[Footnotes]

[Footnotes]
1
M. de Broglie, "La relation hv = E dans les phénoménes photoélectriques," in Atomes et électrons, 3rd Solvay congress (1921), Rapports et discussions (Paris, 1923), 89.
2
B. Wheaton, The tiger and the shark: Empirical roots of wave-particle dualism (Cambridge, 1983).
3
L. de Broglie, "Rayonnement noir et quanta de lumière," Journal de physique, 3 (1922), 422–428, on 428
M. Jammer, The conceptual development of quantum mechanics (New York, 1966), 5.3: "The rise of wave mechanics;"
F. Kubli, "Louis de Broglie und die Entdeckung der Materiewellen," AHES, 7 (1970), 26–68
Wheaton (ref. 2).
4
De Broglie (ref. 3)
"Sur les interferences et la théorie des quanta de lumiére," CR, 175 (1922), 811–813
A. loffe, "Zur Theorie der Strahlungserscheinungen," AP, 36 (1911), 534–552
G. Krutkow, "Aus der Annahme unabhängiger Lichtquanten folgt die Wiensche Strahlungsformel," PZ, 15 (1914), 113–136
M. Wolfke, "Einsteinsche Lichtquanta und räumliche Struktur der Strahlung," PZ, 22 (1921), 375–379
W. Bothe, "Die räumliche Energieverteilung in der Hohlraumstrahlung," ZP, 20 (1923), 145–152.
5
De Broglie (ref. 4), 813.
6
ref. 3
7
L. de Broglie, "Ondes et quanta," CR, 177 (1923), 507–510
Recherches sur la théorie des quanta, thesis defended at the Sorbonne on 25 Nov 1924, republished by Masson (Paris, 1963).
Wheaton (ref. 2), 291.
8
L. de Broglie, "Quanta de lumiére, diffraction et interferences" (24 Sep 1923), CR, 777(1923), 548–550.
9
Ibid.
10
L. de Broglie, "Sur la dynamique des quanta de lumiére et les interfèrences" (17 Nov 1924), CR, 779(1924), 1039–1041.
11
L. de Broglie, "Les quanta, la théorie cinétique des gaz et le principe de Fermat" (8 Oct 1923), CR, 177 (1923), 630–632
ref. 8
13
De Broglie, Recherches (ref. 7), 103–104.
14
Ibid., 98–99
A. Kastler, "On the historical development of the indistinguishability concept for microparticles," in A. van der Merwe, ed., Old and new questions in physics, cosmology and theoretical biology (New York, 1983)
M. Klein, "Ehrenfest's contributions to the development of quantum statistics," Akademie van Wetenschappen, Amsterdam, Proceedings, 62:B (1959), 41–62
O. Darrigol, "La genése du concept de champ quantique," Annales de physique, 9 (1984) 433–501.
15
P. Hanle, "The coming of age of Schrödinger: His quantum statistics of ideal gases," AHES, 77:2(1977), 165–192.
16
P. Ehrenfest, "Zur Planckschen Strahlungstheorie," PZ, 7 (1906), 528–533
P. Debye, "Der Wahrscheinlichkeitsbegriff in der Theorie der Strahlung," AP, 33 (1910), 1427–1434
P. Langevin, in La théorie du rayonnement et les quanta, 1st Solvay congress (1911), Rapports et discussions (Paris, 1912), 118–119.
17
Debye (ref. 16), 1434.
18
Ehrenfest (ref. 16), 531.
19
P. Ehrenfest, "Welche Züge der Lichquantenhypothese spielen in der Theorie der Wärmestrahlung eine wesentliche Rolle?" AP, 36 (1911), 91–118, on 111
L. Natanson, "Über die statistische Theorie der Strahlung," PZ, 12 (1911), 659–666
M. Klein, Paul Ehrenfest (Amsterdam, 1970), 255.
20
De Broglie, Recherches (ref. 7)
21
Bose to Einstein, 4 Jun 1924
Jammer (ref. 3), 248.
22
S.N. Bose, "Plancks Gesetz und Lichtquantenhypothese," ZP, 26 (1924), 178– 181.
