[Footnotes]

[Footnotes]
1
J.C. Maxwell, A treatise on electricity and magnetism (2 vols., 3rd. ed., Oxford, 1904), 216–218 (current)
2
Heaviside to Hertz, 13 Jul and 14 Aug 1889 (DM/2924–2925).
3
Jed Z. Buchwald, "The abandonment of Maxwellian electrodynamics: Joseph Larmor's theory of the electron," Archives internationales d'histoire des sciences, 31 (1981), 135–180, 373–438
From Maxwell to microphysics: Aspects of electromagnetic theory in the last quarter of the nineteenth century (Chicago and London, 1985), 141– 173.
4
H.A. Lorentz, "La theorie electromagnetique de Maxwell et son application aux corps mouvants," Archives neerlandaises des sciences exactes et naturelles, 25 (1892), 363–553.
5
Ibid., 463–527.
6
W. Weber, "Ober die Bewegung der Elektricitat in Korpern von molecularer Con- stitution," AP, 156 (1875), 1–61, on 34–41, 49–55.
7
W. Weber, uElektrodynamische Maassbestimmungen. Ober ein allgemeines Grundgesetz der elektrischen Wirkung [1846]," in Weber, Werke, 3 (Berlin, 1893), 25– 214, on 132–136
L. Boltzmann, "Zur Theorie des von Hall entdeckten elektromag- netischen Phanomens," SW, 94 (1886), 644–669, on 645–647.
8
E. Riecke, "Zur Theorie des Galvanismus und der Warme," AP, 66 (1898), 353– 389, 545–581, on 352–356, 569–572.
E. Riecke, "Molekulartheorie der Diffusion und Elektrolyse," ZPC, 6 (1890), 564–572.
9
E. Riecke, "Galvanismus" (ref. 8), on 355–356, 569–571.
Riecke, "1st die metallische Leitung verbunden mit einem Transport von Metallionen?," PZ, 2 (1900– 01), 639.
10
R. Seeliger, "Elektronentheorie der Metalle (1921)," in EMW, 5:2 (Leipzig, 1904–22), 777–878, on 782.
11
E. Riecke, "Galvanismus" (ref. 8), 379–381
E. Riecke, "iCber die Elek- tronentheorie des Galvanismus und der Warme," JRE, 3 (1906), 24–47, on 32–34
Seeliger (ref. 10), 784–785.
12
P. Drude, Physik des Aethers auf elektromagnetischer Grundlage (Stuttgart, 1894)
P. Drude, "Zur Elektronentheorie der Metalle," AP, 1 (1900), 566–613
AP, 3 (1900), 369–402.
13
P. Drude, "Zur Ionentheorie der Metalle," PZ, 1 (1900), 161–165.
14
Drude, "Elektronentheorie" (ref. 12), 568, 584.
15
Drude "Elektronentheorie" (ref. 12), 572.
16
A. Sommerfeld, "Elektronenth[eorie] d[er] Metalle und verwandte statistische Fragen" (AHQP 21:8).
Michael Eckert (ref. 34), 202
E. Riecke, "Uber das Verhaltnis der Leitfahigkeiten der Metalle fur Warme und fur Elektricitat," AP, 2 (1900), 835–842, on 835
"Die jetzigen Anschauungen iiber das Wesen des metallischen Zustandes," PZ, 10 (1909), 508–518, on 509.
17
Drude, "Elektronentheorie" (ref. 12), 573.
L. Boltzmann, Vorlesungen über Gastheorie (2 parts, Leipzig, 1896–1898), 1, 77–80.
18
Drude, "Elektronentheorie" (ref. 12), 577–578.
19
H.A. Lorentz, "Le mouvement des électrons dans les métaux," Archives neerlandaises des sciences exactes et naturelles, 10 (1905), 336–371
LCP, 3, 179–214.
20
W. Jaeger and H. Diesselhorst, "Warmeleitung, Electricitatsleitung, Warmecap- acitat und Thermokraft einiger Metalle," SB (1899), 719–726.
