[Footnotes]

[Footnotes]
*
Magnolievangen 41, 3450
1
V. Canuto and J. Lodenquai, "Dirac cosmology," Journal of astrophysics, 211 (1977), 342–356
P. S. Weson, Cosmology and geophysics (Bris- tol, 1978).
2
J. H. Jeans, The mysterious universe (London, 1930).
"The philosophy of physical science," Nature, 148 (1941), 140–141, 256–257, 341–342, 503–505.
E. A. Milne, Sir James Jeans (Cam- bridge, 1952), chapt. 12.
3
C. D. Broad, "Discussion of Sir Arthur Eddington's 'The philosophy of physical science,'" Philosophy, 75(1940), 301–312, on 312.
4
A. N. Whitehead, The principle of relativity (Cambridge, 1922).
5
J. D. North, The measure of the universe (London, 1965)
J. Merleau-Ponty, Cosmologie du XXeme siecle (Paris, 1965)
J. Singh, Great ideas and theories of modern cosmology (New York, 1961)
K. R. Lang and O. Gingerich, eds., A source book in astronomy and astrophysics, 1900–1975 (Cam- bridge, Mass., 1979).
6
A. Friedmann, "Ueber die Krummung des Raumes," ZP, 10 (1922), 377–386
"Ueber der Moglichkeit einer Welt mit konstanter negativer Krummung des Raumes," ZP, 21 (1924), 326–332
G Lemaftre, "Un univers de masse constante et de rayon crois- sant," Societe Scientifique de Bruxelles, Annales, A47 (1927), 49–59.
7
Lemaftre, "A homogeneous universe of constant mass and increasing radius," Royal Astronomical Society, Monthly notices, 91 (1931), 483–490.
8
H. P. Robertson, "On relativistic cosmology," Philosophical magazine, 5 (1928), 835–848
R. W. Smith, "The origins of the velocity-distance relation," Journal for history of astronomy, 10 (1979), 133–165
N. Hetherington, "Philosophical values and observation in Edwin Hubble's choice of a model of the universe," HSPS, 13 (1982), 41–68.
9
"The evolution of the universe," Nature, 128:suppl. (1931), 699–722.
10
A. Einstein and W. de Sitter, "On the relation between the expansion and the mean density of the universe," National Academy of Science, Proceedings, 18 (1932), 213–214.
11
A. J. Harder, "E. A. Milne, scientific revolutions and the growth of knowledge," Annals of science, 31 (1974), 351–363.
12
Milne, "World-structure and the expansion of the universe," Zeitschrift fur Astro- physik, 6(1933), 1–95, on 3.
13
Milne, Relativity, gravitation, and world-structure (Oxford, 1935), 75.
14
Ibid., 103–104.
15
Milne (ref. 13), 292.
16
Milne, "Gravitation without general relativity," P. A. Schilpp, ed., Albert Einstein: Philosopher-scientist (New York, 1951), 409–436, on 428.
17
Milne, "The constant of gravitation," Nature, 139 (1937), 409.
18
"A possible mode of approach to nuclear dynamics," New theories in physics (Paris, 1939), 207–219
ibid., 208
Kinematic relativity (Oxford, 1948), 214ff.
19
Milne (ref. 12), 2.
20
Ibid.
21
A. J. Ayer, Language, truth and logic (London, 1936)
Milne (ref. 13), 83, 131.
22
Ibid., 266.
23
Milne, "On the origin of laws of nature," Nature, 7i9(1937), 997–999.
24
North (ref. 5)
O. Heckmann, Theorien der Kosmologie [1942] (Berlin, 1968).
25
B. L. van der Waerden, "Exclusion principle and spin," M. Fierz and V. F. Weisskopf, eds., Theoretical physics in the twentieth century (New York, 1960), 199–244, on 233
"The electron wave equation in de Sitter space," Annals of mathematics, 36 (1935), 657–663.
26
Eddington, Relativity theory of protons and electrons (Cambridge, 1936), 2
Edding- ton, "A symmetrical treatment of the wave equation," PRS, A121 (1928), 524–542.
H. Kragh, "The genesis of Dirac's relativistic theory of elec- trons," Archive for history of exact sciences, 24(1981), 31–67.
27
Eddington, "The charge of an electron," PRS, A122 (1929), 358–369
Eddington, "On the value of the cosmical constant," PRS, A133 (1931), 605–615.
28
Ibid., 606.
29
Eddington, New pathways in science (Cambridge, 1935), 227.
31
Eddington (ref. 29), 231.
32
Merleau-Ponty, Philosophic et th'eorie physique chez Eddington (Paris, 1965)
J. Witt-Hansen, Exposition and critique of the conceptions of Edding- ton concerning the philosophy of physical science (Copenhagen, 1958).
33
Eddington, The philosophy of physical science (Cambridge, 1939), 57.
34
Eddington (ref. 26), 3.