23
Ibid.
24
A. Einstein, "Quantentheorie des einatomigen idealen gases," BB (10 Jul 1924), 261–267.
25
A. Einstein, "Quantentheorie des einatomigen idealen gases. 2. Abhandlung," BB (8 Jan 1925), 3–14, on 5.
26
J. Mehra and H. Rechenberg, The historical development of quantum theory, 4 vols., (New York, 1982), 1:2, on 571, note 872.
27
H.A. Lorentz in "Alte und neue Fragen der Physik," PZ, 11 (1910), 1234–1257
T.S. Kuhn, Blackbody theory and the quantum discontinuity, 1894–1912 (Oxford, 1978), on 48, 102.
28
M. Wolfke, "Zur Quantentheorie," PGV, 15 (1913), 1123–1129, 1215–1218
R. Emden, "Über Lichtquanten," PZ, 22 (1921), 513–517.
29
Einstein (ref. 25).
30
A. Russo, "Fundamental research at Bell Laboratories: The discovery of elec- tron diffraction," HSPS, 12:1 (1981), 117–160
31
Jammer (ref. 3)
V.V. Raman and P. Forman, "Why was it Schrödinger who developed de Broglie's ideas?" HSPS, 1 (1969), 291–314
L. Wessels, "Schrödinger's route to wave mechanics," Studies in the history and philosophy of science, 10 (1979), 311–340.
32
O. Sackur, "Die Anwendung der kinetischen Theorie der Gase auf chemische Probleme," AP, 36 (1911), 958–980
H. Tetrode, "Die chemische Konstante der Gase und das elementare Wirkungsquantum," AP, 38 (1912), 434–442
AP, 39 (1912), 255–256
M. Planck, Vorlesungen über die Wärmestrahlung, 2nd ed. (Leipzig, 1913), on 130–131.
E. Hiebert, Dictionary of scientific biography, s.v. "Nernst."
33
M. Planck, "Über die absolute Entropie einatomiger Körper," BB (1916), 653– 667
P. Ehrenfest and V. Trkal, "Ableitung des Dissociationsgleichgewichts aus der Quantentheorie und darauf beruhende Berechnung chemischer Konstanten," AP, 65 (1921), 609–628.
34
E. Schrödinger, "Gasentartung und freie Weglänge," PZ, 25 (1923), 41–45.
35
E. Schrödinger, "Bemerkungen über statistische Entropiedefinition beim idealen Gas," BB (23 Jul 1925), 434–441, on 440.
36
Ibid.
37
E. Schrödinger, "Zur Einsteinschen Gastheorie," PZ, 27 (1926), 95–101 (received 25 Dec 1925).
38
Ibid.
39
Ibid., 95, 101.
40
L. de Broglie, "A tentative theory of lightquanta," Philosophical Magazine, 47 (1924), 446–458.
41
Kapitza Club, "Minutes," AHQP
42
P. Dirac, "The conditions for statistical equilibrium between atoms, electrons and radiation," PRS, 106 (1924), 581–596, on 594.
44
P. Jordan and O. Klein, "Zum Mehrkorperproblem der Quantentheorie," ZP, 45 (1927), 751–765, on 751.
45
Jordan (ref. 43), 1st session, 6.
46
P. Jordan, Anschauliche Quantentheorie (Berlin, 1936), viii.
47
Jordan (ref. 43), 1st session, 6.
48
P. Jordan, "Zur Theorie der Quantenstrahlung," ZP, 30 (1924), 297–319.
49
A. Einstein, "Bemerkung zu P. Jordans Abhandlung 'Zur Theorie der Quanten- strahlung,'" ZP, 31 (1925), 784–785.
50
P. Jordan, "Über das thermische Gleichgewicht zwischen Quantenatomen und Hohlraumstrahlung," ZP, 33 (1925), 649–655, on 652.