Reichsanstalt from 1887 to 1927
"Über den stationaren Temperaturzustand eines von einem elektrischen Strome erwarmten Leiters," ibid., 711–718.
21
M. Planck, "Über die Elementarquanta der Materie und der Elektrizität," AP, 4 (1901), 564–566.
22
Emil Warburg, "Wahlvorschlag fur Paul Drude," in Christa Kirsten, Hans- Giinther Körber, and Hans-Jürgen Treder, eds., Physiker über Physiker, Wahlvorschläge zur Aufnahme von Physikern in die Berliner Akademie 1870–1929 (2 vols., Berlin, 1975), 1, 164.
23
M. Reinganum, "Theoretische Bestimmung des Verhaltnisses von Wärme- und Elektricitatsleitung der Metalle aus der Drude'schen Elektronentheorie," AP, 2 (1900), 398–403, on 399, 403.
24
J.J. Thomson, Die Korpuskulartheorie der Materie (Braunschweig, 1908), 25–26.
25
J.E. Lilienfeld, "Über neuartige Erscheinungen in der positiven Lichtsaule der Glimmentladung," Deutsche Physikalische Gesellschaft, Verhandlungen, 9 (1907), 125– 135, on 132
"Die Elektrizitatsleitung im extremen Vakuum (Leipziger Habilita- tionsschrift), AP, 32 (1910), 673–738, on 675, 736–737
W. Wien, "Untersuchungen tiber die elektrische Entladung in verdiinnten Gasen," AP, 8 (1902), 244–266
"Über die Natur der positiven Elektronen," AP, 9 (1902), 660–664, on 660.
26
Planck to Wien, 16 Mar 1903 (WWN/5)
Bucherer to H.A. Lorentz, 31 Mar 1912 (LTZ).
27
Wood, "On the existence of positive electrons in the sodium atom," PM, 15 (1908), 274–279.
Jean Becquerel, "On the dispersion of magnetic rotatory power in the neighbourhood of bands of absorption in the case of rare earths;"
ibid., 16 (1908), 153–161, on 155
Lorentz, "give the existence of a positive electron a degree of probability close to certainty."
J. Bec- querel to Lorentz, 11 Jul 1908 (LTZ).
Lilienfeld (ref. 25), 675.
28
J.J. Thomson, "Positive electricity," PM, 18 (1909), 821–845, on 821.
W. Wien, "On rays of positive electricity," ibid., 14 (1907), 212–213
O.W. Richardson, "The specific charge of the ions emitted by hot bodies," 76 (1908), 740–767.
29
J.J. Thomson, "Some speculations as.to the part played by corpuscles in physical phenomena," Nature, 62 (1901), 31–32
"Indications relatives à la constitution de la materière fournies par les recherches recentes sur la passage de l'électricité à travers les gaz," Congrès international de Physique, Rapports, (4 vols. Paris, 1900–1901), 3, 138–150
A. Schuster, "On the number of electrons conveying the conduction currents in metals," PM, 7(1904), 151–157, on 157.
30
P. Drude, "Optische Eigenschaften und Elektronentheorie," AP, 14 (1904), 677– 725, 936–961, on 679, 939.
H.A. Lorentz, "Le phenomene decouvert par Hall et la rotation electromagnetique du plan de polarisation de la lumiere," LCP, 2, 136–163, on 141–142
Lorentz, "Weiterbildung der Maxwellschen Theorie. Elektronentheorie [1903]," EMW, 5:2 (Leipzig, 1904–1922), 145–280, on 222.
31
H.A. Lorentz (ref. 19), 180, 206–208, 214.
32
Riecke, "Anschauungen" (ref. 16), 509
Seeliger (ref. 10), 779.
33
H. A. Lorentz (ref. 19), 103–104, 109, 194.
34
H.A. Lorentz, "On the molecular motion of dissolved substances [1889]," LCP, 6, 112–113
"Sur la théorie moléculaire des dissolutions diluées [1892]," ibid, 114–133
"The methods of the theory of gases extended to other fields [1909]," LCP, 8, 159–182, on 176
The theory of electrons.. A course of lectures delivered at Columbia University, New York, in March and April 1906 (Leipzig, 1909), 10.
