[Footnotes]

[Footnotes]
1
Birge to Van Vleck, 10 Mar 1927 (W/2).
2
Alice Kimball Smith and Charles Weiner, eds., Robert Oppenheimer: Letters and recollections (Cambridge, Mass., 1980), 102.
3
K.T. Compton to Dirac, 2 Jan 1929 (KC/412).
Memorandum, 16 Feb 1928 (ibid.).
4
Compton to Heisenberg, 8 Feb, to T. Russell Wilkins, 6 Apr, and to H.A. Erikson, 18 Mar 1929 (KC/412).
5
Stanley Coben, "The scientific establishment and the transmission of quantum mechanics to the United States 1919–1932," American historical review, 76 (1971), 442–466
"Foundation officials and fellowships: Innovation in the patronage of sci- ence," Minerva, 14 (1976), 225–240.
6
Katherine R. Sopka, Quantum physics in America, 1920–1935 (New York, 1980), 340–341
7
"A history of engineering and science in the Bell System." Prepared by members of the technical staff, Bell Telephone Labs; M.D. Fagan, ed. [New York]: The Labora- tories, 1975–85, 7 vols., S. Millman, ed., 4, Physical Sciences 1925–1980, 387–401.
8
P. Forman, "Weimar culture, causality, and quantum theory, 1918–1927: Adap- tion by German physicists and mathematicians to a hostile intellectual environment," HSPS, 3 (1971), 1–115.
9
Alexis de Tocqueville, Democracy in America, tr. Henry Reeve (2 vols., New York, 1961), 1, chapt. 1.
10
Ibid., 2, 48.
11
Ibid., 2, 48, 52.
12
Donald Fleming, "American science and the world scientific community," Cahiers d'histoire mondiale, 8 (1965), 666–681, on 669.
A. Hunter Dupree, "Science in America—A historian's view," ibid.
Nathan Reingold, ed., Science in America since 1820 (New York, 1976).
13
Bruce Kuklick, ed., The rise of American philosophy: Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1860–1930 (New Haven, 1977), 53.
14
H.S. Thayer, "Pragmatism: A reinterpretation of the origins and consequences," in R.J. Mulvaney and P.M. Zeltner, eds., Pragmatism: Its sources and prospects (Colum- bia, S.C., 1981), 1–20
Morton White, Pragmatism and the American mind (New York, 1973), 95–154
Elizabeth Flower and Murray G. Murphy, A history of philosophy in America (2 vols., New York, 1977).
15
Charles Sanders Peirce, "The fixation of belief," in Peirce, Collected papers (6 vols., Cambridge, Mass., 1931–58), 5, 358–387.
16
Ibid., 5, section 311.
17
Ernest Gellner, "Pragmatism and the importance of being earnest," in Mulva- ney and Zeltner (ref. 4), 41–66.
18
Peirce (ref. 15), 5, 412.
19
Percy W. Bridgman, The logic of modern physics (New York, 1927), i.
20
Maila L.K. Walter, "Science and cultural crisis: An intellectual biography of Percy Williams Bridgman" (Ph.D. thesis, Harvard University, 1985)
Stanley Goldberg, "Being operational is operationism: Bridgman on relativity," Rivista di storia della scienza, 1 (1984), 333–354.
21
E.C. Kemble, "Theoretical investigations in the application of the quantum hy- pothesis to rotations and vibrations of gas molecules and the relation between these and the infrared absorption bands of gasses," (HU/90.1204)
J.C. Slater, "Compressibility of the alkali halides," (HU/90.1522)
J.H. Van Vleck, "A critical study of possible models of the normal helium atom," (HU/90.1459).
22
Smith and Weiner (ref. 2), 69.
24
Kemble, "The general principles of quantum mechanics," Reviews of modern physics, 1:2 (1929) 157–215.
25
J.R. Oppenheimer, Electron theory: Description and analogy (Dept. of Physics, Iowa State University, 1955).
26
J.H. Van Vleck, The theory of electric and magnetic susceptibilities (Oxford, 1932), 130.
