sworn testimony, "Statement of Hans Bethe," attached to Bethe to Samuel Silverman, 18 Mar 1954, BP, box 12, file, "Oppenheimer case."
4
Hawkins, 'Toward Trinity," in D. Hawkins, E.C. Truslow, and R.C. Smith, Pro- ject Y: The Los Alamos story (Los Angeles, 1983).
5
JCAE report, "Policy and progress in the H-bomb program: A chronology of lead- ing events," 5, Records of JCAE, RG 128, NA.
6
Ibid.
7
Bethe, "Comments on the history of the H-bomb," Los Alamos science, 3 (Fall 1982), 44
Bethe, in AEC, In the matter of Oppenheimer (Washington, D.C., 1954), 325
Teller, Better a shield than a sword (New York, 1987), 70–71
Teller, in AEC, ibid., 710–711.
8
Teller to Richard C. Tolman, 6 Oct 1944, file 471.6 (Super), LAR.
9
Oppenheimer to Tolman, 20 Sep 1944, in AEC (ref. 7), 954–955.
10
Fermi to Tolman, 30 Oct 1944, Tolman files, box 6, OSRD, RG 227, NA.
11
Tolman, chairman, "Report of Committee on Postwar Policy," 28 Dec 1944, Tolman files, box 6, OSRD Records.
12
Bush and Conant to Secretary of War, 30 Sep 1944
"Salient points concerning future international handling of subject of atomic bombs," and "Sup- plementary memorandum giving further details concerning military potentialities of atomic bombs and the need for international exchange of information," both 30 Sep 1944, HB, 77, Records of the MED, RG 77, NA.
Barton J. Bernstein, "The quest for security: American Foreign policy and international control of atomic energy, 1942–1946," Journal of American history, 60 (1974), 1003-1009
Bernstein, "Roosevelt, Truman, and the atomic bomb, 1941–1945: A reinterpretation," Political science quarterly, 90 (Spring 1975), 26–32
Martin J. Sherwin, A world destroyed (New York, 1975), 86–116.
13
Conant to Bush, 9 May 1945
Conant, "Possibilities of a super bomb," 20 Oct 1944, in ibid.
14
Interim Committee, minutes, 31 May 1945, HB 100, RG 77, NA.
15
Oppenheimer (for the Panel) to George Harrison, 16 June 1945, BC.
16
Ibid.
17
Ibid.
18
Ibid.
19
Conant, "Notes on the 'Trinity' test held at Alamogordo bombing range 125 miles southeast of Albuquerque [New Mexico] 5:30 a.m. Monday, July 16," BC
Journal of Jack Hubbard, 16 Jul 1945
20
Teller (ref. 7), 71.
21
Oppenheimer to Secretary of War, 17 Aug 1945, OP.
22
"Proposal for research in the field of atomic energy," report of the Scientific Panel to the Interim Committee, 28 Sep 1945, in AEC, "Thermonuclear weapons pro- gram chronology" (1955), lOff, AEC Records, Department of Energy, Germantown, Maryland.
23
Compton to Henry A. Wallace, 27 Sep 1945, ACP.
24
Ibid.
25
Teller to Fermi, 31 Oct 1945, in LAR.
26
Truslow and Smith, "Beyond Trinity," in Hawkins, Truslow, and Smith (ref. 4), 362.
27
Ibid., 363.
28
Ibid.
29
AEC(ref. 7), 711–713.
30
Truman to Acheson, 7 May 1946, PSF.
"The President's appointments Thursday, October 25, 1945," Truman Li- brary.
31
Bernstein, "Four physicists and the bomb: The early years, 1945–1950," HSPS, 18:2 (1988), 231–251 for more on Oppenheimer in 1945–46.
32
Philip Morrison to Robert Serber, 28 Mar 1946, OP.
33
Ibid.
34
"Report of conference on the Super," LA-575 (unclassified, "sanitized" version), 44. Original version issued 12 June 1946
cover sheet dateline, 16 Feb 1950, Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory.
35
Ibid., 46.
36
ERDA chart to Bernstein (n.d.).
37
Ref. 34.
38
General Advisory Committee (GAC), 2–3 Feb 1947, AEC Records, DOE.
39
Ref. 3.
