[Footnotes]

[Footnotes]
1
New York Academy of Medicine, Bulletin, 47(1971), 1248–1251.
2
Pieces of the action (New York, 1970), esp. 39, 84, 248, 368.
3
Bush to Conant, 11 Dec 1970 (BP/MIT Archives).
4
A. Hunter Dupree, "The Great Instauration of 1940: The organization of scientific research for war," in G. Holton, ed., The twentieth century sciences: Studies in the biography of ideas (New York, 1972), 443–467
J. Mer- ton England, "Dr. Bush writes a report: "Science, the endless frontier,'" Science, 191 (1976), 41–47
A patron for pure science: The National Science Foundation's forma- tive years, 1945–57 (Washington, 1982)
Daniel J. Kevles, "FDR's science policy," Sci- ence, 183 (1974), 798–800
"Scientists, the military, and the control of postwar defense research: The case of the Research Board for National Security, 1944–1946," Technolo- gy and culture, 16 (1975), 20–47
"The National Science Foundation and the debate over postwar research policy," Isis, 68 (1977), 5–26
The physicists (New York, 1978)
Robert Franklin Maddox, "The politics of World War II science: Senator Harley N. Kilgore and the legislative origins of the National Science Foundation," West Vir- ginia history, 41 (1979), 20–39
Carroll Pursell, "Science agencies in World War II: The OSRD and its challengers," in Nathan Reingold, ed., The sciences in the American con- text: New perspectives (Washington, 1979), 359–378.
5
J.L. Penick, Jr., et al., The politics of American science, 1939 to the present (Chicago, 1965).
6
Waterman, introduction to the reprint of SEF (Washington, D.C, 1960), vii–xxvi.
7
Jewett to Bush, 27 May 1943 (BP).
8
Bradley Dewey, Sr. to Bush, 3 Sep 1944
9
Bush, draft of Oct 1945 (BP/140), 2f.
10
Jewett to Bush, 15 Mar 1941 (BP).
11
Kevles, "The National Science Foundation" (ref. 4).
12
England, Patron (ref. 4), 90–91.
13
Technology review, 47 (January 1945), 162–163.
Endless horizons (Washington, 1946), 179–191
Science is not enough New York, 1967), 11–23
14
Bush (ref. 2), 53–54, 138
"Planning in science," speech of 16 May 1946, 2 (BP/129).
15
Nathan Reingold, "Clio as physicist and machinist," Reviews in American histo- ry, 10 (1982), 264–280.
George Wise, "Science and technology," Osiris, 1 (1985), 229–246.
16
Bush to Compton, 13 Sep 1946, (BP).
17
Address to the Lawrence Scientific School, 31 Mar 1948 (BP/131).
18
Bush(ref. 2), 352.
20
Bush to Jewett, 12 Jul 1938 (BP).
21
Bush (ref. 2), 262–264
Bush (ref. 13), 27–28.
23
"Planning" (ref. 14)
"The scientist and his government," 22 Feb 1946 (BP/128).
24
Bush (ref. 13), 133
Bush (ref. 2), 16–17.
Sam Bass Warner, Jr., Province of reason (Cambridge, U.S.A., 1984), 206.
25
"Science, strength, and stability," address of 8 June 1946, 6 (BP/130)
Bush (ref. 17), 9–10.
26
Price to Parsons, 6 Dec 1946 (Correspondence files, SSRC).
27
Bush (ref. 2), 269–270
Caryl P. Haskins, Of societies and men (New York, 1951).
"The scientist" (ref. 23), 4
Modern arms and free men (New York, 1949).
28
Bush, "Military organization for the United States," 1946–47, esp. 4 (BP).
29
Alex Roland, Model research, The National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, 1915–1958, 2 vols. (Washington, 1985)
30
Bush to Jewett, 2 Oct 1946, (BP).
31
Bush (ref. 2), chapt. 5.