27
E.U. Condon and P.M. Morse, Quantum mechanics (New York, 1929), 17.
28
Robert Serber, "The early years," Physics today, 20:10 (1967) 35–39.
29
A. Einstein, B. Podolsky, and N. Rosen, "Can quantum-mechanical description of physical reality be considered complete?" PR, 47 (1935), 777–780
Max Jammer, The philosophy of quantum mechanics: The interpretation of quantum mechanics in his- torical perspective (New York, 1974).
30
E.U. Condon, "Mathematical models in modern physics," Franklin Institute, Journal, 225 (1938), 255–261
John Dewey, Philosophy and civilization (New York, 1931), 30.
31
Condon (ref. 30), 256.
32
Ibid., 257.
33
J. Slater, "Electrodynamics of ponderable bodies," Franklin Institute, Journal, 225(1938), 277–287.
34
E.C. Kemble, "Operational reasoning, reality and quantum mechanics," Franklin Institute, Journal, 225 (1938), 263–275, on 264, 275.
35
Laurence R. Veysey, The emergence of the American university (Chicago, 1965)
Oscar Handlin, The American university as an instrument of republican culture (Leicester, 1971)
Oscar Handlin and Mary F. Handlin, The American college and American culture (New York, 1970)
Alexandra Oleson and John Voss, eds., The or- ganization of knowledge in modern America, 1860–1920 (Baltimore, 1979).
36
Stanley M. Guralnick, "Sources of misconceptions of the role of science in the nineteenth-century American college," his, 65 (1974), 352–366
Reingold (ref. 12), 48–62
"American scientists in higher education, 1820–1910," ibid., 99–142.
37
Oleson and Voss (ref. 35), xiv.
38
Fleming (ref. 12), 669–670.
39
Paul Forman, J.L. Heilbron, and Spencer R. Weart, "Physics circa 1900: Person- nel, funding and productivity of the academic establishments," HSPS, 5 (1975), 1–185.
40
Spencer R. Weart, "The physics business in America, 1919–1940: A statistical reconnaissance," in Nathan Reingold, ed., The sciences in the American context (Wash- ington, D.C., 1979), 295–358.
Charles Weiner, "Physics in the Great Depres- sion," Physics today, 23:10 (1970), 31–38
Spencer R. Weart and Melba Phillips, eds., History of physics (New York, 1985), 115–121.
41
Coben (ref. 5).
Ken- dall Birr, "Industrial laboratories," in Reingold (ref. 40), 193–208
Millman (ref. 7), chapt. 10.
42
Forman, Heilbron, Weart (ref. 39), 30–33, esp. notes 23–31.
44
"Reminiscences of the thirties," moderated by J.S. Gold- stein, videotaped at Brandeis University, 29 Mar 1984.
45
Dominique Pestre, Physique et physiciens en France, 1918–1940 (Paris, 1984), 110–111.
46
Charles Rosenberg, "Toward an ecology of knowledge: On discipline, context and history," in Oleson and Voss (ref. 35), 440–455.
47
L. Pyenson, "Physics in the shadow of mathematics: The Gottingen electron- theory seminar of 1905," Archive for history of exact sciences, 21 (1979/80), 63.
Constance Reid, Hilbert (New York, 1970)
Courant in Gottingen and New York. The story of an improbable mathematician (New York, 1976).
48
A.C. Lunn, "A theoretical correction to the drop method of determining the ele- mentary charge," PR, 35(1912), 227–231.
49
Lunn, "Relativity, quantum theory, and the wave theories of light and gravita- tion," PR, 71 (1923), 711
Martin Kamen, Radiant science, dark politics (Berkeley, 1985), 28–31
51
Bridgman to Silberstein, 10 May 1922. (HUG 4324.8/Box 5).
52
Birge to Kemble, 6 Feb 1929. (EK/ACS 10235).
University of California, The faculty bulletin, 16:7 (January 1947), 5–6.
53
Rosenberg (ref. 46), 443.
54
Sopka(ref. 6), A. 1.1–1.28.