40
Ref. 38.
41
Fermi, paraphrased in GAC draft minutes, 28–30 Mar 1947, AEC Records, DOE.
42
Original Los Alamos report issued Sep 1948
Military Liaison Committee and the AEC from "Historical statement, Appendix 'B,'" 10 Nov 1949, attached to AEC report to Truman
9 Nov 1949, AEC 262/2, AEC Records, DOE.
43
GAC minutes, 4–6 June 1948, AEC Records, DOE.
44
Ibid.
45
Ref. 42.
Panel on Long Range Objectives, "The long range military objectives in atomic energy," 18 Aug 1948, AEC (ref. 22), 17–19.
46
John J. McCloy, public address extracted in BAS, 3 (Jan 1947), 5
Teller, "How dangerous are atomic weapons?" BAS, 3 (Feb 1947), 35–36.
Tolman told AEC chairman David Lilienthal that McCloy's article, originally in Infantry journal, was "a serious breach of security."
Tolman to Lilienthal, 4 Jan 1947, box 34, Records of the Special Assistant to the Secretary of State for Atomic Energy Matters, Department of State Records, RG 59, NA.
47
Editorial, "Secrets will out," BAS, 6 (Mar 1950), 67–68.
BAS, 6 (May 1950), 138.
48
Compton to Gordon Gray, 21 Apr 1954, ACP.
49
David Lilienthal to Military Liaison Committee, 27 Jul 1949, JCAE report, 20.
50
R. Hewlett and F. Duncan, A history of the United States Atomic Energy Com- mission, vol. 2, Atomic shield, 1947–1952 (University Park, PA, 1969), 374.
51
Teller to Bradbury, 23 Aug 1949, LAR.
52
Teller, "History of the thermonuclear program," 14 Aug 1952
JCAE Re- port, 15.
53
Matthew Connelly, Cabinet meeting minutes, 23 Sep 1949, Connelly Papers, Tru- man Library.
54
David E. Lilienthal, The journals of David E. Lilienthal, 2 vols. (New York, 1965), 2, 580.
55
JCAE minutes, 29 Sep 1949
JCAE(ref. 5), 20–21.
56
Oppenheimer to Lilienthal, 26 Sep 1949, OP.
57
Lilienthal to Oppenheimer, 11 Oct 1949, in AEC (ref. 22), 22a.
58
Lewis Strauss to AEC, 5 Oct 1949, in AEC (ref. 22), 22a.
59
JCAE (ref. 5), 27.
60
Latimer, in AEC (ref. 7), 659.
61
Alvarez interview with Galison, 16 Jan 1988.
62
Bernstein (ref. 31)
Childs, An American genius: The life of Er- nest Orlando Lawrence (New York, 1968), 384–420
J.L. Heilbron, R.W. Seidel, and B.R. Wheaton, Lawrence and his laboratory: Nuclear science at Berkeley, 1931–1961 (Berkeley, 1981), 61–63.
63
Alvarez, in AEC (ref. 7), 775.
64
Memorandum on the Lawrence-Alvarez luncheon, 10 Oct 1949
JCAE (ref. 5), 27.
65
Alvarez, in AEC (ref. 7), 777–778, 781.
66
JCAE (ref. 5), 28–29.
67
Alvarez, in AEC (ref. 7), 782.
68
Lilienthal (ref. 54), 2, 577.
69
Oppenheimer, quoting von Neumann, in AEC (ref. 7), 246.
70
Teller to Technical Council Members, "The Super Bomb and the laboratory pro- gram," 13 Oct 1949, Los Alamos Records.
71
McMahon to AEC, 17 Oct 1949, in AEC (ref. 22), 23.
72
Teller, in AEC (ref. 7), 715
I.I. Rabi, 8 Jan 1976
73
Oppenheimer to Conant, 21 Oct 1949, in AEC (ref. 7), 242–243.
74
Bethe, in AEC (ref. 7), 328.
75
Bethe to Weisskopf, 31 Oct 1949, box 9, file "Fan mail," BP.
76
Sumner T. Pike, Acting AEC Chairman, to Oppenheimer, 21 Oct 1949, in AEC (ref. 22), 22c.