51
O. Stern, "Über das Gleichgewicht zwischen Materie und Strahlung," Zeitschrift fu̵r Electrochemie, 31 (1925), 448—449
"Über die Umwandlung von Atomen in Strahlung," Zeitschrift fu̵r physikalische Chemie, 120 (1926), 60–62
P. Jordan, "Über die thermodynamische Gleichgewichtskonzentration der kosmischen Materie," ZP, 41 (1927), 711–717.
J. Bromberg, "The concept of particle creation before and after quantum mechanics," HSPS, 7(1976), 161–191, on 184–186.
52
W. Duane, "The transfer in quanta of radiation momentum to matter," National Academy of Sciences, Proceedings, 9 (1923), 158–164
P. Jordan, "Bemerkung über einen Zusammenhang zwischen Duanes Quantentheorie der Interferenz und den de Bro- glieschen Wellen," ZP, 57(1926), 376–382.
53
M. Born and P. Jordan, "Zur Quantenmechanik," ZP, 34 (1925), 858–888.
M. Born, My life: Recollections of a Nobel laureate (New York, 1978), on 118.
54
Heisenberg to Jordan, 7 Oct 1925 (AHQP).
55
M. Born, W. Heisenberg and P. Jordan, "Zur Quantenmechanik, II," ZP, 35 (1926), 557-615
Heisenberg to Pauli, 23 Oct 1925 (PB, 102).
56
P. Ehrenfest, "Energieschwankungen im Strahlungsfeld oder Kristallgitter bei Su- perposition quantisierter Eigenschwingungen," ZP, 34 (1925), 362–373
Born, Heisen- berg, and Jordan (ref. 55), 610.
57
Einstein to Jordan, 6 Mar 1926 (AHQP).
58
H.A. Lorentz, Les theories statistiques en thermodynamique, Conferences au College de France notees par L. Dunoyer (Leipzig, 1916), 59
M. Planck, in La theorie (ref. 16), 101–102.
59
A. Smekal, "Zur Quantenstatistik der Hohlraumstrahlung und ihrer Wechselwir- kung mit der Materie," ZP, 57(1926), 319–341, on 322–323.
60
W. Heisenberg, "Mehrkorperproblem und Resonanz in der Quantenmechanik," ZP, 55(1926), 411–426.
61
Heisenberg to Born, Jordan, and Smekal, 29 Oct 1926 (AHQP).
62
Jordan to Born, 3 Jul 1948 (AHQP).
Jordan to Bohr, 29 Jul 1926
Franck to Bohr, 9 Jul 1926
Bohr to Franck, 21 Jul 1926 (AHQP)
63
Jordan to Schrodinger, summer 1927 (original undated) (AHQP).
64
P. Jordan, "Die Entwicklung der neuen Quantenmechanik," Die Naturwissen- schaften, 15 (1927), 614–623, 636–649, on 642–643.
65
P. Dirac, "The quantum theory of the emission and absorption of radiation," PRS, 114(1921), 243–265.
66
E. Schrodinger, "Der Energieimpulssatz der Materiewellen," AP, 82 (1927), 265– 272.
E.T. Jaynes, "Survey of the present state of the neo-classical radia- tion theory," in L. Mandel and E. Wolf, eds., Coherence and quantum optics (New York, 1973), 35-81.
67
P. Dirac, "The physical interpretation of the quantum dynamics," PRS, 113 (1927), 621–641.
68
N. Bohr, in Electrons et photons, 5th Solvay congress (1927), Rapports et discus- sions (Paris, 1928), 241–242.
69
P. Jor- dan, "Zur Methode der zweiten Quantelung," ZP, 75 (19 32) 648-6 5 3
V. Fock, "Konfigurationsraum und zweite Quantelung," ibid., 622–647.
ref. 43
71
P. Dirac, "On the theory of quantum mechanics," PRS, 112 (1926), 661–677.
72
Dirac (ref. 65), 245.
73
Ibid., 244.
74
Ibid., 247.
75
W. Pauli, "Über Gasentartung und Paramagnetismus," ZP, 41 (1927) 81–102, on 95–96.
76
P. Jordan, "Über eine neue Begnindung der Quantenmechanik, II," ZP, 44 (1927), 1–25.
77
Ref. 76, 2.
78
Jordan (ref. 76), 3.