35
C. B. Cox and A. E. Dyson, eds., The twentieth-century mind. History, ideas and literature in Britain (2 vols., London, 1972)
J. Passmore, A hundred years of philosophy (Harmondsworth, 1975)
G. J. Warnock, English philosophy since 1900 (London, 1958)
B. Russell, The scientific outlook (London, 1931)
C. E. M. Joad, Philosophical aspects of modern science (London, 1932)
L. Susan Stebbing, Philosophy and the physicists (London, 1937).
36
Eddington, "Cosmological applications of the theory of quanta," New theories in physics (ref. 18), 173–205, on 192.
37
Eddington to Herbert Dingle, 1944, in A. V. Douglas, The life of Arthur Stanley Eddington (London, 1956), 178.
38
H. Weyl, "Eine neue Erweiterung der Relativitatstheorie," Annalen der Physik, 59 (1919), 101–133, on 129.
39
Weyl, "Universum und Atom," Die Naturwissenschaften, 22 (1934), 145–149.
40
J. Q. Stewart, "Nebular red shift and universal constants," PR, 38 (1931), 2071.
41
A. E. Haas, "Ueber den moglichen Zusammenhang zwischen kosmischen und physikalischen Konstanten," Akademie der Wissenschaften, Vienna, Mathematisch- Naturwissenschaftlich Klasse, Anzeiger, 67(1930), 161.
42
Haas, "An attempt to a purely theoretical derivation of the mass of the universe," PR, 49 (1936), 411–412.
Arthur Erich Haas (1884–1941)
Die kosmologischen Probleme der Physik (Leipzig, 1934)
"The dimensionless constants of physics," National Academy of Science, Proceedings, 24 (1938), 274–276.
43
H. Hertel, "Einstein's kosmologische Konstante und der Zusammenhang von Atom- und kosmischer Konstanten im expandierenden Universum," Akademie der Wissenschaften, Berlin, Sitzungsberichte, 1935, 3–7
"Gravitationskonstante und Zahl der Massenteilchen im Weltall," Physikalische Zeitschrift, 37 (1936), 138–139
K. Sitte and W. Glaser, "Versuch einer Deutung der Beziehung zwischen kosmischen und atomaren Grossen," ZP, 28(1934), 103–107.
44
S. Sambursky, "Static universe and nebular red shift," PR, 52 (1937), 335–338.
45
Sambursky and M. Schiffer, "Static universe and nebular red shift, II," PR, 53 (1938), 256–263.
46
S. Chandrasekhar, "A chapter in the astrophysicist's view on the universe," J. Mehra, ed., The physicist's conception of nature (Dordrecht, 1973), 34–44, on 34.
47
Mehra, "The golden age of theoretical physics': Dirac's scientific work from 1924 to 1933," A. Salam and E. P. Wigner, eds., Aspects of quantum theory (Cambridge, 1972), 17–60, esp. 25–26.
48
Chandrasekhar (ref. 46), 40.
49
Eddington's inspirational books: Space, time and gravitation (Cambridge, 1920)
The mathematical theory of relativity (Cambridge, 1923).
C. Weiner, ed., His- tory of twentieth century physics (New York, 1977), 109–146, on 110–115.
50
Eddington, The nature of the physical world (Cambridge, 1928), 210, 204, resp.
51
Dirac, "The physical interpretation of quantum mechanics," PRS, A180 (1942), 1–39, on 18.
52
Dirac, R. Peierls and M. Pryce, "On Lorentz invariance in the quantum theory," Cambridge Philosophical Society, Proceedings, 38 (1942), 193–200, on 193.
53
Dirac, Principles of quantum mechanics (Oxford, 1930), v.
54
Ibid.
"Quantized singularities in the electromagnetic field," PRS, A133 (1931), 60–72, on 60–61
Kragh, "The concept of the monopole. A historical and analytical case-study," Studies in history and philosophy of science, 72 (1981), 141–172.
55
Dirac, "The relation between mathematics and physics," Royal Society of Edin- burgh, Proceedings, 59(1939), 122–129, on 123.
56
L. S. Feuer, "Teleological principles in science," Inquiry, 21 (1977), 377–407.
57
S. Weinberg, "The search for unity: Notes for a history of quantum field theory," Daedalus, 108 (1911), 17–34.
58
Dirac (ref. 51), 9.
59
Dirac, "Does conservation of energy hold in atomic processes?" Nature, 137 (1936), 298–299
R. Shankland "An apparent failure of the photon theory of scattering," PR, 49 (1936), 8–13
J. Bromberg, "The impact of the neutron: Bohr and Heisenberg," HSPS, J (1971), 307–343, esp. 317.
60
Bohr, "Conservation laws in quantum theory," Nature, 138 (1936), 25–26
P. Jordan, Anschauliche Quantentheorie (Berlin, 1936), vii.
"Conserva- tion of energy and momentum in atomic processes," Nature, 137 (1936), 614–615.
Einstein to Schrodinger, 23 Mar, 1936
61
Dirac (ref. 59), 299.
62
Dirac (ref. 53), V
(ref. 54), 60–61.
63
Dirac, "The mathematical foundations of quantum theory," A. R. Marlow, ed., Mathematical foundations of quantum theory (New York, 1978), 1–8, on 1.
