[Footnotes]

[Footnotes]
1
Energy and empire: William Thomson, Lord Kel- vin, 1824–1907, to appear in 1987 from Cambridge University Press.
2
Pierre Duhem, The aim and structure of physical reality, P.P. Wiener (New York, 1962), 71, 93.
3
Ibid., 71f
William Thomson, Lectures on molecular dynamics and the wave theory of light, papyrographed stenographic edition by A.S. Hathaway (Baltimore, 1884), 270f.
4
M. Norton Wise, "The Maxwell literature and British dynamical theory," HSPS, 13 (1982), 175–205.
Ole Knudsen, "Mathematics and physical reality in William Thomson's electromagnetic theory," in Peter Harman, ed., Wranglers and physicists: studies on Cambridge physics in the nineteenth century (Manchester, 1985), 149–179
Jed Z. Buchwald, From Maxwell to microphysics: Aspects of electromagnetic theory in the last quarter of the nineteenth century (Chicago, 1985).
5
M. Norton Wise and Crosbie Smith, "The practical imperative: Kelvin chal- lenges the Maxwellians," in Robert Kargon and Peter Atchinstein, Lord Kelvin's Bal- timore lectures: Historical and philosophical perspectives on theoretical physics during the past century, to appear in 1987 from MIT Press.
6
William Thomson, "Electrical units of measurement," PL, 7, 80–143.
7
Ibid., 131f.
8
Ibid., 86f.
9
S.P. Thompson, The life of William Thomson, Baron Kelvin ofLargs, 2 vols. (London, 1910),I, 239–251, on 248–250.
10
Philosophical Society of Glasgow, Proceedings, 1 (1841–1844), 41–42.
12
James to William Thomson, 13 Aug 1863, T119, ULG
4 Aug 1844, T402, ULC.
13
James to William Thomson, c. 19 May 1844, T399, ULC.
14
James Thomson, Collected papers in physics and engineering (Cambridge, 1912).
15
I. Grattan-Guinness, "Work for the workers: Advances in engineering mechanics and instruction in France, 1800–1830," Annals of science, 41 (1984), 1-33
J.V. Pon- celet, Cours de mecanique industrielle (Metz, 1829)
S.D. Poisson, Traite de mecanique, (Paris, 1811), and second edition (Paris, 1833)
H.H. Harte as A treatise of mechanics (London, 1842)
William Whewell, A treatise on dynamics (Cambridge, 1823)
The mechanics of engineering (Cambridge, 1841)
An elementary treatise on mechanics, designed for the use of students in the university, 5th ed. (Cambridge, 1836), iv.
16
Thomas S. Kuhn, "Energy conservation as an example of simultaneous discovery," in Critical problems in the history of science, ed. Marshall Clagett (Madison, 1959), 321–356.
17
Thomas Thomson, An outline of the sciences of heat and electricity (London and Edinburgh, 1830), 335
James Thomson to William Thomson, 4 Aug 1844, T402, ULC
William Thomson, "An account of Carnot's theory of the motive power of heat; with numerical results deduced from Regnault's experiments on steam," Royal Society of Edinburgh, Transactions, 16 (1849), 541-574
MPP, 7, 113–155, on 114–116.
Martin J. Klein, "Closing the Carnot cycle," in Sadi Carnot et lessor de la thermodynamique (Paris, 1974), 213–219.
18
William Thomson, "On the mathematical theory of electricity in equilibrium. I. On the elementary laws of statical electricity," Cambridge and Dublin mathematical jou- nal, 1 (1845), 75–93, on 77–83
EM, 15–37, on 18–26.
Thompson, Life (ref. 9), 1, 113–133.
19
William Thomson, "On the uniform motion of heat in homogeneous solid bodies, and its connexion with the mathematical theory of electricity," Cambridge mathemati- cal journal, 3 (1842), 71–84
EM, 1–14.
M. Norton Wise, 'The flow analogy to electricity and magnetism, part 1: William Thomson's reformulation of ac- tion at a distance," Archive for history of exact sciences, 25 (1981), 19–70, on 32–51.
20
G.S. Ohm, "The galvanic circuit investigated mathematically," Scientific memoirs, ed. R. Taylor, 2 (London, 1841), 401–506.
21
James to William Thomson, 4 Aug 1844, T402
William's research notebook, 14 Aug 1844, NB33, ULC.