35
R. Gans, "Zur Elektronenbewegung in Metallen," AP, 20 (1906), 293–326, on 310
Hertz to Lorentz, 4 and 20 Mar 1908
7 Apr 1911 (LTZ).
36
H. Poincare, "Les rapports de la matiere et de l'éther [1912]," Oeuvres, 9 (Paris, 1954), 669–682, on 670.
37
H. Haga to Comite Nobel pour la physique, Stockholm, 2 Jan 1918 (LTZ).
J. Perrin, "Discon- tinuous structure of matter," Nobel lectures.. .Physics, 1922–1941 (4 vols., Amsterdam, London, New York, 1965), 3, 138–164, on 145.
38
Thomson (ref. 24), 71–75.
39
F. Kruger, "Über die Anwendung der Thermodynamik auf die Elektronentheorie der Thermoelektrizität," PZ, 77 (1910), 800–808
72 (191 1), 360–368.
Planck to Wien, 18 Mar 1908 (WWN).
Baedeker to Richardson, ca. 1912 (ref. 40).
40
K. Baedeker, "Zur Elektronentheorie der Thermoelektrizitat," PZ, 77 (1910), 809–810
K. Baedeker, Die elektrischen Erscheinungen in metallischen Leitern (Braun- schweig, 1911), 91.
O.W. Richardson, "The electron theory of contact electromotive force and thermoelectricity," PM, 23 (1912), 263–278, on 277
Richardson, 11 Feb 1912 (RDN R-000060).
W. Schottky, "Bericht über thermische Elektronenemission," JRE, 72 (1915), 147–205, on 150–167
Seeliger (ref. 10), 836–837.
41
O.W. Richardson, "Thermionic phenomena and the laws which govern them," in Nobel lectures (ref. 37), 3, 224–236, on 226
"The electrical conductivity imparted to a vacuum by hot conductors," Royal Society of London, Philosophical transactions, 201A (1903), 497–549, on 499–503
"Thermionics," PM, 17 1909), 813–833
"Notes on the kinetic theory of matter," PM, 18 (1909), 695–698.
42
H.A. Wilson, "On the discharge of electricity from hot platinum," Royal Society of London, Philosophical transactions, 202A (1904), 243–275, on 258–259.
43
Richardson, "Thermionic phenomena" (ref. 41), 226–227
O.W. Richardson and H.L. Crooke, "The heat developed during the absorption of electrons by platinum," PM, 20 (1910), 173–206
"The absorption of heat produced by the emission of ions from hot bodies," PM, 25 (19L3), 624–643
26 (1913), 472–476.
44
Richardson (ref. 40), 273.
45
O.W. Richardson and F.C. Brown, "The kinetic energy of the negative electrons emitted by hot bodies," PM, 16 (1908), 353–376.
"Maxwell's law for any gas, although the law was enunciated by Maxwell in 1859;" Richardson (ref. 41), 227
O.W. Richardson, "The kinetic energy of the ions emit- ted by hot bodies-II," PM, 18 (1909), 681–695, on 688, fig. 3
Richardson (ref. 40), 263–264.
46
Planck to Wien (ref. 39)
H.A. Lorentz, "Anwendung der kinetischen Theorien auf Elektronenbewegung [1913]," LCP, 8, 214–243, on 216, 224–225.
David Hilbert, ed., Vortrage uber die kinetische Theorie der Ma- terie und der Elektrizitat. Gehalten.. .auf Einladung.. .der Wolfskehlstiftung (Leipzig and Berlin, 1914), 169–193, on 170–171, 174–178.
47
W. Schottky (ref. 40), 150–167.
48
O.W. Richardson, "The emission of electrons from tungsten at high tempera- tures: An experimental proof that the electric current in metals is carried by electrons," PM, 26 (1913), 345–350, on 350.
49
Richardson, "Thermionic phenomena" (ref. 41), 227.
