[Footnotes]

[Footnotes]
1
M. Norton Wise, "The Maxwell literature and British dynamical theory," HSPS, 13 (1982), 175–205.
Alfred M. Bork, "Maxwell, displacement current, and symmetry," AJP, 31 (1963), 854–859
Joan Bromberg, "Maxwell's displacement current and his theory of light," AHES, 4 (1968), 218–234
A. F. Chalmers, "Maxwell's methodology and his application of it to electromagnetism," Studies in history and philosophy of sci- ence, 4 (1973), 107–164
Mary B. Hesse, "Logic of discovery in Maxwell's electromag- netic theory," in Foundations of scientific method: The nineteenth century (Bloomington, 1973), 86–114.
2
Wise(ref. 1), 190, 196.
3
Heinrich Hertz, Electric waves, tr. D. E. Jones (1893; New York, 1962), 20–28.
4
Daniel M. Siegel, "Thomson, Maxwell, and the universal ether in Victorian physics," in G.N. Cantor and M.J.S. Hodge, eds., Conceptions of ether (Cambridge, 1981), 239–268.
5
Wise (ref. 1), 196
Bromberg (ref. 1), 233.
6
John David Jackson, Classical electro- dynamics (New York, 1962), 177, 613–620.
Wolfgang K.H. Panofsky and Melba Phillips, Classical electricity and magnetism (2nd ed., Reading, 1962), 160
Richard P. Feynman, Robert B. Leighton, and Matthew Sands, The Feynman lectures on physics (3 vols., Reading, 1964), 2, 18.2
Edson Ruther Peck, Electricity and magnetism (New York, 1953), 429.
7
Panofsky and Phillips (ref. 6), 28, 129, 135–136
Peck (ref. 6), 68–72, 320–329
Feynman (ref. 6), 32.3–32.5.
8
Jackson (ref. 6), 133
Panofsky and Phillips (ref. 6), 118
Peck (ref. 6), 141–2
Feynman (ref. 6), 18.2, 32.3–32.5.
9
Panofsky and Phillips (ref. 6), 135–136
Jackson (ref. 6), 178
Feynman (ref. 6), 32.3–32.5.
10
Jackson (ref. 6), 178
Panofsky and Phillips (ref. 6), 135, 136, 139, 140
Feynman (ref. 6), 18–1–18–3
Peck (ref. 6), 426–427.
Panofsky and Phillips, 139
11
Panofsky and Phillips (ref. 6), 136.
12
Jackson (ref. 6), 178
Panofsky and Phillips (ref. 6), 160
Peck (ref. 6), 429
Feynman (ref. 6), 32.3–32.5
Peck, 427–428
Panofsky and Phillips, 135–136.
ref. 1
13
Maxwell, SP, 7, 155–229.
14
Maxwell, SP, 7, 190, 192, 194.
15
SP, 7, 194
16
Maxwell, SP, 7, 195.
17
Maxwell, SP, 1, 195
18
Maxwell, SP, 7, 155.
19
Maxwell, SP, 7, 155–159, 188–189
Daniel M. Siegel, "Completeness as a goal in Maxwell's electromagnetic theory," Isis, 66 (1975), 361–368.
20
Maxwell, SP, 7, 451–513, on 451, 489.
21
Maxwell, SP, 7, 502
22
Maxwell, SP, 1, 496.
23
Bromberg (ref. 1).
24
Maxwell, SP, 7, 496–497, Equations (113)–(117).
25
Bromberg (ref. 1), esp. 222
26
Maxwell, SP, 1, 496–497.
27
Maxwell, SP, 1, 498–499.
28
Maxwell, SP, 1, 496–498
Bromberg (ref. 1), 223.
E. Mendoza, ed., A random walk in science, comp. R. L. Weber (London, 1973), 43
Richard Olson, Scot- tish philosophy and British physics, 1750-1880 (Princeton, 1975), 299–303.
