[Footnotes]

[Footnotes]
1
Barry Miller, "Services to push optical maser effort," AW, 76 (15 Jan 1962), 92– 104.
2
Sy Vogel and Leon Dulberger, "Laser: Devices and systems—Part III," Electronics, 34:45 (10 Nov 1961), 81–82
Aaron Soltes, "Military potential of lasers," The military engineer (Nov–Dec 1962), 416–418.
3
Robert W. Seidel and Michelangelo de Maria, "Lo scienziato e Pinventore. Inizio delfintegrazione sistematica fra scienza e industria in USA durante la prima guerra mondiale," Testi i contesti, 4 (1980), 5–32.
4
Susan Douglas, "The Navy adopts the radio, 1899–1919," in Merrit Roe Smith, ed., Military enterprise and technology change (Cambridge, 1985), 154–170
Elting F. Morison, Men, machines, and modern times (Cambridge, 1962), chapt. 2
Alan T. Wa- terman, "Pioneering in Federal support of basic research,"
John S. Foster, "Catalyzing advances in military technology,"
Horacio Rivero, "Innovating in the support of Naval operations," in F. Joachim Weyl, ed., Research in the service of national purpose (Washington, D.C., 1966), 3–9, 10–13, 14–18
5
Fremont E. Kast and James E. Rosenzweig, eds., Science, technology, and management (New York, 1963).
6
Charles H. Townes, "Masers," in Carl J. Overhage, ed., The age of electronics (New York, 1962), 166.
7
Barry Miller, "Government funds boost laser research," AW, 76 (12 Mar 1962), 229
8
William J. Otting to Joan Bromberg, ca. 30 Oct 1983 (LHP)
Charles Townes, 10 June 1985.
9
Major General August Schomburg to Lieutenant General J.H. Hinrichs, 16 Jan 1962, MICOM History Office (quote)
Hinrichs to Schomburg, 2 Feb 1962, MICOM Directed Energy Weapons Office.
10
Miller (ref. 7), 228.
11
Major General B.K. Holloway, "Required operational capability in space, 1965– 1975," ROC (Required Operational Capability), no. 1, 30 Sep 1960
History of the air research and development command, 1 Jan–31 Mar
Air Force Systems Com- mand, 1 Apr–30 June, 1961, vol. III
Supporting documents (Historical Division, Office of Information, Headquarters, Air Force Systems Command), 62–102260, doc. 1, Air Force History Center, Maxwell AFB, Montgomery, Alabama.
12
"Report of the Air Force Space Study Committee," 20 Mar 1961, in supporting documents (ref. 17), doc. 15, pp. 5, 11.
13
C. Martin Stickley, "Applications of lasers," AFCRL, 64–914 (Nov 1964), 15.
14
Francis T. Byrne, "Optical Masers (LASERS)," Naval research reviews (Oct 1961), 1-7
Arnold Shostak, "Research origins of modern time and frequency control," ibid. (Feb-Mar 1966), 15–25
Rear Admiral L.D. Coates, Chief of Naval Research, ONR, in Symposium on Optical Masers, 16–19 Apr 1963, Proceedings (Brooklyn, 1963), xi (Microwave Research Institute Symposia Series, 13).
15
John Tirman, ed., The militarization of high technology (Cambridge, 1984)
Monte D. Wright and Lawrence J. Paszek, eds., Science, technology, and warfare, Mili- tary Symposium, 3rd, Proceedings (Office of Air Force History, USAF, 1969)
Smith (ref. 4).
James Fallows, National defense (New York, 1982)
Mary Kaldor, The Baroque arsenal (New York, 1981).
16
Gould, S. Jarrett, J. Nuez, M. Piltch, and C. Roth of Technical Research Group, Inc., "Research on properties of laser devices," Final technical report for the period 15 May-15 Nov 1965 (AFOSR 66–2437, AD 803–294)
R. Novick, "Research investiga- tion directed toward extending the useful range of the electromagnetic spectrum," Quar- terly progress report, 8 Dec 1964
DA-36-039-SC-90861
AFDA 28- 043-AMC-60099E, Dec 1964.
17
R.C. Benson, R. Godwin, and M.R. Mirarchi, "A single-pulse ruby laser for rang- ing applications," Army Science Conference, West Point, 20–22 June 1962, Proceedings, 3
"Further investigations of the spinning reflector Q-switch for laser rangefinder appli- cations," Conference of Laser Technology, 1st, Proceedings (1963), 2, 247
Arthur Lu- bin, "Laser rangefinder," ibid., 223–224.