50
Bohr to Richardson, 29 Sep 1915
Richardson to Bohr, 9 Oct 1915, BCW, 1, 482–488
Schotty (ref. 40), 170–185.
51
Bohr to Richardson, 15 Oct 1915, BCW, 1, 489–491
F.A. Lindemann to Richardson, 30 Jun 1915 (RDN R-000 753).
52
N. Bohr, Studier over metallernes elektrontheori (Copenhagen, 1911), tr. J. Rud Nielsen, BCW, 1, 291–393, on 302–317.
53
James Clerk Maxwell, "On the dynamical theory of gases [1866]," in Maxwell, 77k? scientific papers [1890] (2 vols., New York, 1965), 2, 26–78, on 29, 40–43.
Stephen G. Brush, The kind of motion we call heat (2 vols., Amsterdam, 1976), 2, 386– 418
Karl von Meyenn, "Dispersion und mechanische Athertheorien im 19. Jahrhun- dert," in P.L. Butzer and F. Feher, eds., E.B. Christoffel. The influence of his work on mathematics and the physcial sciences (Basel, Boston, Stuttgart, 1981), 680–703
"Engpasse in der Atomtheorie des friihen 19. Jahrhunderts," in Charlotte Schonbeck, ed., Atomvorstellungen im 19. Jahrundert (Paderborn, 1982), 35–55.
54
L. Boltzmann, "Über die Möglichkeit der Begriindung einer kinetischen Gastheorie auf anziehende Krafte allein," AP, 24 (1885), 37–44
L. Boltzmann, Wissenschaftliche Abhandlungen [1909] (3 vols., New York, 1968), 3, 101–109.
55
Bohr (ref. 52), 341.
56
Debye to Bohr, 30 May 1911, BCW, 1, 400–402
Bohr to Debye, undated, ibid., 402–403.
57
Bohr (ref. 52), 364–365, 379
J.H. Jeans, "The motion of electrons in solids. Part II," PM, 20 (1910), 209–226, on 224.
58
J.C. Maxwell (ref. 1), §574, on 216–218
H. Hertz, "Versuche zur Feststellung einer oberen Grenze fur die kinetische Energie der elektrischen Stromung," AP, 10 (1880), 414–448
"Obere Grenze für die kinetische Energie der bewegten Elektricitat," AP, 14 (1881), 581–590
L. Boltzmann, Vorlesungen uber Maxwells Theorie der Elektricitat und des Lichtes, 2 parts [1891–1893], in W. Kaiser, ed., Ludwig Boltzmann, Gesamtausgabe, 2 (Graz, 1982), part 1, 18.
59
Lorentz (ref. 46), 238–240.
60
E.F. Nichols, "Die Möglichkeit einer durch zentrifugale Beschleunigung erzeugten elektromotorischen Kraft," PZ, 7(1906), 640–642
Nichols to Lorentz, 21 Oct 1906, 17 Jul 1909 (LTZ).
61
R.C. Tolman and T.D. Stewart, "The electromotive force produced by the ac- celeration of metals," PR, 8 (1916), 97–116
W. Nernst, "Zur Kinetik der in Losung befindlichen Korper," ZPC, 2 (1888), 613–637, on 636–637
"Die elektromotor- ische Wirksamkeit der lonen " ZPC, 4 (1889), 129–181, on 130–131.
62
Seeliger (ref. 10), 788.
63
H.A. Lorentz, "Physics in the new and the old world [1926]," LCP, 8, 405–417, on 409
"The motion of electricity in metals [1925]," ibid., 307–332, on 312–316.
64
Fleming to Lorentz, 1 Dec 1925
22 Jan and 4 Feb 1926 (LTZ).
65
M. Reinganum, "Theoretische Bestimmung des Verhaltnisses von Wärme- und Elektricitätsleitung der Metalle aus der Drude'schen Elektronentheorie," AP, 2 (1900), 398–403, on 401.