32
Smyth to E.P. Wigner, 10 Jul 1944
A.H. Compton, "Mr. Fermi, the Argonne Laboratory, and the University of Chicago," 28 Jul 1944 (ibid.)
Bush to S.K. Allison, 10 Oct 1945 (Allison Papers, Regenstein Library, University of Chicago).
33
Bush (ref. 2), 50.
34
Bush to C.W. Eliot, 8 Oct 1942 (OSRD/NA, 13/70).
35
A. MacLeish to Bush, 12 Jan 1944
36
Pursell (ref. 4).
37
R.C. Cochrane, The National Academy of Sciences: The first hundred years, 1836–1963 (Washington, 1978)
Hunter Dupree, Science in the federal government (Cambridge, 1957)
Kevles, Physicists (ref. 4).
38
F.B. Jewett to W.B. Cannon, 31 May 1944 (BP)
39
Bush (ref. 2), 43–48.
Bush to John Tate, 8 Feb 1945 (OSRD/NA, 2/3).
John Patrick Swann, "The search for synthetic penicillin during World War II," British jour- nal for the history of science, 16 (1983), 154–190.
42
Jewett to Bush, 6 Jan 1942 (BP).
Jewett to O.E. Buckley, 15 Oct 1942 (BP).
43
R.G. Hewlett and Oscar E. Anderson, Jr., The new world, 1939–1946 (University Park, Pa., 1962).
44
Tuve to R.C. Tolman, 21 Apr 1942 (OSRD/NA, 8/4)
Bush (ref. 2), 106–112.
45
Jewett to Conant, 6 Jul 1942 (BP).
Bush,(ref. 13), 108
Minutes, Advisory Council, 13 Nov 1941 (OSRD/NA, 13/63)
"Analysis of the request of Lt. General Somervell..." 24 Apr 1942 (OSRD/NA, 2/5).
46
"Combat scientists," 24 Jul 1946
47
Jewett to Bush, 29 Oct 1942 (BP)
48
Jewett to W.B. Cannon, 31 May 1944 (BP).
49
Kevles "Research Board" (ref. 4).
50
Jewett to Bush, 23 May 1943 (BP).
51
Irwin Stewart, Organizing research for war (Boston, 1948), chapt. 21.
53
SEF (1960), 1.
O. Cox to I. Stewart, 18 Oct 1944 (OSRD/NA, 13/70).
57
Bush to James Forrestal, 10 Sep 1947 (BP)
ibid., memorandum of conference with Truman, 24 Sep 1947.
58
Science, 98 (1943), 571–573.
59
Bush to Steelman, 4 Apr 1947 (BP)
61
SEF, App. 4
Jewett to Bush, 27 May 1943 (BP).
Bush to W.A. Jessup, 23 May 1944 (ibid.).
62
Bush to O. Ruebhausen, 23 Sep 1946 (BP).
63
Bush wrote D.W. Bronk on 23 Sep 1946 (BP)
SEF, 27f.
Horizons (ref. 13), 82–100
Bush to C.L. Wilson, 15 Jan 1945
Bush to F.G. Fassett, Jr., 3 and 9 Feb 1945
64
Bush, "Memorandum," 14 June 1945 (OSRD/NA, 2/2).
65
Bush (ref. 2), 293.
66
Bush to George C. Marshall, 12 June 1947, (BP)
Bush (ref. 2), 278f, 293.
68
Smith, Diary entries of 31 Aug 1943, 4 and 12 Jan 1945 (SP).
69
Ibid., 23 Mar 1945
Smith, memorandum to Roosevelt, 30 Mar 1945
Minutes, Committee on Federal Government and Research, 21 and 24 Feb 1945 (Records, SSRC).
70
Smith Daily Record, entries of 27 Feb, 23 Mar, 3, 11, and 17 Apr, 2 and 3 May
Smith to Conant, 30 Mar 1945 (SP/17)
Furer, diary entry, 5 May 1945 (Furer Papers, LC).