Collins and Kisliuk, "Control of population inversion in pulsed optical masers by feedback modulation," JAP, 33 (1962), 2009– 2011.
18
"Laser," National Electronics Conference, Proceedings, 1961, 156
TRG, Inc., "Research investigations of high peak power laser techniques," Final quarterly program report TRG–188–QR–1 196–4 on Contract DA 36–039 SC–90861, 1 Jul 1962–15 Jul 1964, Dec 1964, AD 452 986.
20
George F. Smith, "The early laser years at Hughes Aircraft Company," IEEE, Journal of quantum electronics, QE–20.6 (1984), 581–582
ML. Stitch and W.W. Buch- man, "Continuous train laser devices," Hughes Aircraft Company, Report no. 3 on Contract DA–36–039–S–88936, May 1962.
21
Malcolm L. Stitch, 'The early years at Hughes—The rest of the story," draft of letter in response to Smith, "Early years" (ref. 20), LHP.
22
Army Electronics Research and Development Activity, White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico, Report TR–2352, Apr 1963.
23
J.P. Ruina, Director, ARPA, "Task order for work to be performed by Institute for Defense Analyses, Task Order T–14: High power radiation techniques," 17 Feb 1961
J.M. Bridges to Keith Brueckner, IDA, re "High power radiation techniques," ARPA Task order T–14, 13 Oct 1961
Albert Weinstein to Eugene Fubini, re "Optical maser radiation weapons study," 21 Dec 1961, DARPA.
25
TRG, Inc., "Proposal to study the properties of laser devices," TRG Proposal P–329, 12 Dec 1958 (LHP).
ref. 10.
26
Air Force Office of Scientific Research, Air Research and Development Com- mand, Contract for Research in the Properties of Laser Devices, AF 49(638)–673, 14 May 1959
M.C. Newstein, and N. Solimene, "Research on properties of laser devices," Final summary report, 1 June 1959–15 Nov 1965 (Oct 1964), in Contract AF 49 (638)–673, AO 256–62, AD 481–501.
27
Lt. Col. Roy C. Weidler, "Meeting on LASER extension," 15 Apr 1960, enclosing "TRG point of view at ARPA-TRG meeting, 20 Apr 1960" (AO 306, DARPA).
28
R.C. Weidler, "Laser program," Memo for the record, 3 May 1961 (DARPA).
29
Culver to Keith Brueckner, 12 Dec 1961 (Culver Papers).
Kantrowitz and S.C. Linn, "Electromagnetically-induced implosion as a weapon for ballistic missile defense," Re- port AERL 61–824 on Contract AF 19 (604)–7458, Oct 1961.
30
William Culver to Albert Weinstein, re "Optical maser radiation weapon," 15 Dec 1961 (Culver Papers).
31
J.M. Bridges to Keith Brueckner, IDA, re "High power radiation techniques, ARPA Task Order T–14," 13 Oct 1961
Weidler to Eugene Fubini, 21 Dec 1961 (DARPA).
32
Ibid.
"Report of the IDA Committee on Optical Maser Radiation Weapons," TN 62–3 on Contract SD50, vol. 1 (Jan 1962), AD 346 862.
33
Jack P. Ruina, Director, ARPA, and Eugene G. Fubini, Deputy Research Direc- tor, to Director, Defense Research and Engineering, re "High power laser technique program for radiation weapons," 19 Jan 1962 (AO 306)
Albert Weinstein, "Memoran- dum for Steering Group on High Power LASER (Project SEASIDE), re Minutes of first meeting," 5 Feb 1962 (AO/Project SEASIDE).
"Introductory Discussion," n.d., AO 306
F.B. Isakson to Culver, 27 Feb 1962 (Culver Papers)
AO 306–362, 8 Feb 1962 (ARPA)
Barry Miller, "U.S. begins laser weapons programs," AW, 76:13 (26 Mar 1962), 41, 43, 45.
W.H. Innes (AO 306)
34
American Optical Co., "Design concept study of a high output power glass laser," Final report RCP 544 on Contract Nonr–378400, Apr 1962, AD 329 677
Hughes Air- craft Co., "Laser design concepts study," Final report 62–15 on Contract Nonr–379200, Apr 1962, AD 329679
E.S. Ley, Westinghouse Electric Corp., "Laser design concept study," Final report on Contract Nonr–378800, Apr 1962, AD 329 743.