77
Rabi to DuBridge, 13 Dec 1946 and reply, 17 Dec 1946
DuBridge to Conant, 17 Dec 1946 and reply, 20 Dec 1946, file 167.1, DuBridge Papers, Robert A. Millikan Library, California Institute of Technology.
78
Bernice Brode to Oppenheimer, 15 Apr 1954, OP.
79
Hewlett and Duncan (ref. 50), 381–82.
80
Lilienthal (ref. 54), 2, 580–581.
81
Alvarez, in AEC (ref. 7), 785.
83
Alvarez, in AEC (ref. 7), 785–786.
84
Lilienthal (ref. 54), 2, 581
Lilienthal in the published version, but appears in the manuscript diary, 29 Oct 1949, Lilienthal Papers, Seeley Mudd Library, Princeton University.
85
Conant, in AEC (ref. 7), 387.
Hershberg (ref. 1)
86
GAC Report, 30 Oct 1949, AEC Records, DOE.
87
Ibid.
88
Ibid.
89
Bernstein, "The H-bomb decisions: Were they inevitable?" in Bernard Brodie et al, eds., National security and international stability (Cambridge, MA, 1983), 334–336.
91
Hewlett and Duncan (ref. 50), 385.
92
Schilling (ref. 90).
93
Bethe to Samuel Silverman, 18 Mar 1954, box 12, file "Oppenheimer case," BP.
Rabi and DuBridge also testified to Conant's leadership at the crucial October GAC meeting, Tuttle, inter- view with Rabi, 8 Jan 1976
DuBridge, 17 Mar 1976
94
Seaborg to Oppenheimer, 14 Oct 1949, AEC Records, DOE.
Philip Stern with Harold Green, The Oppenheimer case: Security on trial (New York, 1969), 144.
96
John Manley, Diary, 31 Oct 1949, AEC Records, DOE.
97
Lilienthal (ref. 54), 2, 582.
98
Manley (ref. 96), 1 Nov 1949.
99
Teller to John von Neumann, 9 Nov 1949, box 5, von Neumann Papers, LC.
100
"Views of H.D. Smyth," 9 Nov 1949, in AEC (ref. 22), 46–47
Smyth to Strauss, 21 Sep 1953, SP, Herbert Hoover Library, West Branch, IA.
101
"Oversimplification," n.d. (about 9 Nov 1949), SP.
103
K.T. Compton to Truman, 9 Nov 1949
Lewis Strauss, Men and de- cisions (Garden City, 1962), 440.
104
Manley (ref. 96), 15 Nov 1949.
105
Manley (ref. 96).
106
Bradley (for Joint Chiefs of Staff) to Secretary of Defense Louis Johnson, 23 Nov 1949, in Department of State, FRUS, 1, 595–596.
107
Strauss to Truman, 25 Nov 1949, in FRUS, 1, 596–599.
108
McMahon to President Truman, 21 Nov 1949, in FRUS, 1, 588–595.
109
GAC Minutes, 2–3 Dec 1949
AEC (ref. 22), 60–63.
110
Hartley Rowe to Oppenheimer, 3 Dec 1949, quoted in AEC (ref. 22), 63–64.
111
Fermi to Oppenheimer, 3 Dec 1949, quoted in AEC (ref. 22), 64–65.
112
DuBridge to Lilienthal, 5 Dec 1949, group 184, box 8, file "hydrogen bomb," Records of the Office of the Secretary of Defense, RG 330, NA.
113
Ibid.
114
Ibid.
115
Ibid.
116
Bethe, "The hydrogen bomb," BAS, 6 (Apr 1950), 99–104
"The hydrogen bomb: II," Scientific American, 182 (Apr 1950), 21.
117
Szilard, draft of 9 Nov 1949, in Helen Hawkins et al., eds., Toward a livable world: Leo Szilard and the crusade for nuclear arms control (Cambridge, 1987), 76–78.
118
Truman to Sidney Souers, NSC Executive Secretary, 19 Nov 1949, FRUS, 1 587–588
Hewlett and Duncan (ref. 50), 394.
119
Bernstein (ref. 79), 338–346.
120
R. Gordon Arneson, "The H-bomb decision," Foreign service journal, 46 (May 1969), 29.
121
Schilling (ref. 90).