55
The meaning of relativity (Princeton, 1923).
Marshall Missner, "Why Einstein became famous in America," Social studies of science, 75 (1985), 267–291.
56
Birge to Kemble, 22 Mar 1923 (EK/ACS 10235)
Peter Robertson, The early years: The Niels Bohr Institute, 1921-1930 (Copenhagen, 1979).
57
Bridgman to Kemble, 16 Mar 1919 (PB/4).
58
Robert W. Seidel, "The origins of academic physics in California," Journal of college science teaching, 6(1976), 10–23.
59
J.C. Slater, "Quantum physics in America between the wars," Physics today, 21:1 (1968), 43–51
International journal of quan- tum chemistry, 1 (1967), 1–23
J.H. Van Vleck, "American physics comes of age," Phys- ics today, 17:6 (1964), 21–26.
60
James R. Killian, The education of a college president (Cambridge, Mass., 1895), 17.
61
Morse, "The scientific study of government operations," 29 Mar 1962 (PM/23).
62
Alan Wilson, "Theoretical physics in the late 1920s and early 1930s," in John Hendry, ed., Cam- bridge physics in the thirties (Bristol, 1984) 174–175.
63
J.A. Wheeler, "Some men and moments in nuclear physics," in R.H. Stuewer, ed., Physics in retrospect (New York, 1979), 217–306, on 223.
64
S.A. Goudsmit, "Why physics flourished in America," paper delivered at the Symposium, Monmouth College, 6–7 Mar 1975 (SG).
65
Weiner (ref. 40)
Weart (ref. 40).
66
Robin E. Rider, "Emigration of mathematicians and physicists to Britain and the United States, 1933–1945," HSPS, 15:1 (1985), 107–176.
67
Slater (ref. 59), 43.
69
J.H. Bartlett, Jr., to Kemble, 24 May 1932 (EK).
70
Nevill Mott and Rudolf Peierls, "Weiner Heisenberg, 1901–1976," Royal Society of London, Biographical memoirs, 23 (1977), 213–251
M. Fierz, "Physik in den dreis- siger Jahren—ein Ruckblick," Physikalische Blatter, 36 (1980), 133–136
H. Casimir, Haphazard reality (New York, 1983).
71
Serber (ref. 68), 8
(ref. 28), 35–39.
72
Bethe to Peierls, 12 Dec 1938 (RP).
73
S.A. Goudsmit, "The Michigan symposium in theoretical physics," Michigan alumnus quarterly review, 67 (Spring, 1961), 178–182
H.M. Randall to Goudsmit, 18 Dec 1958 (SG).
74
W.H. Brattain to Goudsmit, 15 Dec 1955 (SG).
75
P.M. Morse, In at the beginnings: A physicist's life (Cambridge, Mass., 1977), 78–79, 103–104.
76
E.C. Campbell to Goudsmit, 14 Dec 1955 (SG).
77
Serber(ref. 68), 10.
78
Ref. 76.
79
Jarrell C. Jackman and Carla M. Borden, eds., The muses flee Hitler: Cultural transfer and adaptation, 1930–1945 (Washington, D.C., 1983)
Donald Fleming and Bernard Bailyn, eds., The intellectual migration: Europe and Amer- ica, 1930–1960 (Cambridge, Mass., 1969)
Laura Fermi, Illustrious immigrants, 2nd ed. (Chicago, 1968)
Rider (ref. 66)
Roger Stuewer, "Nuclear physicists in a new world: The emigres of the 1930s in America," Berichte zur Wissenschaftsgeschichte, 1 (1984), 23– 84
Paul Hoch, "The reception of Central European refugee physicists of the 1930s: USSR, UK, USA," Annals of science, 40 (1983), 206–246.
80
Breit to Tuve, 14 Dec 1934 (MT).
81
W. Elsasser, Memoirs of a physicist in the atomic age (New York and Bristol, 1978), 196.
82
Ibid., 210.
83
Fleming's report on the third Conference, 12 Mar 1937, pp. 1,3 (HB).