35
Hughes, "Laser design" (ref. 34), 14
ONR-Pasadena Monthly activity report, 63–17, Oct 1963, p. 11; 63–18, Oct 1963, pp. 9–10.
36
Irving Rowe, "The ONR laser program," Naval research reviews, 29:12 (1966), 5
R.S. Congleton et al, "Investigation of controlled pulse laser techniques," Final techni- cal report P65–93 on Contract Nonr–392000, AO 306–62 (Aug 1965).
37
C. Gilbert Young and E.O. Dixon, "Pulsed optical device," Final technical report on Contract Nonr–392100, Sep 1964, AD 353 900L
W.E. Berg, Chief of Naval Research, to Director, ARPA, re "ARPA/ONR LASER Program, recommendations for continuation of AO 306 during Fiscal Year 1965,"
ONR:421:FBI:mab, ser. 001434, 2 Oct 1964, enclosure 2,
"Discussion of significant accomplishments of the high power LASER program for fiscal year 1965" (Quelle Papers), p. 2
ONR-Pasadena, Monthly activity report 66–65, May 1966, 14–15.
38
Berg (ref. 37), 1
Petras V. Avizonis and Ronald L. Grotbeck, "Experimental and theoretical ruby laser amplifier dynamics," JAP, 37:2 (Feb 1966), 687–693
P.V. Av- izonis, T.T. Doss, K.C. Jungling, C.W. Bruce, N.D. Morgan, R.L. Grotbeck, "The in- teraction of high-power optical radiation with solids," Technical report AFWL–TR– 65–189 (Jul 1966).
39
Rowe (ref. 36), 5
Westinghouse Electrical Corp., "Optical coherence device," Fi- nal report on Contract Nonr-392200, Dec 1964
"Discussion" (ref. 37), 1.
40
Quelle notebook, 1 May 1962–29 Dec 1966 (Quelle Papers).
41
J.E. Gustaferro to Director, ARPA, 19 Sep 1963, re "ARPA/ONR LASER Pro- gram, Project SEASIDE
42
Rowe (ref. 36), 6.
43
Berg (ref. 37), enclosure 3, p. 11
ONR-Pasadena Monthly activity reports 63–18, Nov 1963, p. 11
63–19, Dec 1963, pp. 16–17
64–4, Apr 1964, p. 6
64–7, Jul 1964, 5
66–5, May 1966, pp. 15–16.
44
Berg (ref. 37), enclosure 3, p. 11
45
"The development of laser glass," ONR-Boston, n.d., pp. 2–4 (Quelle Papers).
46
Richard F. Woodcock, American Optical Co., "Neodymium laser glass improve- ment program," Technical summary report, 5 (Apr 1965), AD 613–963
6 (Aug 1965)
AD 468 063, 598–7 (Oct 1971), AD 737 627, 598–9 (Dec 1971), AD 736–214, 598–10 (Mar 1971), AD 724–302
598–11 (Jul 1971), AD 731–702 on Contract Nonr–3835(00) AO 306
Corning Glass Works, "Glass laser research," Technical report (June 1963)
Semi-annual technical reports, Jan 1964, AD 421–753, June 1964, AD 443–680, on Contract Nonr–3833(00), AO 306
Eastman Kodak Co., "Laser material study," Semi- annual technical reports (Dec 1962)
AD 406 936, (Dec 1963)
AD 442–059, (June 1964), AD 604 433 on Contract Nonr–3834(00), AO 306.
47
Berg (ref. 37), enclo- sure 2
"Radiationless resonance energy transfer from UO^+ to Nd3+ in coac- tivated barium crown glass," APL, 4 (1964), 188
"Energy transfer in silicate glass coac- tivated with cerium and neodymium," PL, 11 (1964), 213
"Energy transfer in silicate glass coactivated with cerium and ytterbium," APL, 5 (1964), 220
"Energy transfer in triply activated glasses," ibid., 6 (1965), 46
ibid., 237
"Laser oscillations in erbi- um activated silicate glass," PL, 16 (1965), 265
"Laser oscillations and self Q-switching in triply activated glass," APL, 7 (1965), 233
"Laser materials research," in NRL progress in high-power laser research, NRL report 6444 (10 June 1966).
