[Footnotes]

[Footnotes]
1
Ernest Rutherford, "The electrical structure of matter," British Association for the Advancement of Science, Report (1923), 1–24, on 23
Nature, 112: Suppl. (1923), 409–419
Science, 58 (1923), 209–221.
2
"Atomic nuclei and their transformations," Physical Society, Proceedings, 39 (1927), 359–372 (CP, 3, 164–180, on 164).
Eve and J. Chadwick, "Lord Rutherford 1871-1937," Royal Society of London, Obitu- ary notices, 2 (1936–38), 395–423, esp. 412–414
P. I. Dee, "The Rutherford Memorial Lecture, 1965," PRS, 298A (1967), 103–122, esp. 108–111.
3
Ernest Marsden, "The passage of a particles through hydrogen," PM, 27 (1914), 824–830, and 30 (1915), 240–243.
Er- nest Marsden, "Rutherford Memorial Lecture (1948)," Physical Society, Proceedings, 63 (1950), 320
"Rutherford-his life and work, 1871–1937: The Rutherford Memorial Lecture, 1954," PRS, 226A (1954), 298–299
"Rutherford at Manchester," in J. B. Birks, ed., Rutherford at Manchester (New York, 1963), 12.
4
Rutherford to Bohr, 9 Dec 1917
30 June and 17 Nov 1918 (BSC).
5
Rutherford, "Collision of a particles with light atoms. IV. An anomalous effect in nitrogen," PM, 57(1919), 581–587 (CP, 2, 585–590, on 589).
6
Ibid., 589–590.
7
William Alexander Kay, "Recollections of Rutherford: Being the personal reminis- cences of Lord Rutherford's laboratory assistant here published for the first time," The natural philosopher, 1 (1963), 127–155, esp. 143–145.
8
Harrie Massey and Norman Feather, "James Chadwick 1891–1974," Royal So- ciety of London, Biographical memoirs, 22 (1976), 11–70, esp. 11–15
9
"Atomic projectiles and collisions," Engineering, 707(1919), 793–794
Lindemann to Rutherford, 9 June 1919 (RC).
10
Bohr to Rutherford, 20 Oct 1919 (BSC).
11
Sommerfeld, Atombau und Spektrallinien (Branschweig, 1919), 535–541.
12
Rutherford, "Nuclear constitution of atoms," PRS, 97A (1920), 374–400 (CP, 5, 14–38, on 24).
13
Ibid., 26, 30.
14
Ibid., 34
Roger H. Stuewer, "The naming of the deuteron," American journal of physics, 54 (1986), 206–218
Charles T. Walker and Glen A. Slack, "Who named the -on's?," ibid., 38 (1970), 1380–1389
Stuewer, "The nuclear electron hypothesis," in William R. Shea, ed., Otto Hahn and the rise of nuclear physics (Dordrecht, 1983), 19- 67, esp. 26–27, 42–46.
15
Rutherford (ref. 12), 35, 37.
16
"The building up of atoms," Engineering, 110 (1920), 382.
17
Rutherford (ref. 12), 37–38.
18
Rutherford to Bohr, 13 Jul and 15 Aug 1920 (BSC).
Adolf Smekal, "Uber Rutherford's X3 und die Abweichungen vom Coulomb'schen Gesetze in grosser Nahe der elementaren elektrischen Ladungen," Akademie der Wissenschaften, Vienna, Sitzungsberichte, 130:2a (1921), 149–157.
19
Ernest Rutherford, "The mass of the long-range particles from Thorium C," PAf, 41 (1921), 570–574 (CP, 3, 43–47, on 46).
20
Ernest Rutherford and James Chadwick, "The disintegration of elements by a particles," Nature, 107 (1921), 41 (CP, 3, 41–42)
"The artificial disintegration of light elements," PM, 42 (1921), 809–825 (CP, 3, 48–62)
"Electricity and matter," En- gineering, 111 (1921), 296–297, 345–347, 379–381 (reports of Rutherford's lectures at the Royal Institution of 5, 12 and 19 Mar 1921)
"La structure de 1'atome," in Institut international de physique Solvay, Atomes et électrons: Rapports et discussions du Con- seil de Physique tenu á Bruxelles du ler au 6 avril 1921 (Paris, 1923), 36–65
Ruther- ford, "The stability of atoms," Physical Society, Proceedings, 33 (1921), 389–394.
21
Rutherford and Chadwick, "Artificial disintegration of light elements," PM, 42 (1921), 809–825 (CP, 3, 53, 56).
22
Ibid., 57–58.
23
Rutherford and Chadwick, "Disintegration of elements by a particles," Nature, 107(1921), 42.
24
Rutherford and Chadwick (ref. 21), 61–62.
25
Ibid., 59–60.
26
Ernest Rutherford and James Chadwick, "The disintegration of elements by a particles," PM, 44 (1922), 417–432 (CP, 5, 67–80, on 78).
27
Weiner-Chadwick interview (ref. 8), 52.