122
Oppenheimer to George Kennan, 17 Nov 1949, OP.
123
Kennan, draft to Secretary of State, 18 Nov 1949, Atomic Energy lot files, Department of State Records, Department of State.
Department of State Records, RG 59, NA.
124
Nitze, draft, 19 Dec 1949, Nitze Files, Policy Planning Staff Papers, Depart- ment of State Records, NA.
125
Lilienthal (ref. 54), 2, 613–614.
126
Acheson, memorandum to file, 19 Jan 1950, Acheson Papers, Truman Library
FRUS (1950), 1, 511–512.
127
Truman to McMahon, 5 Jan 1950, PSF
AEC Minutes, 5 Jan 1950, AEC Records, DOE
McMahon to Truman, 3 Jan 1950, PSF.
128
Strauss to McMahon, 17 Apr 1950, SP.
129
McMahon to Truman, 18 Jan 1950
Truman to McMahon, 19 Jan 1950, PSF.
130
Bradley to Secretary of Defense, "Request for comments on military views of members of General Advisory Committee," 13 Jan 1950.
FRUS (1950), 1, 503–511.
131
Acheson, memorandum to file, 19 Jan 1950, Acheson Papers, Truman Library; printed in FRUS (1950), 1, 511–512.
132
New York Times, 28 Jan 1950, 1 (Baruch)
29 Jan 1950, 1 (Connally): 23 Jan 1950, 3 (Wherry)
Philadelphia inquirer, 31 Jan 1950, 1 (Tydings).
133
Compton, "Let the people decide!" BAS, 6 (Mar 1950), 74–75
134
Urey, "Should America build the H-bomb?" BAS, 6 (Mar 1950), 72–73
135
Lilienthal (ref. 54), 2, 622
Lilienthal, diary, 28 Jan 1950, Lilienthal Papers.
136
Dean, "Sequence of events leading to the decision on the 'super' bomb," n.d. (after 27 Jan 1950 but before the Truman decision of 31 Jan), AEC Records, DOE.
137
Lilienthal (ref. 54), 2, 623–632
Special Committee of the NSC, Report, 31 Jan 1950, App. C, FRUS (1950), 1, 518.
138
Truman, statement of 31 Jan 1950, Public papers of the presidents of the United States: Harry S. Truman, 1950 (Washington, 1965), 138.
Lilienthal may
Lilienthal (ref. 54), 2, 625.
139
Polls of 28 Jan-2 Feb 1950, in The Gallup poll: Public opinion, 1935-1971 (New York, 1972), 2, 888.
140
Truman to Lilienthal, 31 Jan 1950, AEC Records, DOE.
141
Directives of AEC, 11 Mar 1950 and 17 Mar 1950
BAS, 6 (May 1950), 132.
142
Lilienthal (ref. 54), 2, 633
Oppenheimer, in AEC (ref. 7), 83.
143
Bacher to Oppenheimer, 8 Feb 1950, OP.
144
Oppenheimer, in transcript of "Mrs. Franklin D. Roosevelt's simulcast on Sun- day, [12 Feb] 1950, 4:00 PM EST, over NBC network," Lilienthal Papers.
145
Szilard, draft, 1 Feb 1950, in Hawkins et al. (ref. 117), 79
Pauling to Szi- lard, 1 Feb 1950, SzP.
146
Szilard, unpub. draft, "We got to go on," 6 Mar 1950, SzP.
147
University of Chicago roundtable discussion, 26 Feb 1950, in SzP, and reprint- ed as "The facts about the hydrogen bomb" in BAS, 6 (Apr 1950), 107–109.
148
Lilienthal, in New York Herald Tribune (about 1 Mar 1950)
Szilard reply, ibid., 4 Mar 1950
BAS, 6 (Mar 1950), 109, 126-129.
149
S.K. Allison, KT. Bainbridge, et al., "Let us pledge not to use H-bomb first!"
BAS, 6 (Mar 1950), 75.
150
Otto Nathan and Heinz Norden, eds., Einstein on peace (New York, 1968), 522.
151
Ibid., 519–522.
152
ref. 144
153
Lilienthal diary, 14 Feb 1950, LP.
154
Bethe to Weisskopf, 14 Feb 1950, and response, 9 Mar 1950, box 9, file "Fan mail 1938–1950," BP.