84
Pauli to Weisskopf, 10 Oct 1935 (VW)
85
C. Critchfield, E. Teller, and E.P. Wigner, "The electron-positron theory of nu- clear forces," PR, 56 (1939), 530–539
Wigner to Critchfield, 12 June 1939 (EW).
86
Bethe to Sommerfeld, 20 May 1947, in R. Stuewer (ref. 79)
Bloch, Bradbury, Ta- tel, and Ross, "Scattering and absorption cross section of neutrons in cobalt," PR, 52 (1937), 1023–1026.
87
E.U. Condon, (ref. 30), 260.
Charles Weiner, "Institutional settings for scientific change: Episodes from the history of nuclear physics," in A. Thackray and E. Mendelsohn, eds., Science and values (New York, 1974), 187–212.
88
Serber to Van Vleck, 13 Feb 1936 (VV)
Edwin M. McMillan, "Early history of particle accelerators," in Stuewer (ref. 63), 113–156, on 120–121.
89
J.L. Heilbron, Robert W. Seidel, and Bruce R. Wheaton, Lawrence and his la- boratory, nuclear science at Berkeley, 1931–1961 (Berkeley, 1981)
M. Stanley Livington, Particle accelerators, a brief history (Cambridge, Mass., 1969)
McMillan (ref. 88).
90
Bethe to Weisskopf, undated (VW).
91
Serber (ref. 68), 13.
92
J.R. Oppenheimer, radio address, 16 Mar 1939, reported in Science, 89 (1939), 335–336.
94
Smith and Weiner (ref. 2), 77
Oppenheimer (ref. 92), 10.
95
Smith and Weiner (ref. 2), 77, 90–96.
96
J.R. Oppenheimer, "Zur Quantentheorie kontinuierlicher Spektren," ZfP, 41 (1927), 268–293
"Zur Quantenmechanik der Richtungsentartung," ibid., 43 (1927), 27–43
"Bemerkung zur Zerstreuung der a-Teilchen," ibid., 413–415.
97
M. Born and J.R. Oppenheimer, "Zur Quantentheorie der Molekeln," Annalen derPhysik, 84(1927), 457–484.
98
J.R. Oppenheimer, "Three notes on the quantum theory of aperiodic effects," PR, 31 (1928), 66–81.
99
R.N. Gurney and E.U. Condon, "Quantum mechanics and radioactive disintegra- tion," PR, 33 (1929), 127–140
G. Gamov, "Zur Quantentheorie des Atomkernes," ZfP, 57(1928), 204–212.
100
Serber (ref. 71), 35.
101
Oppenheimer (ref. 92), 8, 9.
102
Ibid., 10.
103
J.R. Oppenheimer, "Note on the theory of the interaction of field and matter," PR, 35 (1930), 461–477
W. Heisenberg and W. Pauli, "Zur Quantendynamik der Wellenfelder," ZfP, 56 (1929), 1–61
59 (1930), 168–190.
104
P.A.M. Dirac, "A theory of electrons and protons," Royal Society of London, Proceedings, A117(1928), 360–365.
105
Igor Tamm to Dirac, 11 Nov 1930 (DP 3/3)
J.R. Oppenheimer, "On the theory of electrons and protons," PR, 35 (1930), 562– 563.
106
Fowler to Kemble, 30 Nov 1933 (EK).
107
R. Serber, "Particle physics in the 1930s: A view from Berkeley," in Laurie Brown and Lillian Hoddeson, eds., The birth of particle physics (Cambridge, 1983) 206– 221, on 206
Serber (ref. 68), 12.
108
H.A. Bethe, "J. Robert Oppenheimer 1904–1967," Royal Society of London, Biographical memoirs of fellows, 14 (1968), 391–416.
110
I. Waller, "Bermerkung iiber die Role der Eigenenergie des Elektrons in der Quantentheorie der Strahlung," Z/P, 62 (1930), 673–676.