28
Roger H. Stuewer, "Artificial disintegration and the Cambridge-Vienna contro- versy," in Peter Achinstein and Owen Hannaway, eds., Observation, experiment, and hy- pothesis in modern physical science (Cambridge, Mass., 1985), 239–307.
29
Karl K. Darrow, "Contemporary advances in physics, XXII. Transmutation," Bell Telephone System, Tech. Pub. Monograph B-596 (1931), on 14.
Bell System technical journal, 10 (1931), 628–655.
30
G. Kirsch and H. Pettersson, "Long-range particles from radium-active deposit," Nature, 772(1923), 394–395.
31
L. F. Bates and J. S. Rogers, "Long-range particles from radium-active deposit," Nature, 112 (1923), 435–436
G. Kirsch and H. Pettersson, "Long-range particles from radium-active deposit," ibid., 687.
32
H. Pettersson, "On the structure of the atomic nucleus and the mechanism of its disintegration," Physical Society, Proceedings, 36 (1924), 194–202, on 194, 196.
33
Ernest Rutherford and James Chadwick, "The bombardment of elements by a particles," Nature, 113(1924), 457 (CP, 3, 110–112).
34
G. Kirsch and H. Pettersson, "The artificial disintegration of atoms," Nature, 113 (1924), 603.
35
E. Rutherford and J. Chadwick, "Further experiments on the artificial disintegra- tion of elements," Physical Society, Proceedings, 36 (1924), 417–422 (CP, 3, 113–119, on 116)
Rutherford to Bohr, 18 Jul 1924 (BSC).
36
Ibid., 118.
37
Ibid., p. 119.
38
E. Rutherford and J. Chadwick, "On the origin and nature of the long-range par- ticles observed with sources of Radium C," PM, 48 (1924), 509–526 (CP, 3, 120–135, on 122).
"Transmutation effects observed with heavy hydrogen," PRS, 144A (1934), 692–703.
Mark Oliphant, Rutherford: Recollections of the Cambridge days (Amsterdam, 1972), 110.
39
A. S. Eve, Rutherford (New York and Cambridge, 1939), 296–300.
40
Chadwick to Rutherford, Sep 1924 (RC)
Eve (ref. 39), 300–301.
41
J. Perrin, "Discussion," in Atomes et Electrons (ref. 20), 68
Pettersson to Ruther- ford, 13 Jul 1924 (RC)
Rutherford, "Disintegration of atomic nuclei," Nature, 115 (1925), 493–494 (CP, 3, 136–138).
42
Chadwick to Rutherford (ref. 40).
43
E. Rutherford, "The stability of atoms" (Trueman Wood Lecture, 4 Feb 1925), Royal Society of Arts, Journal, 73 (1925), 389–402, esp. 401–402 (not in CP).
44
E. S. Bieler, "The large-angle scattering of a particles by light nuclei," PRS, 105A (1924) , 434–450
E. Rutherford and J. Chadwick, "Scattering of a particles by atomic nuclei and the law of force," PM, 50 (1925), 889–913 (CPR, 5, 143–163, on 144).
45
"Studies of atomic nuclei," Engineering, 119 (1925), 437–438
Nature, 115 (1925) , 505
46
Rutherford and Chadwick (ref. 44), 152–153.
47
Ibid., 162.
48
E. Rutherford (ref. 45), 438.
49
Rutherford and Chadwick (ref. 44), 163.
50
"The nucleus of the atom," Engineering, 117 (1924), 458–459.
51
Ernest Rutherford, "The natural and artificial disintegration of the elements," Franklin Institute, Journal, 198 (1924), 725–744, on 729 (not in CP).
52
Ibid., 732–733.
53
Ibid., 741–743.
54
Rutherford and Chadwick (ref. 44); 144–145
Rutherford (ref. 43), (ref. 45).
55
Ibid., 156, 158.
56
Ibid., 163.
57
Eve (ref. 39), 307–341
Norman Feather, Lord Rutherford (London and Glasgow, 1940), 169–172
David Wilson, Rutherford: Simple genius (London, 1983), 462–466.
58
Chadwick to Rutherford, probably July-August 1925 (RC).
Lawrence Badash, ed., Rutherford correspondence catalog (New York: AIP Center for History of Physics, 1974)
59
H. Pettersson and G. Kirsch, "Atomzertriimmerung," in Handbuch der Physik, 22, ed. H. Geiger and Karl Scheel (Berlin, 1926), 146–178
G. Kirsch, "Atomzertrummerung," Ergebnisse der exakten Naturwissenschaften, 5 (1926), 165–191
H. Pettersson and G. Kirsch, Atomzertriimmerung: Verwandlung der Elemente durch Bestrahlung mit a-Teilchen (Leipzig, 1926)
Stuewer (ref. 28), 267–268.
