[Footnotes]

[Footnotes]
1
Seek and strike. Sonar, anti-submarine warfare and the Royal Navy, 1914–1954 (HMSO, 1985).
2
D. K. Allison, New eye for the Navy. The origin of radar at the Naval Research La- boratory (NRL Report 8466).
R. Watson- Watt, The pulse of radar (New York, 1959)
British naval radar, Hezlet (ref. 12).
3
Underwater acoustics and the US Navy. A preliminary historical bibliography. Volume 1, 1917–1946.
NRL Memorandum Report 5226, 1983
refs. 38-40
4
J. Hendry in The British journal for the history of science, 13 (1980), 258–262
O. Frisch, What little I remember (Cambridge University Press, 1979)
R.H. Stuewer (ed.), Nuclear physics in retrospect. Proceedings of a symposium on the 1930s (Minneapolis, 1979).
5
Lord Rayleigh (J.W. Strutt), The theory of sound, 2nd ed. (2 vols., London, 1894, 1896).
6
A.B. Wood, A textbook of sound, 3rd ed. (London, 1955).
"Memorial Issue," Journal of the Royal Navy Scientific Service, 20 (1965), 185–284 (in the journal sequence, or 1–100 in this special memorial issue).
Sound, its uses and control, 1:3 (1962), 8–17.
7
R.M. MacLeod and E.K. Andrews, "Scientific advice in the war at sea, 1915–1917: The board of invention and research," Journal of contemporary history, 6 (1971), 3–40
W.D. Hackmann, "Underwater acoustics and the Royal Navy," Annals of Science, 36, (1979), 262–265.
8
E. von der Porten, The German Navy in World War Two (London, 1981), 164, 213–214.
9
H. Maass of Atlas-Werke at the Naval Underwater Systems Center (NUSC), New London, on 7–8 Oct 1965.
L. Batchelder, "Sonar in the German Navy," Technical Report No. 530–45, October 1945
B. von Mullenheim-Reichberg, Battleship Bismarck. A survivor's story (London, 1980), 103–118.
10
PRO:ADM 1/8609, Minutes dated 30 Jun 1920 and 27 Jul 1921.
11
PRO:CAB 16/37/1, Minutes of the Naval Shipbuilding Sub-committee of the CID, 27 Jan 1921.
12
A.R. Hezlet, The electron and sea power (London, 1975), 180
S.W. Roskill, Naval policy between the wars, (2 vols., London, 1968, 1976), 2, 227–228
Na- tional Maritime Museum, Greenwich (NMM): HT 4/3, Chatfield Papers, Churchill to Chatfield 18 June 1936 (in error for 1938).
13
PRO:ADM 205/13, File 2, Part 1, Section A. Correspondence with Prime Minister January-February 1942.
14
S.W. Roskill, Churchill and the admirals (London, 1977), 135.
15
K. Doenitz, Memoirs: Ten years and twenty days (London, 1959), 12–17.
16
PRO:ADM 1/8715/194, "Limitations of armaments, submarines. Asdics 1927."
17
A.R. Hezlet, The submarine and sea power (London, 1967), 118.
18
Roskill (ref. 12), 1, 543.
PRO:ADM 116/3049, Italian-Abyssinian dispute, 1935–1937.
19
PRO:ADM 116/5307, "Fuehrer conference of naval affairs 1939–45."
20
PRO:ADM 116/2780, A/S Establishment, Portland. Organization 1930–1931.
21
Hackmann (ref. 7), 255–257.
22
"Submarine signalling by means of sound," Engineering, 79 (1905), 651–653
Journal of the society of arts, 54 (1906), 642–651
"Recent developments in submarine signalling," Transactions of the society of naval architects and marine en- gineers, 22 (1914), 107–132
H.W. Fay, Submarine signal log (Portsmouth, RI: Raytheon Company's Submarine Signal Division, 1963).
23
O.J. Scott, The creative ordeal. The story of Raytheon (New York, 1974).