71
Smith Diary, 4 May 1945
Daily Record, entries of 18 and 30 Apr, 26 and 29 May 1945 (SP)
W.H. Shapley to Smith, 5 Mar 1945 (General Records of Director, Bureau of the Budget, RG 51/39.27, NA).
73
Smith, Diary, 4, 11, and 21 May 1945 (SP).
74
Smith, memorandum to President 27 Apr 1945, in General Records (ref. 71)
Smith, Diary, 21 May, 8 June 1945
Smith, Daily Record, 8 and 13 June, 20 Jul 1945, (SP)
James Forrestal, memo to Truman, 28 Jul 1945 (ibid., Official File 330-C).
Smith to C.L. Wilson 18 Jul 1945, (OSRD/NA, 2/2
Furer, Diary, 22 May 1945 (LC)
75
Smith, Daily Record, 27 Aug 1945, (SP).
76
Smith, Daily Record, 28 Aug 1945, (SP)
Lyman Chalkley, Prologue to the U.S. National Science Foundation (n.p., 1951), 20.
77
Smith, Diary, 19 Mar 1945.
Don K. Price, America's unwritten constitution (Baton Rouge, 1983).
78
Bush to S. Rosenman, 1 June 1945 (Official File 53, Truman Li- brary).
79
Smith, Daily Record, 14 June, 13 and 20 Aug 1945 (SP). Papers, Roosevelt Li- brary.
80
Smith to Bush, 10 Oct 1945 (Official file 53, Truman Library)
Bush to Jewett, 6 Nov 1945
John Snyder, 23 Nov 1945
Snyder to Bush, 30 Nov 1945 (BP)
Smith, Daily Record, 15 Oct 1945 (SP)
Truman to R.P. Patterson, 22 Jul 1945 (President's Secretary's File 112, Truman Library)
81
J. Donald Kingsley, memos to John R. Steelman 31 Dec 1946 and 1 Apr 1947 (Official File 192-E, Truman Library)
Bush to Webb, 27 Dec 1946 and 13 May 1947
G. Rentschler, 28 Jan 1947
Conant to Bush, 28 Jan 1947
Bush to Jewett, 29 Mar 1947
B.M. Baruch, 2 May 1947
P.A. Scherer, memo to Bush, 12 June 1947
Bush to H.M. Shapley, 10 Nov 1947 (BP).
C.A. Calverton, 31 Mar 1947 (BP).
E.B. Wilson to Jewett, 16 June 1947 (Committee on Names for NSF, NRC Policy Files, Archives, NAS-NRC).
82
Cox, memo to Truman, 24 Sep 1945
Cox to Bush, 30 Sep 1945 (Cox Pa- pers, Roosevelt Library)
Bush, "Cancer," 20 Nov 1972 (Bush Papers, MIT).
83
Webb to V. Kennedy, 16 May 1966
Lyndon B. Johnson, 23 May 1960
E.F. Buryan, 18 Jul 1961 (Webb Papers, Truman Library)
Bush to Webb, 18 May 1961 and 11 Apr 1963 (Bush Papers, MIT)
Cox to S. Rosenman, 30 Sept 1944
Bush (ref. 2), 54–55
84
Minutes of Council, 6–7 Apr 1946 (SSRC).
85
Minutes, Committee on the Federal Government and Research, 5 Feb, 14 Apr, 31 May, 25 June, 18 and 28–29 Jul, 24 Nov 1945
Minutes SSRC, 6–7 Apr 1946 (SSRC)
Smith, Daily Record, 23 Jan and 2 Mar 1945 (SP).
86
H.A. Moe to H.D. Smith, 21 Nov 1945
D. Young to P. Herring, 8 Nov 1945
Minutes, Committee on Federal Government and Research, 15 Nov 1946 (SSRC).
87
Bush, "Role of the social sciences in modern society," 10 Dec 1946
Bush to D. Josephs, 12 and 19 Sep and Josephs to Bush, 18 Sep 1946 (BP).
