[Footnotes]

[Footnotes]
1
A. Heerding, Geschiedenis van de N.V. Philips' Gloeilampenfabrieken, Deel I: Het ontstaan van de Nederlandse Gloeilampen Industrie ('sGravenhage, 1980), 133. Translated as: The history of N.V. Philips' Gloeilampenfabrieken (Cambridge, 1986).
2
A. Heerding, Geschiedenis von de M. V. Philips' Gloeilampenfabrieken; Deel II: Een onderneming van vele markten thuis ('sGravenhage, 1986), 48, 67.
3
A. Garrat, "The story of the Philips Laboratory at Eindhoven 1914–1946: The reign of Gilles Holst" (Unpublished manuscript, PCA), vol. 1, 21–23.
4
Heerding (ref. 2), 175
P.J. Bouman, Anton Philips (Amsterdam, 1956), 60.
5
M. de Haas, Speech at the Technical University Delft, 8 Jan 1934, NTvNk, 1 (1934), 91–99, on 93.
Heerding (ref. 2), 385f.
6
N.A.J. Voorhoeve, "Het Natuurkundig Laboratorium der N.V. Philips' Gloeilam- penfabrieken," P, 4 (1924), 345–366, on 348.
de Haas (ref. 5), 94
Garrat (ref. 3), 88.
7
B. van der Pol, "Physische toepassingen der triode," P, 1 (1921), 97.
8
Garrat (ref. 3), 65.
10
J.H.F.M. Schopman, "Philips' Antwort auf die neue Halbleiterära, Germanium und Silicium," Technikgeschichte, 50 (1983), 146–161, on 149.
11
G. Böhme, W. van den Daele, and W. Krohn, "Die Verwissenschaftlichung von Technologie," in G. Böhme et al., eds., Die gesellschaftliche Orientierung des wissen- schaftlichen Fortschritts (Frankfurt, 1978), 339–376.
12
G. Meyer-Thurow, "The industrialization of invention: A case study from the German chemical industry," Isis, 73 (1982), 363–381, on 365f.
13
L.S. Reich, The making of American industrial research: Science and business at GE and Bell, 1876–1926 (Cambridge, 1985), 12, 25.
14
J.F. Donnelly, "Representations of applied science: Academic and chemical in- dustry in late nineteenth-century England," SSS, 16 (1986), 195–234, on 208.
15
Reich (ref. 13), 13ff., 28
Donnelly (ref. 14), 207.
16
L. Hoddeson, "The emergence of basic research in the Bell Telephone System, 1875–1915," TC, 22 (1981), 512–544, on 527.
17
Donnelly (ref. 14), 206f.
18
Meyer-Thurow (ref. 12), 368f.
Reich (ref. 13), 145.
19
Donnelly (ref. 14), 206f.
20
Hoddeson (ref. 16), 524
Reich (ref. 13), 61.
21
Hoddeson (ref. 16), 522.
22
A.A. Bright, The electric lamp industry: Technological change and economic development from 1800 to 1947, 179f.
L.S. Reich, "Irving Langmuir and the pursuit of science and technology in the corporate environment," TC, 24 (1983), 199– 221, on 209.
23
Meyer-Thurow (ref. 12), 368
Donnelly (ref. 14), 212
Reich (ref. 13), 34, 40.
24
G. Wise, Willis Whitney, General Electric and the origin of U.S. industrial research (New York, 1985), 72.
25
Meyer-Thurow (ref. 12), 367.
26
Wise (ref. 24), 412
Wise, "Ionists in industry: Physical chemistry at General Electric, 1900–1915," Isis, 74(1983), 7–21, on 12.
27
Reich (ref. 13), 61.
28
Wise, 'Tonists" (ref. 26), 13
Reich (ref. 13), 66.
29
Hoddeson (ref. 16), 532.
30
Meyer-Thurow (ref. 12), 370.
31
Meyer-Thurow (ref. 12), 375–380.
32
Wise (ref. 24), 76.
33
Reich (ref. 13), 86.
34
Ibid., 82, 102.
35
Reich (ref. 13), 95, 107.
36
Reich (ref. 13), 95, 107.
37
Heerding (ref. 1), 149, 154.
38
Garrat (ref. 3), 38
Heerding (ref. 2), 263, 384f.
39
Bouman (ref. 4), 83
Heerding (ref. 2), 385.
40
G. Holst, "Industrielaboratoria," P, 10 (1930), 33–46, on 34.
41
Reich (ref. 13), 205, 210.
42
Garrat (ref. 3), 38–40, 180
Heerding (ref. 2), 211, 279, 375.
43
Garrat (ref. 3), 40
Holst to A. Fokker, 30 Nov 1913 (PCA, 62At/mZ Prof. Dr. G. Holst).
