[Footnotes]

[Footnotes]
1
Allan Cox, ed., Plate tectonics and geomagnetic reversals (San Francisco, 1973), 3.
2
LG. Gass, Peter J. Smith, and R.C.L. Wilson, eds., Understanding the Earth, 2nd ed. (Sussex, 1972), 9.
3
S.W. Carey, convenor (Hobart, 1958)
Earth (New York, 1976).
A.A. Meyerhoff and Howard A. Meyerhoff, "The new global tectonics: Major inconsistencies," AAPGB, 56 (1972), 269–336.
4
Eduard Suess, The face of the Earth, trans. Hertha B.C. Sollas (Oxford, 1904– 1909).
Mott T. Greene, Geology in the nineteenth century (Ithaca, 1982), 167–191.
5
Henry Thomas De la Beche, A geological manual, 3rd ed., (1835), 490
Greene (ref. 4), 99.
6
Dirk J. Struik, The origins of American science (New York, 1948), 160
D.C. Gil- man, The life of James Dwight Dana (New York, 1899).
7
Cornelius Hurlbut, Jr. and Cornelis Klein, Manual of mineralogy, 19th ed. (New York, 1977).
8
James D. Dana, "On the volcanoes of the moon," American journal of science, 52 (1846), 335–355, on 353.
9
Ibid., 353, 355.
10
Bailey Willis, "Principles of paleogeography," Science, 31 (1910), 241–260, on 243.
11
Greene (ref. 4), 192–220.
12
G. B. Airy, "On the computation of the effect of attraction of mountain masses as disturbing the apparent astronomical latitude of stations in geodetic surveys," Royal Society of London, Philosophical transactions, 145 (1855), 101–104.
J.H. Pratt, "On the deflection of the plumb-line in India caused by the attraction of the Himalaya moun- tains and of the elevated regions beyond; and its modification by the compensating effect of a deficiency of matter below the mountain mass," ibid., 149 (1859), 779–796.
13
Philip Lake, "Wegener's displacement theory," GM, 59 (1922), 338–346.
14
William Bowie, Isostasy (New York, 1927)
Greene (ref. 4), 240–242.
15
Lawrence Badash, Radioactivity in America (Baltimore, 1979)
Joe D. Burchfield, Lord Kelvin and the age of the Earth (New York, 1974).
16
Alfred Wegener, The origin of continents and oceans, 4th ed., trans. John Biram (New York, 1966)
17
F.B. Taylor, "Bearing of the Tertiary mountain belt on the origin of the Earth's plan," Geological Society of America, Bulletin, 21 (1910), 179–226
"Movement of continental masses under action of tidal forces," Pan-American geologist, 43 (1925), 15–50
W.K. Pickering, "The separation of continents by fission," GM, 61 (1924), 31– 34.
18
Greene (ref. 4), 106–109.
19
Ursula B. Marvin, Continental drift: The evolution of a concept (Washington, D.C., 1973), 54–56.
20
Wegener (ref. 16), 16.
21
Ibid., 17, 21.
22
Ibid., 178–179
23
Ibid., 27.
24
A. Hallam, Great geological controversies (Oxford, 1983), 116.
25
Wegener (ref. 16)
26
Frank Press and Raymond Siever, Earth (San Francisco, 1974), 701.
27
Hallam(ref. 25), 151.
28
Chester R. Longwell, "Some physical tests of the displacement hypothesis," in W.A.J.M. van Waterschoot van der Gracht et al., eds., The theory of continental drift: A symposium (London, 1928), 145–157, on 152.
29
Vincent A. Saull, "Wanted: Alternatives to plate tectonics," Geology, 14 (June 1986), 536.
30
Stephen J. Gould, Ever since Darwin (New York, 1977), 161; Cox (ref. 1), 14
Marvin (ref. 22), 179.
31
Rachel Laudan, "The recent revolution in geology and Kuhn's theory of scientific change," in Philosophy of Science Association, Proceedings, ed. Peter J. Asquith and Ian Hacking (East Lansing, Michigan, 1978), 227–239, on 230.
32
F. Nansen, "The Earth's crust, its surface forms, and isostatic ad- justment," Norske Videnskaps Akademi, Oslo, Mat.-Natur. 12, (1927), 199
Wegener (ref. 16), 44.
33
Michael Ruse, "What kind of revolution occurred in geology?," Proceedings (ref. 31), 240–273, on 252
34
Rollin T. Chamberlin, "Some of the objections to Wegener's theory," in Theory (ref. 28), 83–87, on 86
Longwell (ref. 28), 147.
35
Reginald Aldworth Daly, Our mobile Earth (New York, 1926).
36
Greene (ref. 4), 122–132.