155
Bethe (ref. 116)
Manley (ref. 102)
Conant (ref. 21), respectively.
156
Pauling in New York Times, 14 Feb 1950, 16.
157
Pauling to Szilard, 1 Feb 1950, SzP.
158
Urey to Michael Amrine, 5 Apr 1950, UP.
159
J. Edgar Hoover to Tolson, Ladd, and Nichols, 1 Feb 1950, Doc 65-58805-586, Julius Rosenberg (Fuchs) Files, FBI Records
H. York, The advisors: Oppenheimer, Tell- er and the Superbomb (San Francisco, 1976), 69
160
Hoover to Tolson, Ladd, and Nichols, 2 Feb 1950, Doc 65-58805-587, Rosen- berg (Fuchs) Files, FBI Records.
161
Lilienthal (ref. 54), 634
Lilienthal, diary, 2 Feb 1950, LP.
162
AEC minutes, 3 Feb 1950
AEC press release, n.d. (3 Feb 1950), both in AEC Records, DOE.
163
New York Times, 4 Feb 1950, 1
New York, Mirror, 1 Feb 1950
New York, Daily News, 4 Feb 1950
New York journal American, 5 Feb 1950
164
Robert C. Williams, Klaus Fuchs, atom spy (Cambridge, 1987), 153.
165
State-Defense Policy Review Group, Minutes, 27 Feb 1950, in FRUS (1950), 1, 168–175, on 173.
166
Ad Hoc Committee to the JCS, "Evaluation of effect on Soviet war effort result- ing from the Strategic Air Offensive," 11 May 1949, Naval Archives, Naval History Center (Washington, DC)
Weapons Systems Evaluation Group to Joint Chiefs of Staff, "Report on evaluation of effectiveness of Strategic Air Operations," 10 Feb 1950, JCS 1952/11, in 384.5 Russia (25 Oct 48) TS file, AF/OPD RG 341, NA.
Journal of American history (June 1979)
Bernstein, review of Blumberg and Owens, Energy and conflict: The life and times of Edward Teller (New York, 1976) in BAS, 34 (May 1978), 52–53.
167
Gallup (ref. 139), 2, 888
Public opinion quarterly, 14 (Summer 1950), 372
168
Conant, State-Defense Policy Review Group, minutes, 2 Mar 1950, FRUS (1950), 1, 176–182 (esp. 182)
Bethe to Bernstein, 18 Jul 1984.
169
Hoover to Tolson, Ladd, Nichols, 10 Mar 1950, Doc 65-58805-611, Rosenberg (Fuchs) case, FBI Records.
170
Teller, "Back to the laboratories," BAS, 6 (Mar 1950), 71–72.
171
Bethe to Bradbury, 14 Feb 1950, Los Alamos Records.
172
Teller to Robert Karplus, to J.M. Luttinger, and to Oppenheimer, all 17 Feb 1950, OP.
173
N.E. Bradbury to Brig. Gen. James McCormack, typescript of teletype sent 27 Mar 1950, 12:22 pm, Smyth Papers, Box: "Coh-Los Alamos;" files "Los Alamos Sei Lab 1949–1954," American Philosophical Society Libary.
174
Bradbury to McCormack, 27 Mar 1950.
175
Ibid.
176
Ibid.
177
Bradbury to Alvarez, 25 Mar 1950, box "Coh-Los Alamos," file, "Los Alamos 1949–1954," Smyth Papers.
178
Teller to Borden, 13 Apr 1950, JCAE records.
179
Borden to McMahon, 11 May 1950, JCAE records.
180
"'If Game," n.d. (about 1970), Conant Papers.
"Minutes of business session," 25 Apr 1950, Records of National Academy of Sci- ences, National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C.
181
Bethe, in AEC (ref. 7), 330–331.
182
S.M. Ulam, Adventures of a mathematician (New York, 1976), 216–217.
183
E.M. Sandoval to Emilio Segre, 17 Dec 1985 on LA 1158 "Considerations on thermonuclear reactions," 26 Sep 1950, courtesy of Segre.
184
Ulam(ref. 182), 216.
185
Ibid.