44
PCA, 811:65 Halfgeleiders (1953–1966).
45
Holst (ref. 40), 34, 40, 44f.
46
W. de Groot, "Wetenschappelijk onderzoek bij de N.V. Philips' Gloeilampfabrie- ken 1891–1951," Philips technisch tijdschrift, A? (1951), 99–144, on 102
Garrat (ref. 3), 202.
47
Garrat (ref. 3), 204f.
48
Holst (ref. 43).
49
Garrat (ref. 3), 112, 172.
50
H.B.G. Casimir, in Philips Koerier, 29 Jul 1981.
52
J. Schopman, "The position and function of independent research in an indus- try," SSS, forthcoming; Hoddeson (ref. 16), 528.
54
Garrat (ref. 3), 214f.
55
H. Bienfait, "Management policy of the Philips Research laboratory," Research management, 3 (1960), 201–215, on 210
E.J. W. Verwey, Veertig jaar research (Eindho- ven, 1955), 17. Cf. De Groot (ref. 46), 129
Hoddeson, "The discovery of the point- contact transistor," HSPS, 12 (1981), 41–74.
56
G. Wise, "A new role for professional scientists in industry: Industrial research at General Electric," TC, 21 (1980), 408–429, on 428.
57
N.A.J. Voorhoeve, "Over de organisatie van wetenschappelijk onderzoek" (1928), 9 (unpublished ms, PCA, Library 192).
59
Holst (ref. 40), 44f.
63
Ref. 60.
64
E. Braun and S. MacDonald, Revolution in miniature (Cambridge, 1978), 68
J.C. van Vessem, 26 Aug 1981.
65
Romeyn (ref. 61).
67
Heerding (ref. 2), 141.
68
Sterkstroom, 5 (1927), 82f.
69
PCA, 75:811.65 Halfgeleiders (1953–1956).
70
G. Verbong, De ontwikkeling van de transistor bij Philips (Eindhoven, 1981), 114f.
H.B.G. Casimir, Haphazard reality: Half a century of science (New York, 1983), 229.
71
Heerding (ref. 1), 218, 411
Verbong (ref. 70), 68–70.
73
L.S. Ornstein, "Daadwerkelijke samenwerking tusschen de Universiteit, de Technische Hoogeschool en de industrie," Sterkstroom, 5 (1927), 79.
74
Hoddeson (ref. 55), 47.
75
NTvNK, 1 (1931), 193
P.W. Haayman, "Zwarte keramiek," Natuurkundige voor- drachten, 12 (1954), 59–67
Garrat (ref. 5), 196.
76
Frits Philips, 45 jaren met Philips (Rotterdam, 1976), 80ff.
77
Verwey (ref. 55), 20.
78
H.B.G. Casimir, "In memorian G. Holst," NTvNK, 35 (1969), 41–51, on 44.
79
J.H.F.M. Schopman, "The Dutch contribution to barrier-layer semiconductors in the pre-germanium era," Janus, 69 (1982), 1–28.
80
NL Patents, Westinghouse, 19973 (18 Mar 1926)
21635 (30 Jan 1926)
23974 (29 Apr 1927).
81
F. de Boer, "Some characteristics of trigonal selenium crystals obtained from the vapour phase," PRR, 2 (1947), 349–351
"On the electrical properties of selenium cry- stals," ibid., 352–356
L.M. Nijland, Some investigations on the electrical properties of hexagonal selenium (Thesis, Amsterdam, 1954), reported in PRR, 9(1954), 259–294.
82
NL Patents, Süddeutsche Apparate Fabriken, 32855 (4 Dec 1928).
83
J.H.F.M. Schopman, "The Philips contribution to theory and application of sem- iconductor oxides (1935–1950)," Janus, 70(1983), 129–145.
84
Haayman (ref. 75), 59–67, on 59.
85
Hoddeson (ref. 55), 53.
86
Verbong (ref. 70), 85–89.
PCA, El 1.34, "van der Spek e.a. Nijmegen," 1 Jan 1956–1 Jan 1960
PCA, Dl 1.34, "Mogelijkheden en Moeilijkheden," 1 Jan 1956–1 Mar 1960.
87
G. Böhme, W. van den Daele, and W. Krohn, "Die Finalisierung der Wissen- schaft," Zeitschrift für Sociologie, 2 (1973), 128–144.
88
J. Ravetz, Scientific knowledge and its social problems (Harmondsworth, 1973), 364f
89
Böhme (ref. 87).
91
Braun and MacDonald (ref. 64), 57f
J. Schopman, 'The history of semicon- ductor electronics-a Kuhnian story?," ZAWT, 12 (1981), 297–302.
92
Heerding (ref. 2), 9–46.
93
Garrat (ref. 3), 78f.
94
Casimir (ref. 78), 48
Casimir (ref. 70), 236.
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