24
Hackmann (ref. 7), 257–262
R.F. Pocock and G.R.M. Garrett, The origins of maritime radio (London, Science Museum, 1972).
"Annual report of the torpedo school HMS Vernon" for 1893 and 1894 in PRO.ADM 189/13 and 14.
25
Wood (ref. 6), 3rd ed. [1955], 512–513
F.V. Hunt, Electroacoustics. The analysis of transduction and its historical background (Harvard University Press, 1954), 45
R.F. Blake, "Submarine signalling," The electrician, 74 (1914), 172–174
Transactions of the American institute of electrical engineers, 33 (1914), 1549–1565.
26
PRO:CAB 21/7, Submarine menace—Lord Fisher.
27
R. Compton-Hall, Submarine boats. The beginnings of underwater warfare (Leicester, 1983), 26.
28
Wood (ref. 6), "Memorial issue," 19; PRO:ADM 212/157
29
PRO:ADM 137/2715, ASD war records— organization
ADM 212/158, BIR organization 1915-1917.
ADM 116/1430.
J.K. Gusewelle, "The Board of Invention and Research: A case study in the relations between academic sci- ence and the Royal Navy in Great Britain during the first world war," (Ph.D. thesis, University of California, Irvine, 1971, 10-23
30
Wood (ref. 6), "Memorial issue," 205
PRO:ADM 218/13, DER, Report on the detection of submarines by acoustic methods (Office of DER, Admiralty, E.R. 01001, December 1918), 245-250
31
Naval Historical Library, London (NHB): The Central Committee, BIR, for 10 May 1917
"Memorandum of preliminary meeting of sub-committee, Section II," for 23 May and 7 Aug 1917
NRL: Harvey Hayes Papers, box 1, file 2–4.
32
PRO:ADM 218/104
BIR 30051/17, in the bound BIR volume of Section II, Reports.
33
Hackmann (ref. 7), 267–272
E. Klein, Notes on underwater sound research and applications before 1939.
ONR Report ACR–135, 1967), 1–6
M. Lasky, "Review of World War I acoustic technology" (unclassified), U.S. Navy journal of underwater acous- tics, 24 (1974), 363–385
ibid., 24 (1974), 597–605.
NRL: Harvey Hayes Papers, box 3, folder 32–2 and box 4, folders 47,47B.
34
NRL: Harvey Hayes Papers, box 1, folder 19–2.
35
Hackmann (ref. 7), 272–276
French patent 502,913 (1920).
36
NHL: Admiralty, "Technical notes on echo detection," The technical history of the Navy, TH 49 (Signal Department, Dec 1920), 6. Another copy at NMM.
37
NRL: M.I. Pupin, "History of supersonics," report dated Jan 1919
38
NRL: W.G. Cady, "Report of investigations in piezoelectricity with special refer- ence to Rochelle Salt (twice!) receivers for use in supersonics,"
"Piezoelectricity and ultrasonics," Sound, its uses and control, 2:1 (1963), 48–49
Hunt (ref.25), 51
R.E. Del Santo, Early developments in the field of sonar (New London, USNUSL, USL Technical Memorandum 904, 3–1–64, 8 Jan 1964), 11.
39
NRL: "History of supersonics: problems nos. 151 and 190," dated Jan 1919.
40
NA:RG 189, "Report of an Inter-Allied conference on the detection of subma- rines by the method of supersonics," Paris, 19–20 Oct 1918 (Paris Report no. 161 and 161 A)
K.T. Compton, "The Langevin apparatus for supersonic signalling and detection of submarines by echo," 28 Aug 1918
41
Ibid., "Report of the Langevin-Colin Board, Toulon, on tests of apparatus" (translation), dated 5 and 8 Jul 1918
"Minutes of the meeting of July 19, 1918" (no. 14)
42
Hezlet (ref. 17), 151
R.M. Grant, U-boats destroyed. The effect of anti-submarine warfare 1914–1918 (London, 1964), 142–146, and letter to author, dated 30 Sep 1976.