23
Samuel Earnshaw, Dynamics, or a treatise on motion; to which is added a short treatise on attractions, 3rd. ed. (Cambridge, 1844), 80.
24
William to Dr Thomson, 14 Apr 1845, T306, ULC.
25
William Thomson, "On the attractions of conducting and non-conducting electrified bodies," Cambridge mathematical journal, 3 (1843), 275–276
EM, 98–99
"Measurement of the electromotive force required to produce a spark in air between parallel metal plates at different distances," Royal Society of London, Proceedings, 10 (1860), 326–338
EM, 247–259, on 254.
26
William Thomson, "On an absolute thermometric scale, founded on Carnot's theory of the motive power of heat, and calculated from the results of Regnault's experi- ments on pressure and latent heat of steam," Philosophical magazine, 33 (1848), 313– 317
MPP, 7, 100–106, on 104.
27
Wise, "Flow analogy" (ref. 19), 56–61.
28
William Thomson and Peter Guthrie Tait, Treatise on natural philosophy (Ox- ford, 1867), § 263, 268, 287–288.
30
Thomson and Tait, Treatise (ref. 28), 437.
31
William Thomson, PA146B, 19 Nov [1862], ULC.
ref.l
32
Jack Morrell and Arnold Thackray, Gentlemen of science: Early years of the Brit- ish association for the advancement of science (Oxford, 1981), 119–127.
Robert H. Kar- gon, Science in Victorian Manchester: Enterprise and expertise (Baltimore, 1977).
33
Thomson (ref. 6), 83.
34
John Cawood, "The magnetic crusade: Science and politics in early Victorian Bri- tain," Isis, 70(1979), 493–518.
35
Leo Konigsberger, Hermann von Helmholtz, 3 vols. (Braunschweig, 1902), 1, 194–202.
36
R.A. Buchanan, "The rise of scientific engineering in Britain," British journal for the history of science, 18 (1985), 218–233.
37
PA146B (ref. 31).
39
Michael Faraday, "On electric induction–associated cases of current and static effects," Philosophical magazine, 7(1854), 197–208
Experimental researches in electrici- ty and magnetism, 3 vols. (London, 1839–55), 3, 508–520.
40
"On the theory of the electric telegraph," Royal Society of London, Proceedings, 7 (1855), 382–399
MPP, 2, 61–76, on 68.
41
William Thomson, "On the electric conductivity of commercial copper of various kinds," Royal Society of London, Proceedings, 8 (1857), 550–555
MPP, 2, 112–117, on 113.
42
Thomson (ref. 6), 82f.
43
"Remarks on retiring from the presidential chair," Institute of Electrical En- gineers, Journal, 19 (1890), 2–6
MPP, 5, 577–580.
44
William Thomson, "On the electro-dynamic qualities of metals," Philosophical transactions, 746(1856), 649–751
MPP, 2, 189–327, on 189.
45
William Thomson, "Applications of the principle of mechanical effect to the measurement of electro-motive forces, and of galvanic resistances, in absolute units," Philosophical magazine, 2 (1851), 551–562
MPP, 1, 490–502, on 491f
46
Thomson, "Measurement of electromotive force" (ref. 25), 256, 254f.
47
William Thomson, "On the mutual attraction or repulsion between two electrified spherical conductors," British Association for the Advancement of Science, Report, 22 (1852), 17–18
Philosophical magazine, 5 (1853), 287–297, 114–115
EM, 86–97, on 96
"Report of committee on standards of electrical resistance: Report on electrometers and electrostatic measurements," British Association for the Advancement of Science, Re- port, 37 (1867), 489–512
EM, 260–286, on 282.
William Thomson to G.G. Stokes, 21 Dec 1852, K61, ULC.
48
Thomson, "Report" (ref. 47), 266.
49
"Presidential address," British Association for the Advancement of Science, Re- port, 41 (1871), lxxxiv–cv
PL, 2, 132–205, on 175f.
Thompson, Life (ref. 9), 1, 524
"On a self-acting electrostatic accumulator," British Association for the Advancement of Sci- ence, Report, 37 (1867), 16
Thomson's abstract, "On a uniform-electric-current accumulator," ibid., 17, and EM, 327.
50
William Thomson, "The Bangor laboratories," PL, 2, 475–501, on 485.
51
Thomson, "Presidential address" (ref. 49), 144, 146.
52
Martin J. Wiener, English culture and the decline of the industrial spirit, 1850–1980 (Cambridge, 1981).
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