64
Dirac (ref. 55), 122.
65
Ibid., 124.
66
Dirac, "Complex quantities in quantum mechanics," PRS, A160 (1937), 48–59, on 48.
67
Dirac (ref. 55), 129.
Kronecker's dictum, "God himself made the whole numbers; everything else is the work of men," quoted in Eddington (ref. 50), 245.
68
Dirac (ref. 55), 129.
69
Dirac, "Physical science and philosophy," Nature, 7J9U937), 1001–1002, on 1002.
70
Dirac, "The cosmological constants," Nature, 139 (1937), 323, dated 5 Feb 1937.
71
Dirac, "A new basis for cosmology," PRS, A165 (1938), 199–208 (received 29 Dec 1937), on 201.
72
Ibid., 201.
ibid., 204
P. Jordan, "Ueber die kosmologische Konstanz der Feinstrukturkonstanten," ZP, 113(1939), 660–662.
74
Dirac (ref. 71), 203.
75
Ibid., 200
Milne (ref. 18), 207–208.
76
Dirac (ref. 55), 123.
77
Jeans, The universe around us, 3rd. ed. (Cambridge, 1933), 99.
Ibid., 194.
78
Dirac (ref. 71), 204.
79
Dirac (ref. 70), 323.
80
Dirac (ref. 71), 204.
81
Dirac, "Cosmological models and the large number hypothesis," PRS, A3 38 (1974), 439–446
"Fundamental constants and their development in time," in Mehra (ref. 46), 45–54.
82
Dirac, "Developments of Einstein's theory of gravitation," A. Perlmutter and L. F. Scott, eds., On the path of Albert Einstein (Miami, 1979), 1–13.
83
Dingle, Through science to philosophy (London, 1937).
84
Dingle, "Modern aristotelianism," Nature, 139 (1937), 784–786.
Dingle, "The physical universe," Washington Academy of Sciences, Journal, 26 (1936), 183–195.
85
Milne (ref. 13), 3.
86
Milne (ref. 23), 998.
87
Ibid., 999.
88
Dirac (ref. 55), 129.
89
"Physical science and philosophy," Nature, 139 (1937), 1000–1010.
Dingle, "The rational and empirical elements in physics," Philosophy, 13 (1938), 148–165.
90
"Science and philosophy" (ref. 89), 1004.
91
Ibid., 1008.
92
Dingle, "Deductive and inductive methods in science. A reply," Nature, 139 (1937), 1011–1012.
Nature in 1941
94
J. D. Bernal, The social function of science (London, 1939), 1–4, 88–89.
Bernal wrote (p. 3)
95
Eddington (ref. 26), 6–7.
96
Eddington (ref. 36), 194.
97
M. Born, "A suggestion for unifying quantum theory and relativity," PRS, A165 (1938), 291–303, on 291.
98
Born, Experiment and theory in physics (Cambridge, 1943), 44.
99
The Born-Einstein letters (London 1971).
Born of 7 Sep 1944
100
Born, "Some philosophical aspects of modern physics," Royal Society of Edin- burgh, Proceedings, 57 (1936–1937), 1–18
H. Vogel, Physik und Philosophie bei Max Born (Berlin, 1968).
101
E. Schrodinger, "World-structure," Nature, 140 (1937), 742–744, on 744.
Schrodinger's "Mean free path of protons in the universe," Nature, 141 (1938), 410
102
Schrddinger to Eddington, 23 Oct 1937 (AHQP).
"Sur la theorie du monde d'Eddington," Nuovo Cimento, 15 (1937), 246–254.
103
"The general theory of relativity and wave mechanics," Scientific papers presented to Max Born (London, 1953), 65–74.
104
A. Her- mann, ed., Albert Einstein, Arnold Sommerfeld: Briefwechsel (Basel and Stuttgart, 1968).
Milne, "Last testament of a physi- cist," Nature, 159 (1947), 486–488, on 487.
105
Dirac in 1938–1939.
A. Hermann, K. v. Meyenn, and V. F. Weisskopf, eds., Wolfgang Pauli, Wissenschaftlicher Briefwechsel, vol. 2, in press.
Bohr's scientific correspondence.
106
Chandrasekhar, "The cosmological constants," Nature, 139(1931), 757–758.
107
J. B. S. Haldane, The Marxist philosophy and the sciences (New York, 1939), 68, 76.
108
Haldane, "The position of genetics," Nature, 139 (1937), 428.
Dingle, "Judgment by hypothesis," Nature, 139 (1931), 588–589.
109
Jordan, "Die physikalischen Weltkonstanten," Die Naturwissenschaften, 25 (1937), 513–517.
110
110 Jordan, "Zur empirischen Kosmologie," Die Naturwissenschaften, 26 (1938), 417–421.
111
Jordan, "Bemerkungen zur Kosmologie," Annalen der Physik, 36 (1939), 64–70.
112
Jordan, Schwerkraft und Weltall (Braunschweig, 1952), 137.
113
S. G. Brush, "The chimerical cat: Philosophy of quantum mechanics in historical perspective," Social studies of science, 10 (1980), 393–447.
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