43
[A.P. Hilar], Sonar-detector of submerged submarines (Navy Department, Office Chief Naval Operations, OPNAV P 413-104, Press release 6 Apr 1946). Copy in PRO:ADM 213/341.
44
Klein (ref. 33), 24–25
PRO:ADM 199/1730, DA/SW Departmental records, 3rd meeting, 18 Nov 1941 and ADM 1/3718.
45
Klein (ref. 33), 7–8
NAS: S.L. Knox report no. 8, dated 14 Oct 1918, to the Research Information Committee in Washington
NAS archives under General rela- tions: Res. Info. Service: Foreign Offices: Rome Reports: General 1918
46
PRO:ADM 186/465, Osprey Quarterly Report, no. 8, June 1929, section II.
British patents 329,403 (1930)
370,051 (1932)
448,331 (1936)
448,407 (1936)
ADM 1/13801.
47
J.B. Hersey, "A chronicle of man's use of ocean acoustics," Oceanus, 20:2 (1977) 13-14
Klein (ref. 33), 43
NA:RG 19, BuEng Confidential files 1930–1940, box 153.
48
NDRC, Division 6. M. Lasky, "Review of scientific effort for undersea warfare: 1930–1945"
U.S. Navy journal of underwater acoustics, 25 (1975), 580–582
"Historical review of underwater acoustic technology: 1939–1945 with emphasis on undersea warfare," ibid., 885.
DJ. Kevles, The physicists (New York , 1978), 287–323.
49
I. Stewart, Organizing scientific research for war (Boston, 1948), 35.
50
Lasky (ref. 48), 886 and figure 1.
51
PRO.ADM 1/19308, BAD Report, "Comparisons between British and American ships and equipment," 3 Jul 1945
52
PRO:ADM 1/20113, Formation and organization of Naval Operations Research Department; L. Farrago, The tenth fleet (New York, 1962), 163–180
J. Herrick, Subsur- face warfare. The history of Division 6 (Department of Defense Research and Develop- ment Board, 1 Jan 1951), 54.
53
Captain G.H. Roberts, RN, 30 May 1945.
54
PRO:ADM 1/15194, Sono radio buoy 1940–1942
55
NDRC Summary Technical Report of Division 6, vol. 1, A survey of subsurface warfare in World War II (Washington, DC, 1946), 73-103.
56
PRO:ADM 186/541, Report of the Torpedo Division of the Naval Staff for Oc- tober 1937; ibid.
ADM 186/551 for June 1938
ADM 186/546, Osprey Half-Yearly Re- port for Mar 1938.
57
R.W. Clark, Tizard (MIT Press, 1965), 250-251.
58
M. Lasky, "A review of the Soviet integrated maritime effort 1945-1970 with em- phasis on undersea warfare" (unclassified), U.S. Navy journal of underwater acoustics, 27 (1977), 641 and note 24.
59
M. Pearton, The knowledgeable state. Diplomacy, war and technology since 1830 (London, 1982), 36–49, 258
Lord Beloffs review, "War in policy," Daily telegraph, 10 June 1982.
60
M. Lasky, "Historical review of undersea warfare planning and organization 1945–1960 with emphasis on the role of the Office of Naval Research" (unclassified), U.S. Navy journal of underwater acoustics, 26 (1976), 335–336.
61
Panel on Underwater Acoustics, Underwater acoustics research (Washington, DC. Committee on Undersea Warfare, NRC, 1950).
62
Admiral F.S. Low, Study of undersea warfare, issued on 22 Apr 1950, under serial no. 001P003
63
Lasky (ref. 61), 330.
64
R.W. Clark, Science of peace and war (London, 1971), 105–139.
J.S. Wit, "Advances in antisubmarine war- fare," Scientific American, 244:2 (1981), 27–37.
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