111
Furry to Weisskopf, 21 June 1934 (V.F. Weisskopf Papers, MIT)
Furry (ref. 109)
V. Weisskopf, "Uber die Selbstenergie des Elektrons,"Z/P, 89 (1934), 27–39
90 (1934), 817–818
V.F. Weisskopf, "Growing up with field theory: The development of QED," in Brown and Hoddeson (ref. 107), 71
Weisskopf to the author, 24 Aug 1985
112
Serber (ref. 71), 38.
113
Serber (ref. 107)
114
J.R. Oppenheimer and M.S. Plesset, "On the production of the positive elec- tron," PR, 44 (1933), 53–54.
Smith and Weiner (ref. 2), 361.
115
J.R. Oppenheimer, "On the elementary interpretation of showers and bursts," PR, 50 (1936), 389
J.F. Carlson and J.R. Oppenheimer, "On multiplication showers," PR, 51 (1937), 220–231.
116
E.A. Uehling, "Polarization effects in the positron theory," PR, 48 (1935), 55– 63.
117
Heilbron, Seidel, Wheaton (ref. 89).
118
N.P. Davis, Lawrence and Oppenheimer (New York, 1968), 50–51
119
Davis (ref. 118), 51
Elsasser (ref. 80), 199–200.
120
In the matter of J. Robert Oppenheimer. Transcript of hearing before Personnel Security Board and text of principal documents and letters (Cambridge, Mass., 1970), 7– 8.
121
Heilbron, Seidel and Wheaton (ref. 89).
I.I. Rabi, comments at the Celebration of the fiftieth anniversary of the Pupin Laboratories (Columbia University, New York: [1977], 41
122
Wilson (ref. 118)
"My flight against team research," Daedalus, 99:4 (1970), 1076–1087
G. Holton, ed., The twentieth-century sciences. Studies in the biogra- phy of ideas (New York, 1972), 468–479.
123
K.T. Compton, "Foreword," in MIT, Five years at the Radiation Laboratory (Cambridge, Mass., 1946)
Henry Guerlac, The history of the Radiation Laboratory, 1945, Mimeographed notes, MIT Archives
L.N. Ridenour, Radar system engineering, 1 (New York, 1947), chapt. 1
Ernest C. Pollard, Radiation: One story of the MIT Ra- diation Laboratory (Durham, N.C., 1982).
125
"Lee DuBridge, I.I. Rabi and the war years, 1940–1946" (ref. 121), 31.
126
Margaret Gowing, Britain and atomic energy, 1939–1945 (London, 1964)
R.G. Hewlett and O.E. Anderson, The new world 1939–1946 (College Station, Pa., 1962)
Da- vid Hawkins, Project Y: The Los Alamos story, Part I: Toward Trinity (Los Angeles and San Francisco, 1983).
127
Ref. 120, 14.
128
S.S. Schweber, "The Shelter Island, Pocono and Oldstone Conferences: The birth of American quantum electrodynamics," Osiris, 2, in press
Some chapters for a history of quantum field theory, 1938–1952, in B.S. de Witt and R. Stora, eds., Relativi- ty groups and topology, (Amsterdam and New York, 1984), 40–220.
129
Richard P. Feynman, "The principle of least action in quantum mechanics," Ph.D. dissertation, Princeton University, 1942
"Space-time approach to non- relativistic quantum mechanics," Reviews of modern physics, 20 (1948), 367–387.
R.P. Feynman, "The develop- ment of the space time view of quantum electrodynamics," Science, 153, 699–708.
130
Wheeler (ref. 63)
Jeremy Bernstein, "Retarded learner," Princeton alumni week- ly, 9 Oct 1985, 28–42
131
H. A. Bethe, "The electromagnetic shift of energy levels," PR, 72 (1947), 339– 341
B. French and V. Weisskopf, "The electromagnetic shift of energy levels," PR, 75 (1949), 1240–1248
N. Kroll and W. Lamb, Jr., "On the self-energy of a bound elec- tron," ibid., 388–398.
132
Oppenheimer to Charles Lauritsen, 1945, in Smith and Wiener (ref. 2), 1945, 299.
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