186
P. Galison and P. Hogan, 1987.
187
Hewlett and Duncan (ref. 50), 527–528
GAC Minutes, 10–13 Sep 1950, AEC Records, DOE.
188
Hewlett and Duncan (ref. 50), 529–530
GAC Minutes, 30 Oct–1 Nov 1950, AEC Records, DOE.
189
JCAE report, 56.
190
GAC report, 23 Sep 1950
JCAE (ref. 5), 56–57.
191
GAC report, 1 Nov 1950
JCAE (ref. 5), 57–58.
192
JCAE (ref. 5), 58.
193
JCAE (ref. 5), 52.
194
Truman, press conference, 30 Nov 1950, in (ref. 138), 727.
195
Roger M. Anders, ed., Forging the atomic shield (Chapel Hill, 1987), 91.
196
Hewlett and Dun- can (ref. 50), 530–531
Strauss, draft memorandum for the President, 5 Feb 1951, SP
Richard Pfau, No sacrifice too great: The life of Lewis L. Strauss (Char- lottesville, 1984), 131–132.
Alvarez, in AEC (ref. 7), 788–789
197
Strauss, draft memorandum (ref. 196.).
198
Dean, "Memorandum of conversation with Lewis Strauss," 12 Feb 1951, AEC Records, DOE
Anders (ref. 195), 117.
199
Dean, unpublished diary, 9 Feb 1951, AEC Records, DOE, paraphrasing conversation with de Hoffmann.
200
Dean (ref. 198).
201
Wheeler to Oppenheimer, 14 Nov 1950
letter of 22 Dec 1950, OP
202
Wheeler to Shenstone, 8 Jan 1951, Lyman Spitzer Papers, Princeton University Archives.
203
Ibid.
204
Wheeler to Lawrence, 12 Apr 1951, LP.
205
Ref. 202.
206
Wheeler to Feynman, 29 Mar 1951, Richard P. Feynman Papers, file 3.10, Cali- fornia Institute of Technology.
207
Ibid.
208
Ibid.
209
Teller, "The work of many people," Science, 121 (25 Feb 1955), 271–273
Tell- er, "Shield" (ref. 7), 79
Ulam (ref. 182), 219–220.
210
JCAE(ref. 5), 62.
211
Bethe to Dean, 23 May 1952, CD 471.6, Office of the Secretary of Defense Records, RG 330, NA.
212
JCAE(ref. 5), 62.
213
Oppenheimer in AEC (ref. 7), 81.
214
Teller "Shield" (ref. 7), 80.
215
AEC (ref. 7), 720
Blumberg and Owens (ref. 166), 275–278
Hewlett and Dun- can (ref. 50), 544–545.
216
GAC minutes, 11–13 Oct 1951, AEC Records, DOE.
217
Oppenheimer in AEC (ref. 7), 81.
218
Oppenheimer in AEC (ref. 7), 85
Bradbury in ibid., 480.
219
Ulam (ref. 182), 223
Dean to Harold Urey, 17 Apr 1952, UP.
220
Harold Urey to Dean, 24 Apr 1952
Urey to the President, 2 June 1952, UP.
221
Special Agent in Charge (SAC), San Francisco, to Director, FBI, on "J. Robert Oppenheimer internal security—R," 5 Apr 1952, Doc 100-17828-273, Oppenheimer Files, FBI Records.
222
Pitzer to Truman, 4 Apr 1952, Official File (OF) 692B, Truman Library.
223
Latimer to Truman, 29 May 1952, OF 692B, Truman Library.
224
Daniels to Truman, 16 June 1952, OF 692B, Truman Library.
225
Conant Diary, 9 May 1952, Conant Papers, Pusey Library, Harvard University.
226
Borden to McMahon, 28 May 1952, box 2, Records of the JCAE (ref. 5).
227
Garrison North to Finletter, "Dr. J. Robert Oppenheimer," 1 Jul 1952, Doc. 100-1728-1118, Oppenheimer Files, FBI Records. The Vista report (subtantially declassified) is in Modern military records, NA.
David Elliot, "Pro- ject Vista and nuclear weapons in Europe," International security, 11 (Summer 1986), 163–183.
228
Conant Diary, 14 June 1952.