29
James Clerk Maxwell, A treatise on electricity and magnetism (3rd ed., 2 vols., 1891, reprinted New York, 1954), 2, 253
30
"Illustrations of the dynamical theory of gases" (1860), SP, 1, 377–409
31
Panofsky and Phillips (ref. 6), 136, "the magnetic effects of currents," and 329, "the source equations."
32
Tetu Hirosige, "Origins of Lorentz' theory of electrons and the concept of the electromagnetic field," HSPS, 1 (1969), 151–209.
Jed Z. Buchwald, From Maxwell to microphysics: Aspects of electromagnetic theory in the last quarter of the nineteenth century (Chicago, 1985).
33
Michael Faraday, Experimental researches on electricity and magnetism (1839–1855; New York, 1965), 2, 360–416, on 360–367, 409–413
P. M. Heimann, "Maxwell, Hertz, and the nature of electricity," Isis, 62 (1971), 149–157
Hesse (ref. 1)
A. F. Chalmers, "The limitations of Maxwell's electromagnetic theory," Isis, 64 (1973), 469–483.
L. Pearce Williams, Michael Faraday (New York, 1965)
David Gooding and Frank A. J. L. James, eds., Fara- day rediscovered: Essays on the life and work of Michael Faraday, 1791–1867 (Hound- mills, 1985).
34
Maxwell, SP, 7, 195.
35
Maxwell, SP, 1, 496.
36
Maxwell, SP, 1, 490–491
Edmund T. Whittaker, A history of the theories of aeth- er and electricity (revised and enlarged edition, 1951, reprinted New York, 1973), 7, 62–66
O. F. Mossotti, "Discussione analitica sull' influenza che Tazione di un mezzo dielettrico ha sulla distribuzione dell' elettricita alia superficie di piu corpi elettrici disseminati in esso," Societa italiana, Memorie, 24(1847), (1847), 49–74
Faraday (ref. 33).
37
Maxwell, SP, 7, 491.
SP, 1, 181
Maxwell to Thomson, 13 Nov 1854, in Joseph Larmor, ed., Origins of Clerk Maxwell's ideas as described in familiar letters to William Thomson (Cambridge, 1937), 10
38
Maxwell, SP, 1, 496.
39
Faraday (ref. 33), 410.
40
Hertz (ref. 3)
Heimann (ref. 33)
Hesse (ref. 1).
Peck (ref. 6), 68–72.
41
Peter Harman, Energy, force, and matter (Cambridge, 1982), 45–119
Siegel (ref. 4).
42
Ivan Tolstoy, James Clerk Maxwell: A biography (Chicago, 1983), 78 ("out- landish"), 124 ("bizarre").
Ole Knudsen, "The Faraday effect and physi- cal theory, 1845–1873," AHES, 15 (1976), 250–254
Daniel M. Siegel, "Mechanical image and reality in Maxwell's electromagnetic theory," in Wranglers and physicists: Studies on Cambridge mathematical physics in the nineteenth century, ed. P.M. Harman (Manchester, 1985), 180–201.
43
Maxwell, SP, 1, 467–502
PM, 21 (1861), 281–291 (No. 140, April) and 338–345 (No. 141, May)
Part III in PM, 23 (1862), 12–24 (No. 151, January).
44
Siegel (ref. 4), 247–251
Maxwell, SP, 1, 469.
45
Siegel (ref. 4), 248–249.
46
Maxwell, SP, 1, 460-463 (figures 3, 5, 6), 471–472, 477, and Plate VIII, opposite 488 (figures 1, 2).
47
Peck (ref. 6), 214–217, 244 (problem 7.55).
48
Maxwell, SP, 1, 460 (figure 3), 471–472, and Plate VIII, opposite 488 (figure 1)
SP, 1, All, and Plate VIII, opposite 488 (figure 2)
Lewis Campbell and Wil- liam Garnett, The life of James Clerk Maxwell, ed. Robert H. Kargon (1882, reprint edi- tion New York, 1969), 534–535.