66
J.J. Thomson (ref. 24), 83
Arnold Eucken, "Neuere Untersuchungen iiber den Temperaturverlauf der spezifischen Warme," JRE, 8 (1911), 489–534, on 509–511
W. Nernst, "Untersuchungen über die spezifische Wärme bei tiefen Temperaturen," SB (1911), 306–315, on 310
Seeliger (ref. 10), 853–854.
67
J.J. Thomson (ref. 24), 84–87.
Bohr (ref. 52), 325
Bohr to C.W. Oseen, 1 Dec 1911, BCW, 1, 426–431
Bohr to S.B. McLaren, 17 Dec 1911, ibid., 432–434
Lorentz (ref. 46), 216; Lorentz (ref. 63), 323–325.
68
F.A. Lindemann, "Untersuchungen iiber die spezifische Warme bei tiefen Tem- peraturen, IV," SB (1911), 316–321, on 317–318
Baedeker, "Erscheinungen" (ref. 40), 18
Bohr to Oseen and to McLaren (ref. 67)
Seeliger (ref. 10), 853.
69
H. Kamerlingh Onnes, "Investigations into the properties of substances at low temperatures, which have led, amongst other things, to the preparation of liquid heli- um," Nobel lectures (ref. 37), 1, 306–336, on 335
J.J. Thomson, "Conduction of electri- city through metals," PM, 30 (1915), 191–202, on 193
Per F. Dahl, "Kamerlingh Onnes and the discovery of superconductivity: The Leyden years, 1911–1914," HSPS, 15:1 (1984), 1–37.
70
W. Wien, "Über die Energievertheilung im Emissionsspectrum eines schwarzen Korpers," AP, 58 (1896), 662–669, on 664
P. Drude, Lehrbuch der Optik (Leipzig, 1900), preface.
71
H.A. Lorentz, "On the emission and absorption by metals of rays of heat of great wave-lengths [1903]," LCP, 3, 155–176
E. Riecke, "Uber die Elektronentheorie des Galvanismus und der Warme," JRE, 3 (1906), 24–47, on 47
Baedeker, "Erscheinungen" (ref. 40), 135.
72
H.A. Wilson, "The electron theory of optical properties of metals," PM, 20 (1910) , 835–844, on 841–844
J.H. Jeans, "The motion of electrons in solids. Part I. Electric conductivity, KirchhofFs law and radiation of great wave–length," PM, 17 (1909), 773–794.
J.H. Jeans, "On non-Newtonian mechanical systems, and Planck's theory of radiation," PM, 20 (1910), 943–954, on 943, 953
Bohr (ref. 52), 357–359.
73
S.B. McLaren, "The emission and absorption of energy by electrons," PM, 22 (1911) , 66–83, on 66–72.
74
Planck to Lorentz, 1 Apr 1908 (LTZ)
Hermann, Frilhgeschichte der Quantentheorie, 1899–1913 (Mosbach, 1969), 47–48.
75
Hans Kangro, Early history of Planck's radiation law (New York, 1976), 75–77, 159, 168, 171, 175.
76
Lorentz to Wien, 6 June 1908, in Hermann (ref. 74), 46
W. Wien, "Theorie der Strahlung [1909]," EMW, 5:3 (Leipzig, 1909–1926), 282–357, on 326–333
J.L. Heil- bron and T.S. Kuhn, "The genesis of the Bohr atom," HSPS, 1 (1969), 211–290, on 217.
Livens to Lorentz, 9 Jul 1914 (LTZ).
Sackur, "Die universelle Bedeutung des sog. elementaren Wirkungsquantums," AP, 40 (1913), 67–86, on 85.
C.W. Oseen, "Zur Kritik der Elektronentheorie der Metalle," AP, 49 (1916), 71–84
Oseen to Lorentz, 13 Jan 1916 (LTZ).
77
Planck to Wien, 27 Feb 1909 (WWN).
J.H. Jeans, "On the partition of energy between matter and aether," PM, 10 (1905), 91–97, on 97.
78
Planck to Lorentz, 21 Nov 1908
10 Jul 1909 (LTZ)
Planck to Wien, 14 Jan 1911 (WWN)
M. Planck, "Eine neue Strahlungshypothese," Deutsche Physikalische Gesellschaft, Verhandlungen, 13 (1911), 138–148
"Zur Hypothese der Quantenemis- sion," SB (1911), 723–731.