48
Rowe (ref. 36), 7
American Optical, "Preparation of platinum-free laser glass," Semi-annual technical report, 1 (Dec 1964)
AD 457–331, 2 (Oct 1965)
AD 471 803, 4 (Dec 1965)
AO 306–62 (Dec 1966).
49
ONR-Pasadena Monthly activity reports 63–17, Oct 1963, pp. 10–12
63–18, Nov 1963, pp. 11–12
Dec 1963, pp. 15–16
May 1964, p. 10
Jul 1964, p. 5.
50
Irving Rowe (ref. 36)
M.M. Plooster, O.H. Nestor, and J.C. Smith, "Progress on Czochralski ruby," Conference on Laser Technology, 2nd, Proceedings (1965), 2, 145–150.
51
Rowe (ref. 36), 8
Berg (ref. 37).
52
Thomas Misa, "Military needs, commercial realities, and the development of the transistor, 1948–1958," in Smith (ref. 4), 253–286
53
J.L. Emmett, A.L. Schawlow (Stanford), and E.H. Weinberg (ONR), "Direct measurement of xenon flashtube opacity," JAP, 35:9 (1964), 2601–2604
O. Svelto, "Pumping power considerations in an optical maser," Stanford University Mi- crowave report 902 on Contract Nonr–225–48 (Apr 1962), AD 275–479.
54
ONR and ARPA, Laser flash lamp conference (Stanford Research Institute, 20 Feb 1964), viii
"Laser flash lamps," Science, 144 (1964), 432–434.
55
C.H. Church, D. Ryan, and J.P. Lesnick, "High energy coaxial laser pumps" ONR and ARPA (ref. 54)
Confer- ence on Laser Technology, 1st, Proceedings (1963), 1, 235–248
hurch, D.A. Larson, and R.G. Young, "Optical pumps for lasers," Quarterly progress report, 1 (Sept 1964), AD 455–403, and 2 (Dec 1964), on Contract DA28 043AMC002923.
C.H. Keller, J.P. Moffat, and G O. Harding, "Laser flash lamp," Semi-annual technical summary reports, (June 1964), AD 613–346, (Nov 1964), AD 615–384, on Contract Nonr–412200.
56
Rowe (ref. 36), 8
Charles H. Church, B.W. Swanson, P. Buchhave, R. Lieber- man, and E. Geil, "Arc discharge sources," Semi-annual report 66–9C1–ARCSO–R2 on Contract Nonr–4647 (00), 15 Apr–Nov 1966.
Smith (ref. 4), 5, 10, 17, 47.
57
W.H. Lupton, H.W. Gandy, A.C. Kolb, and R.C. Elton, "Light sources for laser excitation," Conference on Laser Technology, 1st, Proceedings (1963), 1, 211–214
Kolb, "NRL research in theta pinch and double pulsed lamps," ONR and ARPA (ref. 54)
"Magnetically driven shock waves: Experiments at U.S. Naval Research Laboratory," in Rolf K.M. Landshoff, Magnetohydrodynamics: A Symposium (Stanford, 1957), 76–91
ONR-Pasadena, Monthly activity report 63–17, Oct 1963, p. 11, 63–19, Dec 1963, pp. 16–18, and 64–1
Jan 1964, p. 8.
58
Isakson to Director, ARPA, re ARPA/ONR LASER program, "Recommenda- tions for continuation of AO 306 during fiscal year 1965," 20 Oct 1965
59
John K. Crosby, "Theoretical and experimental feasibility of explosive pumping of lasers," Conference on Laser Technology, 1st, Proceedings (1963), 1, 215–233.
60
J.I. Masters, P. Kafalas, and E.M.E. Murray, "The investigation of passive laser Q-switching," Final report B64–54 on Contract Nonr–412600, Jun 1964, AD 603–115.
61
Rowe (ref. 36), 9
L.A. Cross, "Saturable filter investigation," Final technical re- port on Contract Nonr–412500, Apr 1966, AD 632–007.
62
Joseph P. Chernoch, William S. Martin, and Kiyo Tomiyasu, "Face-pumped laser," Final technical report 2-67–1046 on Contract Nonr–4659(00), Nov 1966, AD 811–967
J.E. Swain, R.E. Kidder, K. Pettiepiece, F. Rainer, E.D. Baird, and B. Loth, "Large aperture glass disk laser system," JAP, 40 (1969), 39–73
J.M. McMahon, J.L. Emmett, J.F. Holzrichter, and J.B. Trenholme, "A glass-disk-laser amplifier," IEEE, Journal of quantum electronics, QE-9 (1973), 992.