79
P. Jordan, "Zur Quantenmechanik der Gasentartung," ZP, 44 (1927), 473–480.
81
P. Jordan, Physics in the 20th century (New York, 1944), 144, 146
M. Cini, "Cultural traditions and environmental factors in the development of quan- tum electrodynamics (1925-1933)," Fundamenta scientiae, 3 (1982), 229-253, on 248.
82
P. Jordan and W. Pauli, "Zur Quantenelektrodynamik ladungsfreier Felder," ZP, 47 (1928), 151–173
Pauli to Bohr of 6 Aug 1927 (PB, 168)
83
Klein to Dirac, 24 Mar 1927 (AHQP).
84
Bohr to Pauli, 15 Jul 1927 (PB, 167).
85
Klein (ref. 83).
86
P. Jordan and O. Klein, "Zum Mehrkorperproblem der Quantentheorie," ZP, 45 (1927), 751–765.
87
P. Jordan, "ÜWellen und Korpuskeln in der Quantenmechanik," ZP, 45 (1927), 766–775.
88
J.L. Heilbron, "The Copenhagen spirit in quantum physics and its earliest missionaries," Revue d'histoire des sciences (1986), 194–230
L. Rosenfeld, "Men and ideas in the history of atomic theory," AHES, 7 (1971), 69–90.
90
N. Bohr(ref. 68), 241, 238.
91
Schrodinger (ref. 66).
92
Schrodinger, in Electrons et photons (ref. 68)y 208.
93
E. Schrödinger, "The meaning of wave mechanics," in Louis de Broglie physi- cien et penseur (Paris, 1953), 16-32, on 24, 28.
94
Dirac, Electrons et photons (ref. 68), 270.
95
P. Dirac, "Recollections of an exciting era," in Charles Weiner, ed., History of twentieth century physics (New York, 1977), 109–146, on 140
International school of physics "Enrico Fermi," course 57
96
P. Dirac, The principles of quantum mechanics (Oxford, 1930), preface.
97
Bromberg (ref. 51), 190
H. Kragh, "Cosmophysics in the thirties: To- wards a history of Dirac cosmology," HSPS, 13:1 (1982), 69–108, on 87–89.
98
P. Dirac, "The fundamental equations of quantum mechanics," PRS, 109 (1925), 642-653, on 642.
99
M. de Maria and F. la Teana, "Dirac's unorthodox contribution to orthodox quantum mechanics (1925–1927)," Nota interna 768 (1981), Istituto di fisica "G. Mar- coni," Università di Roma, INFN, Sezione di Roma, p. 16.
100
Dirac, Electrons et photons (ref. 68), on 270.
101
H. Kragh, "The genesis of Dirac's relativistic theory of the electron," AHES, 24(1982), 31–67.
102
V. Fock, "Verallgemeinerung und Lösung der Diracschen statistischen Gleichung," ZP, 49 (1928), 339–357
V. Fock, "Konfigurationsraum und zweite Quan- telung," ZP, 75 (1932), 622–647.
103
H. Weyl, Gruppentheorie und Quantenmechanik, 2nd ed. (Leipzig, 1931), section IV C 12.
104
Ibid., 263–264
V. Fock, "Zur Theorie der Positronen," Akademiia Nauk, Dokla- dy, (1933), 267–271
F.J. Belinfante, "Undor calculus and charge-conjugation," Physica,
105
Heisenberg to Pauli, 23 Feb 1927 (PB, 154).
106
Heisenberg to Jordan, 12 Dec 1927 (AHQP).
107
Bohr to Pauli, 15 Jul 1927 (PB, 167)
6 Aug 1927 (PB, 168).
108
Pauli to Kronig, 22 Nov 1927 (PB, 175)
A. Einstein, W. Pauli, Electrons et pho- tons, (ref. 68), 256–257
Klein (ref. 83), session 2, 4.
109
W. Heisenberg and W. Pauli, "Zur Quantendynamik der Wellenfelder," ZP, 56 (1929), 1–61
"Zur Quantentheorie der Wellenfelder, II," ZP, 59 (1930), 168–190.
Darrigol (ref. 14).
110
Einstein (ref. 108).
111
Heisenberg and Pauli (ref. 109), 170
Bromberg (ref. 51).