M. Planck, "Uber das Gleichgewicht zwischen Oszillatoren, freien Elektronen und strahlender Warme," SB (1913), 350–363.
79
W. Wien, "Zur Theorie der elektrischen Leitung in Metallen," SB (1913), 184– 200, on 186.
80
Lorentz (ref. 46), 214.
81
Lorentz (ref. 46), 216.
82
Planck, "Über das Gleichgewicht" (ref. 78), 352.
Planck to Wien, 10 Jan 1913 (WWN).
83
Jeans, "The motion" (ref. 72), 792
McLaren (ref. 73), 68.
84
Paul Ehrenfest and Tatiana Ehrenfest, "Begriffliche Grundlagen der statistischen Auffassung in der Mechanik [1911]," EMW, 4 (Leipzig, 1907–1914), Article 32, 3–90, on 74.
85
C.G. Darwin, "The theory of radiation," Aug 1912 (AHQP 36:2).
86
Seeliger (ref. 10), 862–863
Per F. Dahl, "Superconductivity after World War I and circumstances surrounding the discovery of a state of B = 0," HSPS, 16:1 (1986), 1–58, on 6.
87
P. Ehrenfest to Lorentz, 5 Feb 1922, erroneously dated 1912 (LTZ).
88
Michael Eckert, "Propaganda in science: Sommerfeld and the spread of the elec- tron theory of metals," HSPS, 17:2 (1987), 191–233.
89
Richardson (ref. 50).
90
Jed Z. Buchwald, "The Hall effect and Maxwellian electrodynamics in the 1880s," Centaurus, 23 (1979), 51–99, 118–162
Buchwald, Maxwell to microphysics, (ref. 3), 73–108.
91
K. Baedeker, "Uber die elektrische Leitfahigkeit und die thermoelektrische Kraft einiger Schwermetallverbindungen," AP, 22 (1907), 749–758, 765–766
K. Baedeker and E. Pauli, "Das elektrische Leitvermogen von festem Kupferjodur," PZ, 9 (1908), 431 (quote).
92
K. Baedeker, "Über eine eigentumliche Form elektrischen Leitvermögens bei festen Körpern," PZ, 9 (1908), 431–433.
Herbert Geotzeler, "Zur Geschichte der Halbleiter, Bausteine der Elektrotechnik," Technikgeschichte, 39 (1972), 31–50, on 36
W. Kaiser, "Karl Baedekers Beitrag zur Halbleiterforschung," Centaurus, 22 (1978), 187–200.
93
Baedeker, "Über eine eigentumliche Form elektrishcen Leitvermogens bei festen Korpern," AP, 29 (1909), 566–584, on 581–583.
94
K. Steinberg, "Über den Halleffekt bei jodhaltigem Kupferjodur," AP, 35 (1911), 1009–1033, 1026–1030.
95
K. Baedeker, "Kunstliche metallische Leiter," PZ, 13 (1912), 1080–1082, on 1081.
96
Baedeker, "Erscheinunge" (ref. 40), 10–14, 77–94, 123.
97
Steinberg (ref. 94)
Baedeker, "Erscheinungen" (ref. 40), 122–123.
98
Riecke (ref. 8), 517.
99
E. Riecke, "Elekronentheorie galvanischer Eigenschaften der Metalle [1913], in Erich Marx, ed., Handbuch der Radiologie, 6, (Leipzig, 1925), 281–494, on 431.
100
J. Koenigsberger and G. Gottstein, "Uber den Halleffekt," PZ, 14 (1913), 232–, 237
Bohr (ref. 52), 383–395.
G.H. Livens, "The electron theory of the Hall ; effect and allied phenomena," PM, 30 (1915), 526–548, on 545.