63
Gerald Olster, "Organic luminescent materials for optical lasers," Final report on Con- tract Nonr–839(36), Dec 1965
A. Lempicki, H. Samelson, and C. Brecher, "Chelate lasers," Annual technical summary report GT/E–TR–64–052.7 on Contract Nonr- 4134(00), Oct 1964, and Final report TR 66–052.13, Apr 1966
Samelson and R. Koch- er, "High energy liquid laser," Final technical report on Contract N00014–68–C–0110 (1974)
Alexander Lempicki and Harold Samelson, "Liquid lasers," Scientific American, 216 (1967), 81.
Michael E. Gordon and William C. Beattie, "Liquid lasers: Preparation and characteris- tics" (Army Electronics Command, 1968)
ONR-Pasadena, Monthly activity report 64- 17, Oct 1963, p. 9
Lempick and Samuelson, "Stimulated emission in rare earth chelates (europium benzoylacetonate) in a capillary tube," APL, 3 (1963), 117.
64
D.L. Stockman, General Electric Company, "Aromatic organic laser develop- ment," Final report on Contract Nonr–413500, 1965, AD 613–295
D.L. Stockman, W.R. Mallory, and F.K. Tittle, IEEE, Proceedings, 52 (1964), 318
Mario Stockman, Masers and lasers: An historical approach (Bristol, 1983), 160–174.
65
Quelle, "Notebook," 25 Jul 1963 (Quelle Papers).
66
W.J. Turner and H. Rupprecht, "GaAs laser materials study," Final technical re- port on Contract Nonr–413600, May 1965, AD 521–649
G. Mandel and F.F. More- head, "GaAs laser materials study," Semi-annual technical summary report on Contract Nonr–413600, Dec 1963
"II–VI Laser materials study," Final technical summary re- port on Contract Nonr–421600, May 1964, AD 442–258
Berg to Director, ARPA, re ARPA/ONR LASER program (ref. 43), enclosure 3, p. 12.
67
Richard G. Seed and Karl M. Hergenrother, "Research on storage diode lasers," Final technical summary report on Contract Nonr–410602, May 1964, AD 618–297.
68
John F. Asmus, "Advances in laser pumping technology," IDA paper P–713 on Contract DAHC15–67–C–0011, ARPA Assignment 5, Dec 1970, figure 1.
69
K.A. Brueckner, "Penetration of an intense optical beam through the atmo- sphere," IDA note N–23, Feb 1963
Townes, "Comments on self-trapping in the genera- tion and transmission of high-power laser beams," IDA note N–184 (Sep 1964).
70
ONR-Pasadena Monthly activity reports 64–66, Jun 1964, p. 4
64–66, Jun 1964, p. 5
66–5, May 1966, p. 13
66–67, Jul 1966, p. 5
66–10, Oct 1966, p. 5
Berg (ref. 37), enclosure 3, p. 16.
John G. Atwood, "Absorption of light in gases," Semi-annual technical summary report 8011 (Apr 1965), AD 4367 451, on Contract Nonr–466100, AO 306
Zdenek Sekera, "Atmospheric transmission of laser beams," Final technical re- port on Contract Non–233(96), AO 306, Apr 1967, AD 651–388
Bela A. Lengyel, "Analytical studies pertaining to the measurement of light absorption in air," Technical summary report on Contract N00014–66–C–0098, AO 306, (Nov 1967), AD 665 674
Saul Altschuler et al., "High intensity laser propagation in the atmosphere," Semi- annual technical summary report 4535–6003–R0000 on Contract N00014–66–C0022, AO 306, May 1966, AD 634 316
R.W. Minck, et al., "Consideration and evaluation of factors influencing the stimulated optical scattering in gases," Final report on Contract Nonr–4712(11) (Mar 1966), AD 484 898
William G. Wagner, "Instabilities in laser propagation in fluids," Final report USCEE-400 n Contract N00014–67–A–0269–0006, AO 306–62 (Oct 70), AD 718–858.
71
Bertolotti (ref. 66), 97.
73
W.H. Culver and E.J. Seppi, "Characteristics of an ideal Raman oscillator- amplifier," JAP, 35(1964), 3421.
74
"High power Raman laser meeting," 8 May 1964, p. 2 (Quelle Papers), ONR- Boston.