37
John Joly, The surface history of the Earth (Oxford, 1925)
John Joly and J.H.J. Poole, "On the nature and origin of the Earth's surface structure," Philosophical maga- zine, 3 (1927), 1233–1246.
38
W.A.J.M. van Waterschoot van der Gracht, "The problem of continental drift," in Theory (ref. 28), 1–75, on 42.
39
John Joly, "Continental movement," in Theory (ref. 28), 88–89, on 88.
40
William Glen, The road to Jaramillo (Stanford, 1982)
A.A. Meyerhoff, "Arthur Holmes: Originator of the spreading ocean floor hypothesis," Jour- nal of geophysical research, 73 (1968), 6563–6565
Robert S. Dietz, ibid., 6567
H.H. Hess, ibid., 6569
Cox (ref. 1), 15
Henry Frankel, "Arthur Holmes and continental drift," British journal of history science, 11 (1978), 130–150.
41
Burchfield (ref. 15)
(New York, 1974)
Stephen Jay Gould, "False premise, good science," Natural history, 92 (October 1983), 20–26.
42
Arthur Holmes, "Contributions to the theory of magmatic cycles," GM, 63 (1925), 306–329, on 307.
43
Arthur Holmes, "Radioactivity and continental drift," GM, 65 (1929), 236–238, on 237–238.
44
Arthur Holmes, "A review of the continental drift hypothesis," Mining magazine, 40 (1929), 205–209, 286–288, 340–347, quote from p. 346
"The thermal history of the Earth," Washington Academy of Science, Journal, 23 (1933), 169–95.
45
Longwell to Schlichen, 31 Jan 1926 (CSP, 20/173).
46
Hallam (ref. 24), 152
Tjeerd H. van Andel, New views on an old planet: Con- tinental drift and the history of the Earth (Cambridge, 1985), 85–86.
47
Longwell (ref. 35), 145
Bowie to Schuchert, 17 June 1927 (CSP, 19/166).
48
"The origins of continents and oceans," GM, 63 (1926), 181–182, on 181.
49
Tjeerd van Andel, "Plate tectonics at the threshold of middle age," Geologie en mijnbouw, 64 (1984), 337–343.
50
D.B., "Obituary: Prof. Alfred Wegen er," Nature, 127 (1931), 861.
51
I. Bernard Cohen, Revolution in science (Cambridge, 1985), 453.
52
W.B. Wright, "The Wegener hypothesis: Discussion at the British Association, Hull," Nature, 111 (6 Jan 1923), 30–31
J.W. Evans, "The Wegener hypothesis of con- tinental drift," Nature, 111 (24 Mar 1923), 393.
J.W. Gregory, "Continental drift," Nature, 115 (21 Feb 1925), 255–257.
53
Edward Meyrick, "Wegener's hypothesis and the distribution of Micro- Lepidoptera," Nature, 115 (1925), 834–835.
54
Wright (ref. 52), 31.
55
Philip Lake, "Wegener's displacement theory," GM, 59 (1922), 338–346, on 338, 346.
56
"Geological Climates," Nature, 125 (5 Apr 1930), 546.
57
Ursula B. Marvin, 'The British reception of Alfred Wegener's continental drift hypothesis," Earth sciences history, 4 (1985), 138–159.
58
Arthur Holmes, Principles of physical geology (St. Louis, 1965).
59
Van Waterschoot van der Gracht (ref. 38), 1–75.
60
W.A.J.M. van Waterschoot van der Gracht, "Remarks regarding the papers offered by the other contributors to the symposium," in Theory (ref. 28), 197–226, on 210.
61
Bailey Willis, "Continental drift," in Theory (ref. 28), 76–82.
62
Chamberlin (ref. 34), 85
Charles Schuchert, "The hypothesis of continental dis- placement," in Theory (ref. 28), 104–144, on 111.
63
Willis (ref. 61), 80.
64
Schuchert (ref. 62), 114.
65
Joseph T. Singewald, Jr., "Discussion of the Wegener theory" in Theory (ref. 28), 189–193, on 189
Willis (ref. 61), 82.
66
Edward W. Berry, "Comments on the Wegener hypothesis," in Theory (ref. 28), 194–196, on 194.
67
Willis (ref. 61), 82
Singewald (ref. 65), 189–190
Schuchert (ref. 62), 139–140.
68
Chamberlin (ref. 34), 87.
69
Bailey Willis, "Isthmian links," Geological Society of America, Bulletin, 43 (1932), 917–952.
Frank Press included in his textbook (ref. 27), 713
70
Marvin (ref. 19), 114–117
F. Laporte, "Wrong for the right reasons: G.G. Simpson and continental drift," Geological Society of America, Centennial special vol. 1, 1985, 273–285.