112
Heisenberg and Pauli (ref. 109), 55, 60–61
Pauli to Klein, 18 Feb 1929 (PB, 216).
113
R.J. Oppenheimer, "Note on the theory of the interaction of field and matter," PR, 35 (1930), 461-477
ref. 109, 55
E. Fermi, "Sopra 1'elettrodinamica quantistica," Accademia dei Lincei, Rendi- conti, 5 (1929), 881-887, on 881.
Oppenheimer and Fermi (ref. 115)
O. Darrigol, La naissance de la theorie quan- tique des champs, 1925– 1948, These de 3eme cycle (unpublished; Paris, 1982).
114
Oppenheimer (ref. 113)
Pauli to Bohr, 17 Jul 1929 (PB, 231).
115
E. Fermi (ref. 113)
"Nota II," ibid., 12 (1930), 431–435
E. Fermi, "Quantum theory of radiation," Reviews of modern physics, 4 (1932), 87-132.
117
Heisenberg and Pauli (ref. 109), 190
L. Landau and R. Peierls, "Quantenelek- trodynamik im Konfigurationsraum," ZP, 62 (1930), 188–200
R.J. Oppenheimer, "Note on the lightquanta and the electromagnetic field," PR, 38 (1931), 725–746.
118
W. Heisenberg, "Bemerkung zur Strahlungstheorie," AP, 9 (1931), 338–346, on 338.
119
O. Klein, ZP, 41 (1927), 407–442.
120
W. Pauli, "Die allgemeinen Prinzipien der Wellenmechanik," in Handbuch der Physik, 24:1 (Berlin, 1933), 83–272, section 15: "Korrespondenzmässige Behandlung der Strahlungsvorgange," 201–210, on 198, 200.
121
P. Dirac, "Relativistic quantum mechanics," PRS, 136 (1932), 453–464, on 454.
122
W. Heisenberg, "Die 'beobachtbaren Grössen' in der Theorie der Elementarteil- chen," ZP, 720(1943), 513–538, 673–702.
123
L. Rosenfeld, "Über eine mögliche Fassung des Diracschen Programms zur Quantenelektrodynamik und deren formalen Zusammenhang mit der Heisenberg- Paulischen Theorie," ZP, 76 (1932), 729–734
P. Dirac, V. Fock, and B. Podolsky, "On quantum electrodynamics," Physikalische Zeitschrift der Sowjetunion, 2:6 (1932), 468- 479, on 468.
124
P. Dirac, "Théorie du positron," in Structure et proprietes du noyau atomigue, 7th Solvay congress (1933), Rapports et discussions (Paris, 1934), 203–212.
125
W. Furry and R. Oppenheimer, "On the theory of electron and positive," PR, 45 (1934), 245–262, on 246.
126
V. Fock (ref. 104); W. Heisenberg, "Bemerkungen zur Diracschen Theorie des Positrons," ZP, 90 (1934), 209–231
Heisenberg to Pauli, 17 Jul 1933 (PB, 316).
127
W. Pauli and V. Weisskopf, "Zur Quantisierung der skalaren relativistischen Wellengleichung," Helvetica physica acta, 7 (1934), 709–731
"Subtraction-physics," in Weisskopf to Heisenberg, 3 May and 16 May 1934 (AHQP)
"Anti-Dirac," in Pauli to Heisenberg, 14 Jun 1934 (PB, 373)
Weisskopf (ref. 115)
D. Ivanenko and A. Soko- lov, "Bemerkungen zur zweiten Quantelung der Dirac-Gleichung," Physikalische Zeitschrift der Sowjetunion, 11 (1937), 590-596
G. Wentzel, Einfuhrung in die Quan- tentheorie der Wellenfelder (Vienna, 1943).
128
E. Fermi, "Tentativo di una teoria dell'emissione dei raggi 'beta,'" Ricerca scientifica, 4 (1933), 491-495
"Tentativo di una teoria dei raggi β," Nuovo cimento, 2 (1934), 1—19
"Versuch einer Theorie der β-Strahlen, I," ZP, 88 (1934), 161-171.
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