101
E.H. Hall, "Illustrations of the dual theory of metallic conduction," PR, 28 (1926), 393–417
L.L. Campbell, Galvanomagnetic and thermomagnetic effects. The Hall and allied phenomena (New York, 1923), 89–91
W. Hume-Rothery, The metallic state. Electrical properties and theories (Oxford, 1931), 223–229
Hall to Lorentz, 13 Nov 1922 (LTZ).
102
A. Einstein, "Die Planck'sche Theorie der Strahlung und die Theorie der spezifischen Warme," AP, 22 (1907), 180–190, 800
P. Debye, "Zur Theorie der spezifischen Warme," AP, 39 (1912), 789–839.
103
Seeliger (ref. 10), 864–865
Dahl (ref. 86), 12–13
W. Nernst, "Untersuchungen liber die spezifische Warme bei tiefen Temperaturen, III," SB (1911), 306–315, on 311–315 (Nernst used Planck's radiation formula only ad hoc to calculate the electric resistance for low temperatures)
F.A. Lindemann, "Untersuchungen uber die spezifische Warme bei tiefen Temperaturen, IV," SB (1911), 316–321, on 318–319.
Karl F. Herzfeld, "Zur Elektronentheorie der Metalle," AP, 41 (1913), 27–52
Wien (ref. 79)
P. Bridgman, "The electrical resistance of metals," PR, 77 (1921), 161–194, on 163.
104
H. Tetrode, "Bemerkungen liber den Energiegehalt einatomiger Gase und uber die Quantentheorie fur Flussigkeiten," PZ, 14 (1913), 212–215
W.H. Keesom, "Uber die Zustandsgleichung eines idealen einatomigen Gase und uber die Quantentheorie," PZ, 14 (1913), 665–670
W. Nernst, "Der Energieinhalt fester Stoffe," AP, 36 (1911), 395–439, on 435.
105
Tetrode (ref. 104), 214.
106
W.H. Keesom, "Zur Theorie der freien Elektronen in Metallen," PZ, 14 (1913), 670–675, on 671
Hilbert, ed. (ref. 46), 193–196.
Keesom to Lorentz, 29 Apr 1913 (LTZ)
Keesom to Sommerfeld, 29 Apr 1913 (AHQP 31:11).
107
Richardson, "Thermionic phenomena" (ref. 41)
Schottky (ref. 40)
Irving Langmuir, "The pure electron discharge and its appli- cations in radio telegraphy and telephony 1915, in Langmuir, The collected works, 3 (Oxford, 1961), 38–58.
108
Bridgman (ref. 103)
Erich Kretschmann, "Kritischer Bericht iiber neue Elek- tronentheorien der Elektrizitats-und Warmeleitung in Metallen," 28 (1927), 555–592, on 567.
109
W. Guertler, "Beitrage zur Kenntnis der Elektrizitatsleitung in Metallen und Le- gierungen," JRE, 17(1920), 276–292.
110
Langmuir (ref. 107).
A. Hermann, "Max von Laue," DSB, 8 (New York, 1973), 50–53
AP, 59 (1919), 465–492.
E. Watson to Richardson, 14 June 1918 (RDN).
111
Seeliger (ref. 10)
Richardson, "Thermionic phenomena" (ref. 41)
Schottky (ref. 40).
112
F.A. Lindemann, "Note on the theory of the metallic state," PM, 29 (1915), 127–140.
113
L.H. Hoddeson and G. Baym, "The development of the quantum mechanical electron theory of metals: 1900–28," Royal Society of London, Proceedings, 371A (1980), 8–23, on 11–20.
114
R.H. Fowler, "On dense matter," Royal Astronomical Society, Monthly Notices, 87:2(1926), 114–122.
115
W. Pauli, "Über Gasentartung und Paramagnetismus," ZSP, 41 (1927), 81–102.
116
A. Sommerfeld, "Zur Elektronentheorie der Metalle," Die Naturwissenschaften, 75 (1927), 825–832
"Zur Elektronentheorie der Metalle auf Grund der Fermischen Sta- tistik," ZSP, 47 (1928), 1–32, 43–46
"Zur Elektronentheorie der Metalle," Die Na- turwissenschaften, 76 (1928), 374–381.
117
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