75
Norman M. Kroll, "The stimulated Raman effect in the atmosphere for a multi- frequency high intensity beam," IDA paper P–216, Jul 1965
Culver, V.W.T. Townsend, and J.T.A. Vanderslice, "Controlled generation of intense light pulses in reverse pumped Raman lasers," APL, 12:3 (1 Mar 1968).
76
"Classified appendix," High Power Raman Laser Conference, 2nd, Proceedings (1965), 39 (Quelle Papers).
77
Albert Weinstein to Eugene Fubini, "Air Force proposed high energy coherent radiation research facility," 18 Jul 1962
Weinstein to Harold Brown, Fubini and J. Ruina, "High power laser techniques programs (Project SEASIDE);" ARPA/Project SEASIDE to Innes, 8 May 1962, AO 306.
William Davis to ORDXM-XGR, re "Ordnance corps LASER program, FY '62, FY '63, and FY '64," 30 Apr 1962.
78
Glenn G. Sherwood to Charles H. Townes, 9 Oct 1964 (ARPA/Project SEA- SIDE).
79
W.B. Jennings, Directed Energy Directorate, U.S. Army Missile Command, to William Davis to AMSMI-FRI(SP), re "Laser presentation," 17 Dec 1962
Daniel F. Shepherd to Commanding General, U.S. Army Material Command, re "Summary of Army Missile Command high energy laser program," 9 Jul 1962.
James C. Miller to Commanding General, AMC, re "AMC Commanders conference-high energy laser array," 13 Sep 1963.
Davis, "High energy laser state-of-the-art-1965," Sep 1965
80
W.E. Berg, Assistant Chief for Research, ONR, to ARPA, re "ARPA/ONR funda- mental LASER limitations program (LASER physics): Recommendation for continuing ARPA order 455 during fiscal year 1965," 2 Oct 1964.
ONR and ARPA, Laser physics conference (Des Plaines, 1965).
81
Quelle to Dr Richard Trumbull, re "ONR management meeting," 19 Nov 1964.
Glenn Sherwood to F. Byrne, W. Culver, and Major T. Doss, re "Questions on the ARPA laser program," 13 Oct 1964.
Fred Quelle, "Proceedings of the first CO2 laser radar amplifier contractor's meeting," 1st, Proceedings (Quelle Papers).
82
"ARPA order 306 for fiscal years 1964 and 1965," 24 Sep 1965, ONR Pasadena.
83
F.W. Quelle, Jr., "Thermal distortion of diffraction-limited optical elements," Ap- plied optics, 5:4 (1966), 633.
84
W.R. Bennett, "Problems related to high power gas laser systems," IDA report IDA–HA63–1806 on Contract SD 50, Jul 1963, 104.
A. Javan, W.R. Bennett, Jr., and D.R. Herriott, "Population inversion and continuous optical maser oscillation in a gas discharge containing a He-Ne mixture," PRL, 6:3 (1 Feb 1961), 106–110
Javan, "Possi- bility of production of negative temperature in gas discharges," PRL, 3 (Jul 1959), 87– 89.
85
Ref. 78, 27.
86
C. Kumar, N. Patel, "Lasers—their development and applications at AT&T Bell Laboratories," IEEE, Journal of quantum electronics, QE–20 (1984), 564–567.
F. Horrigan, "High power gas laser research," Raytheon Research Division, report 5-865 on Contract DA–01–021–AMC– 1247, 14 Mar 1966 (AD 637–023).
Helen Brents Joiner and Elizabeth C. Jolliff, Annual histori- cal summary of the Army Missile Command, 1 July 1966–30 June 1967, U.S. Army Mis- sile Command History Office, Redstone Arsenal, Alabama (Nov 1967), 151–152
"MICOM team builds world's longest laser," Army research and development magazine, 8:7 (Jul–Aug 1967), 6.
J.R. Kenemuth, C.B. Hogge, and P. Avizonis, "Thermal blooming of a 10.6-mu laser beam in CO2," APL, 17:5 (Sep 1970), 220.
87
I.R. Hurle and A. Hertzberg, "Electronic population inversions by fluid-mechanical techniques," Physics of fluids, 8:9 (Sep 1965), 1601–1607
Hurle and J.D. Bruckmaster, "The possible production of popu- lation inversions by gasdynamic methods," Cornell Aeronautical Laboratory report RH 1670–A–1, Dec 1962, Hertzberg files.