71
Marvin (ref. 19), 2, 106.
72
Bailey Willis, address to Sigma Xi, 22 May 1942 (Stanford University archives, Bailey Willis papers, biographical file).
73
W.H. Menard, The ocean of truth: A personal history of global tectonics (Prince- ton, 1986), 208.
74
Glen (ref. 40)
Cecil J. Schneer, ed., Two hundred years of geology in America (Hanover, 1979), 337–353
"The development, reception, and acceptance of the Vine-Matthews-Morley hypothesis," HSPS, 13:1 (1982), 1–39
A. Caplan and H.T. Englehart, eds., Resolution of scientific controversies: Theoretical perspectives on closure (Cambridge, 1985), 312–373.
75
H.H. Hess, "History of the ocean basins," Petrologic studies: A volume to honor A.F. Buddington (Geologic Society of America, 1962), 599–620.
Meyerhoff (ref. 40), 6563, and reply by Deitz (ref. 40), 6567.
76
R.S. Dietz, "Continent and ocean basin evolution by spreading of the seafloor," Nature, 190 (1961), 854–857.
77
Glen (ref. 40), 154–174.
78
A. Cox, R.R. Doell, and G.B. Dalrymple, "Geomagnetic polarity epochs and Pleistocene geochronometry," Nature, 198 (1963), 1049–1051.
79
Fred Vine and Drummond Matthews, "Magnetic anomalies over oceanic ridges," Nature, 199 (1963), 947–949
Lawrence W. Morley, "Early work leading to the explana- tion of the banded geomagnetic imprinting of the ocean floor," EOS, 67 (9 Sep 1986), 665–666.
80
Frankel (ref. 74).
81
Peter Galison, "Bubble chambers and the experimental workplace," in Peter Achinstein and Owen Hannaway, eds., Observation, experiment, and hypothesis in modern physical science (Cambridge, Mass., 1985)
Chicago, 1987
82
Frankel (ref. 74).
83
Albert V. Carozzi, "The reaction in continental Europe to Wegener's theory of continental drift," Earth sciences history, 4 (1985), 122–137, on 131.
84
Cohen (ref. 51), 415.
85
Zeno Switjink, "The objedification of observation: Measurement and statistical methods in the nineteenth century," in Lorenz Kruger, Loraine J. Daston, and Michael Heidelberger, eds., The probabilistic revolution, vol. 1 (Cambridge, Mass., 1988), 261 – 284
86
Martin J.S. Rudwick, The great Devonian controversy (Chicago, 1985)
James S. Secord, Controversy in Victorian geology: The Cambrian-Silvrian dispute (Princeton, 1986).
87
Chester Longwell, "Some thoughts on the evidence for continental drift," Ameri- can journal of science, 242 (1944), 218–231, on 221.
88
Longwell (ref. 28), 146.
89
Bowie to Schlichen, 11 Oct 1928 (CSP, 21/181).
90
Rudwick (ref. 86). 30–34.
91
Holmes (ref. 44), 347.
92
Struik(ref. 6), 47, 153.
93
Daniel J. Kevles, The physicists (New York, 1971), chapt. iv.
94
. Menard (ref. 73), 300.
95
John A. Stewart, "Drifting continents and colliding interests: A quantitative ap- plication of the interests perspective," Social studies of science, 16 (1986), 261–279.
96
Kirtley F. Mather, in Dictionary of scientific biography, s.v. "Daly;" Cortland Auser, ibid., s.v. "Bowie."
97
Theory (ref. 28), 87.
98
Van Waterschoot van der Gracht (ref. 60), 224.
99
Gerald Holton, "Thematic and stylistic interdependence," Thematic origins of scientific thought: Kepler to Einstein (Cambridge, Mass., 1973), 101.
100
Rudwick (ref. 86); Hallam (ref. 24).
101
Marvin (ref. 19), 189–190
Hallam, A revolution in the earth sciences (Ox- ford, 1973), 105–114
Cohen (ref. 51), 446–466
David B. Kitts, "Continental drift and the scientific revolution," AAPGB, 58 (1974), 2490–2496
Henry Frankel, "The non- Kuhnian nature of the recent revolution in the earth sciences," in Proceedings (ref. 31), 197–214
Rachel Laudan, "The recent revolution in geology and Kuhn's theory of scientific change," ibid., 227–239
Michael Ruse, "What kind of a revolution occurred in geology?," ibid., 240–273
Cox (ref. 1), 4–5.
102
Dorothy H. Rayner, The stratigraphy of the British Isles [1967] (Cambridge, 1976), 413.
103
Frankel (ref. 74), 12.
104
Ibid., 13.
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