229
Hoover to Sidney Souers, 18 June 1952, Doc 100–17828–317, Oppenheimer Files, FBI Records.
230
W.A. Branigan to A.H. Belmont, "Dr. J. Robert Oppenheimer internal security—R," 10 June 1952, Oppenheimer Files, FBI Records.
SAC, Albuquerque, to Director, FBI, 26 May 1952, Doc 100–17828–313
"Dr. J. Robert Oppenheimer internal security—R," 27 May 1952, Doc 100–17828-[illegible numbers], Oppenheimer Files, FBI Records.
231
Teller memorandum, 14 Aug 1952
JCAE (ref. 5), 78–80, on 79–80.
232
Panel of Consultants, "The timing of the thermonuclear text," n.d. (probably Sep 1954), FRUS (1952–54), 2, 994–1008.
Vannevar Bush to Conant, 29 Mar 1954, Bush Papers, LC.
233
Smyth to Executive Secretary, NSC, 18 Sep 1952, PSF 202.
234
Bernstein (ref. 79), 344–346, 349–351.
235
Anders (ref. 195), 226–231.
236
York (ref. 159), 84–85, 99–100
AEC (ref. 7), 329–330, 333, 340
Lilienthal in ibid., 400–401.
John McPhee, The curve of binding energy (New York, 1974)
237
Strauss to William Borden, 10 Dec 1952, SP.
238
Strauss to Eisenhower, 7 Aug 1953, SP.
239
Strauss, statement of 20 Aug 1953, in BAS, 9 (Jul 1953), 236.
240
Strauss, oral history, 138–139
J.A. Waters to Strauss, 12 May 1954, AEC Records, DOE.
241
Rabi to Strauss, 24 Aug 1953, SP.
242
Cole to Eisenhower, 21 Aug 1953, FR US (1952–54), 2, 1185–1188.
243
York (ref. 159), 89–92.
244
Compton to White House, 31 Mar 1954, Official File 108A, Eisenhower Li- brary.
245
NSC Minutes, 6 May 1954, FRUS (1952–54), 2, 1423–1428.
246
NSC Minutes, 27 May 1954, FRUS (1952–54), 2, 1455.
247
NSC Minutes, 23 June 1954, FRUS (1952–54), 2, 1469–1472.
248
York(ref. 159), 94–110.
249
Blumberg and Owens (ref. 166), 364–365, 380.
250
Compton to Gordon Gray, 21 Apr 1954, ACP.
251
Bernstein, "In the matter of J. Robert Oppenheimer," HSPS, 12:2 (1982), 228– 233
252
Teller in AEC (ref. 7), 710, 714, 726–727
SAC, Albuquerque to Director, FBI, "Dr. J. Robert Oppenheimer," 27 May 1952, FBI Records.
253
James Shepley and Clay Blair, Jr., The hydrogen bomb (New York, 1954).
254
Newsweek (18 Oct 1954), 88.
255
Norris Bradbury, Statement in Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory press release, 24 Sep 1954, Enrico Fermi papers, University of Chicago. Capitals in original.
256
Bethe, quoted in Blumberg and Owens (ref. 166), 370.
257
Ibid., 374–376.
258
Bethe to Teller, 30 Nov 1954, Teller Papers.
259
Bethe, "Memorandum on the history of the thermonuclear program," 28 May 1952, AEC Records, DOE.
260
Franck to Teller, 16 Nov 1954, James Franck Papers, University of Chicago.
Teller to Strauss, quoted in Blumberg and Owens (ref. 166), 375–376.
261
Teller, "The work of many people," Science, 121 (25 Feb 1955), 267–275
Teller "Shield" (ref. 7), 66-84, on 75
Teller, "Seven hours of reminiscences," Los Alamos science, 7 (Winter/Spring, 1983), 190–195
Bethe (ref. 7)
Bethe, Los Alamos science, 3 (Fall 1982), 43–53.
262
Bernstein (ref. 89), 343–351.
263
Nathan and Norden (ref. 150), 526.

General Bibliography

General Bibliography
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Anders, Roger, ed. Forging the atomic shield: Excerpts from the office diary of Gorden Dean (Chapel Hill, 1987).
Arneson, R. Gordon. "The H-bomb decision," Foreign service journal (May 1969), 27–29
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