Don K. Price to T, Parsons, 6 Dec 1946 (Correspondence File, SSRC).
88
C.C. Lauritsen to R. Gaither, 9 Dec and reply 13 Dec 1949 (C.C. Lauritsen Pa- pers, 7, Caltech Archives).
89
Bush to Gardner, 14 Feb 1955 (BP).
90
Bush to Jewett, 26 Apr 1946
Jewett to Bush, 7 Aug 1946 (BP).
91
Donald C. Swain, 'The rise of a research empire: NIH 1930–1950," Science, 138 (1962), 1233–1237
H.D. Smith to Elbert Thomas, 14 June 1945 (Official File 7-B, Tru- man Library).
92
"The case for biological engineering," in Scientists face the world of 1942 (New Brunswick, 1942), 33–45.
A.N. Richards to Bush, 11 Feb and Bush's reply of 13 Feb 1947
Bush to K.T. Compton, 25 Jan 1951
"After Hippocrates," 11 Apr 1951 (box 134)
Bush to Gardner, 14 Feb 1955
93
John F. Fulton to Bush, 4 Jan 1944 (OSRD/NA, 13/31).
94
Bush to Jewett, 22 Oct 1946 (BP).
95
Bush to B.M. Baruch, 2 May 1947
John Teeter, memo to Bush 29 Aug 1947 (BP)
H. Shapley to L. DuBridge, 5 Jul 1948, DuBridge Papers, (Caltech Archives).
96
Condon, memo to John R. Steelman, 28 Jul 1947 (Official File 192-E, Truman Library).
97
Bush(ref. 27), 19, 72.
98
Bush, Horizons (ref. 13).
99
Smith to Roosevelt, 17 Mar 1941 (Official File 2240, Roosevelt Library)
Furer, Diary, 14 Apr 1943 (LC)
Bush (ref. 2), 209, 298
L.V. Berkner, 29 Oct 1946, (BP).
100
Bush (ref. 97)
(ref. 2), 118.
(ref.2), 119
Samuel F. Wells, Jr., "Sounding the tocsin: NSC 68 and the Soviet threat," International security, 14 (1979), 116–158.
101
Bush, "Science and war," 1951, 2–3 (BP/134).
Bush to Jewett, 17 Sep 1946
K.T. Compton, 30 Dec 1946
Bush to John Steelman, 4 Apr 1947
102
Bush to C. Wilson, 4 Mar 1949
K.T. Compton, 27 Dec 1948 (BP).
103
Bush (ref. 97), 85f, 96.
"Partnership in military research," address at Wright Field, 1946 (BP/130).
General Omar Bradley, 23 Feb, 6 Mar, and 13 Apr 1950 (BP).
104
Bush (ref. 97), 107, 142–149
Bush (ref. 2), 13.
105
Bush to Conant, 16 Jan 1951 and 29 Mar 1954 (BP)
Robert Divine, Blowing in the wind, the nuclear test ban debate, 1954–1960 (New York, 1978), 16.
106
Bush (ref. 97), 247
107
Weaver, Diary, 8 Dec 1950 (Rockefeller Foundation Archives, North Tarry- town, N.Y.)
Sapolsky (ref. 95)
N. Reingold (ref. 4), 379–399.
108
Bush to C. Dollard, 20 Sep 1951
B.M. Baruch, 3 Dec 1952 (BP).
110
Bush to Stratton, 13 Nov 1953 (BP/85)
111
L.C. Craigie to DuBridge, 25 Mar 1947
DuBridge's in- dignant reply to the Department of Defense, 5 June 1959 (DuBridge Papers/25, 174.3, 175.2, Caltech Archives).
Johns Hop- kins 96 (ibid./175.2).
112
Bush (ref. 97), 128f.
113
Bush to J. Tate, 8 Feb 1845 (General Corres re Reports to President, OSRD/NA)
Bush to L. Cutler, 4 Oct 1944 (BP).
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