60
J. Chadwick, "Observations concerning the artificial disintegration of elements," PM, 2 (1926), 1056–1075
G. Kirsch and H. Pettersson, "Die Zerlegung der Elemente durch Atomzertrummerung," Zeitschrift fur Physik, 42 (1927), 641–678
Stuewer (ref. 28), 281–283.
61
E. Rutherford, "Atomic nuclei and their transformations," Physical Society of London, Proceedings, 39 (1926–27), 359–372, the Guthrie Lecture (CP, 3, 164–180)
Eve (ref. 39), 321
"Alpha-rays and atomic structure, IV," Engineering, 123 (1927), 492–493, Royal Institution lecture.
62
Debye to Rutherford, 6 Feb 1926 (RC)
P. Debye and W. Hardmeier, "Anomale Zerstreuung von a-Strahlen," Physikalische Zeitschrift, 27 (1926), 196–199
W. Hard- meier, "Zur anomalen Zerstreuung von a-Strahlen," ibid., 574–576
"Anomale Zer- streuung von a-Strahlen," ibid., 28 (1927), 181–195.
63
Rutherford (ref. 61), 174–175.
64
Ibid., 178.
65
Ibid., 178–179
L. Meitner, "Über die verschiedenen Arten des radioaktiven Zer- falls und die Möglichkeit ihrer Deutung aus der Kernstruktur," Zeitschrift für Physik, 4 (1921), 146–156.
66
Rutherford (ref. 61), 179
E. Rutherford, "Structure of the radioactive atom and the origin of the a-rays," PM, 4 (1927), 580–605 (CP, 3, 181–202, on 200).
67
Rutherford (ref. 66), 190–191
S. Goudsmit and E. Back, "Feinstrukturen und Termordnung des Wismutspektrums," Zeitschrift für Physik, 43 (1927), 321–334
O.W. Richardson, "The present state of atomic physics," Physical Society, Proceedings, 39 (1927), 171–186.
68
Rutherford (ref. 67), 186.
69
Ibid., 189.
70
Ibid., 194, 196
H. Geiger and J.M. Nuttall, "The ranges of the α particles from uranium," PM, 23 (1912), 439–445.
71
E. Rutherford, "Radiations from exploding atoms," Nature, 95 (1915), 494–498 (CP, 2, 495–504, esp. 501).
72
Rutherford (ref. 67), 197–198, 200
W. Kuhn, "Polarisierbarkeit der Atomkerne und Ursprung der γ-Strahlen," Zeitschrift für Physik, 44 (1927), 32–35.
73
Ibid., 201.
74
E. Rutherford, "Structure of radioactive atoms and the origin of the a rays," in Congresso Internazionale dei Fisici, 11–20 Settembre 1927, Atti (2 vols., Bologna: Zani- chelli, 1928), 7, 55–64.
75
Ibid., 64.
76
Stuewer (ref. 28), 284–288.
77
Emilio Segre, Enrico Fermi physicist (Chicago, 1970), 58
G. Gentile, "Sulla teoria dei satelliti di Rutherford," Reale Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei, AM, 7(1928), 346–349.
78
Rutherford (ref. 66)
G. Gamow, My world line: An informal autobiography (New York, 1970), 60
Roger H. Stuewer, "Gamow's theory of alpha decay," in The kaleido- scope of science: The Israel Colloquium: Studies in history, philosophy, and sociology of science, Vol. 1, ed., E. Ullmann-Margalit (Dordrecht, 1986), 147–186.
79
G. Gamow, "Zur Quantentheorie des Atomkernes," Zeitschrift fur Physik, 51 (1928), 204–212, on 205
R. W. Gurney and E. U. Condon, "Wave mechanics and ra- dioactive disintegration," Nature, 122 (1928), 439
"Quantum mechanics and ra- dioactive disintegration," Physical review, 33 (1929), 127–140.
80
Gurney and Condon (ref. 79), 439.
81
G. Gamow, "The quantum theory of nuclear disintegration," Nature, 22 (1928), 805–806.
82
Bohr to R. H. Fowler, 14 Dec 1928
Rutherford to Bohr, 19 Dec 1928 (BSC).
83
Gamow (ref. 78), 68.
84
G. Gamow, "Zur Quantentheorie der Atomzertrummerung," Zeitschrift für Phy- sik, 52 (1928), 510–515, on 515
E.T.S. Walton to E. M. McMillan, 11 Apr 1977, in Roger H. Stuewer, ed., Nuclear physics in retrospect: Proceedings of a symposium on the 1930s (Minneapolis, 1979), 141–142.
85
PRS, 123A (1929), 373–390.
86
K. K. Darrow, "Contemporary advances in physics, XXVIII. The nucleus," Bell Telephone System Tech. Pub. Monograph B–810 (1934), p. 29, reprinted from Bell Sys- tem technical journal, 13 (1934), 391–404, 580–613
87
E. Rutherford, J. Chadwick, and C. D. Ellis, Radiations from radioactive sub- stances (New York and Cambridge, 1930), 326–333, esp. 327
Weiner-Chadwick inter- view (ref. 8), 49.
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