88
Edward T. Gerry, "Gasdynamic lasers," IEEE, Spectrum (Nov 1970), 51–58.
N.G. Basov and A.N. Oraevskii, "Attain- ment of negative temperatures by heating and cooling a system," Soviet physics JETP, 17 (Nov 1963), 1171–1174.
A.R. Kantrowitz, "Effects of heat capacity lag in gas dynamics," Journal of chemical physics, 10 (Feb 1942), 145
"Heat capacity lag in gas dynamics," ibid., 14 (Mar 1946), 150.
89
Edward T. Gerry, "Pulsed-molecular-nitrogen laser theory," APL, 7:1 (Jul 1965), 6–8
D.A. Leonard and Gerry, "Pulsed nitrogen second positive laser," ibid., 4–5.
Laser focus, 1 (Dec 1965), 19.
90
Gerry and Leonard, "Measurement of 10.6m CO2 laser transition probability and optical broadening cross sections," APL, 8:9 (May 1966), 227–229.
91
J. Wilson, "Nitrogen laser action in a supersonic flow," APL, 8:8 (Apr 1966), 159–161
W.A. Rosser, Jr., and E.T. Gerry, "De-excitation of vibrationally excited CO2*106 (v3)
Journal of chemical physics, 51 (1969), 2286–2287
ibid., 50 (1969), 4996–5008
Gerry (ref. 90).
R.L. Taylor and S. Bitterman, "Survey of vibrational relaxation data for processes important in the CO2-N2 laser system," Review of modern physics, 41 (1969), 26–47.
92
"Reminiscences by A. Hertzberg," p. 6 (LHP).
93
J.L. Walsh to C. Townes, 11 Feb 1966 (Townes Papers, University of California, Berkeley).
94
Hertzberg, "Reminiscences" (ref. 92), 6
Joan Lisa Bromberg, "Engineering knowledge in the laser field," Technology and culture, 27 (Oct 1986), 798–818.
95
Bela Lengyel, Lasers (New York, 1971), 50.
97
Fred Kaplan, The wizards of Armageddon (New York, 1983), chapt. 24
Joseph Goulden and Marshall Singer, "AT&T and the ABM," in Carroll W. Pursell, Jr., ed., The military-industrial complex (New York, 1972), 237–252
M.D. Fagen, ed., A history of engineering and science in the Bell System: National service in war and peace (1925– 1975)
(Bell Telephone Laboratories, 1978), 395-454
Charles E. Hunt, "Guided bombs—Problems of utility and cost," Air Force Operations Analysis Paper 71–72, Feb 1971
Donald L. Ockerman, "An analysis of laser guided bombs in SEA," 7th Air Force, Thailand, Headquarters, Tactical Analysis Division, Air Operations Report 73/4, 28 Jun 1973 (Air Force Historical Research Center, Maxwell AFB).
98
"UTRC and the laser," The researcher (United Technologies Research Center, Oct 1985), 14–15
Defense Science Board, 6 Nov 1968 (United Technologies Corporation Archives)
"Laser progress boosts USAF fund- ing," AW, 92 (12 Jan 1970), 16
"Laser advances may evolve new weapons," AW, 92 (9 Mar 1970), 209, 211
Hearings (Washington, D.C., 1980), 84–86.
99
Philip J. Klass, "Special report: Laser thermal weapons," AW, 97 (14 Aug 1972), 12–15
ibid. (21 Aug 1972), 32–40
"More laser weapons funds sought," AW, 98 (14 May 1973), 12–13
"Research vehicle at Redstone testing capabilities of the laser," AMC (Army Missile Command) News, 2:13 (Oct 1974), 6
"The Department of Defense's (DOD) high energy laser (HEL) program," United States Air Force, Fact sheet, no. 056.79 (May 1979).
100
"Laser weapons: Funding all options," Astronautics & aeronautics, 14 (May 1976), 13–15
101
Benjamin M. Elson, "USAF weapons lab mission expanded," AW, 110 (29 Jan 1979), 212–215
"U.S. nears laser weapons decisions," AW, 113 (4 Aug 1980), 48–54
"Weapons Laboratory aids beam effort," ibid., 56–59.
102
Philip J. Klass, "Navy shifts interest to chemical lasers," AW, 100 (21 Jan 1974), 16–17
"Special report" (ref. 99), 36–39
"Laser weaponry technology advances," AW, 114 (25 May 1981), 65, 68–71.
103
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ref. 101
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107
Ibid., 99.
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