Laboratory (editor's preface, ix-x)
Ludwig Boltzmann, ed. and trans., Uber physikal- ische Kraftlinien, (Leipzig, 1898), 133.
49
Maxwell, SP, 1, 484–489
Siegel (ref. 4), 250–251.
50
Maxwell, SP, 1, 159
Siegel (ref. 19), 361–368; Section 2 above.
51
Siegel (ref. 4), 250–251.
52
ref. 43 above
Maxwell, SP, 7, 485–488, esp. 488
Siegel (ref. 41), 189–190
Siegel (ref. 4), 250–251.
Maxwell to Thomson, 10 Dec 1861, in Larmor (ref. 37), 34–36
C.W.F. Everitt, James Clerk Maxwell: Physicist and natural philosopher (New York, 1975), 98–99
Bromberg (ref. 1), 227.
53
Maxwell, SP, 1, 489–496.
Bromberg (ref. 1), 224
Boltzmann (ref. 48), 133
Part III (SP, 1, 489)
Part I (SP, 1, 457–458)
Part III (SP, 1, 496)
Part III (SP, 1, 496)
54
Maxwell, SP, 1, 496–497, 500–502
notes 46 and 48 above.
55
Boltzmann (ref. 48), 32–133.
Maxwell, SP, 1, 485–487
56
Boltzmann (ref. 48), 133.
57
Maxwell, SP, 1, 474–484, 490.
58
Maxwell, SP, 1, 496–497, Equations (112), (113), (115)
59
Maxwell, SP, 1, 491–495.
60
Maxwell, SP, 1, 496
ref. 53 above.
61
Maxwell, SP, 1, 491.
62
Maxwell, SP, 1, 492.
63
Maxwell, SP, 1, 494–495.
64
Maxwell, SP, 1, 495, Equations (99)–(103).
65
Maxwell, SP, 1, 495, Equations (104)–(106).
66
Maxwell, SP, 1, 493–495.
Maxwell to Faraday, 19 Oct 1861, in Campbell and Garnett (ref. 48), xx-xxii.
67
Maxwell, SP, 1, 497–502.
68
Joan Bromberg, "Maxwell's electrostatics," AJP, 36 (1968), 142–151.
69
Bromberg (ref. 1), 219.
70
Peck (ref. 6), 429–436.
71
Maxwell, SP, 1, 499, 509.
72
SP, 1, 469–471.
73
Bromberg (ref. 1).
74
Siegel (ref. 42), esp. 195–197
Siegel (ref. 4), 259–263.
75
Maxwell, "A dynamical theory of the electromagnetic field" (1865), in SP, 1, 526–597
"On a method of making a direct comparison of electrostatic with elec- tromagnetic force; with a note on the electromagnetic theory of light" (1868), in SP, 2, 125–143.
Wise's review (ref. 1)
76
Maxwell, SP, 2, 560.
77
Maxwell, SP, 1, 554, 561; 2, 139.
78
Maxwell, SP, 1, 557
79
Maxwell, SP, 1, 577–580; 2, 139–143.
80
Maxwell, SP, 1, 561; 2, 139.
Hesse (ref. 1), 102–105.
81
Buchwald (ref. 32)
Bromberg (ref. 1)
Bromberg (ref. 68)
Chalmers (ref. 1)
Chal- mers (ref. 33)
Heimann (ref. 33)
Hesse (ref. 1)
Ole Knudson, "Electric displacement and the development of optics after Maxwell," Centaurus, 22 (1978), 53–60
M. Norton Wise, "The flow analogy to electricity and magnetism, Part II: Maxwell's first formula- tion of field theory," AHES, in press.
82
Morris Kline, Mathematical thought from ancient to modern times (New York, 1972), 1197–1203.
83
Arthur Koestler, The sleepwalkers (New York, 1959).
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