[Footnotes]

[Footnotes]
1
John Ewing and Maurice Ewing, "Seismic-refraction measurements in the Atlantic ocean basins, in the Mediterranean Sea, on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, and in the Norwegian Sea," Geological Society of America, Bulletin, 70 (1959), 291–318
H. W. Menard, "Sea floor relief and mantle convection," Physics and chemistry of the earth, 6 (1966) 315–364
H. H. Hess, "Serpentines, Orogeny, and Epeirogeny," Geological Society of America, Special paper, 62 (1955), 391–406.
2
Menard, Marine geology of the Pacific (New York, 1964), 150–151
Hess, "History of ocean basins," Petrologic Studies: A volume to honor A. F. Buddington, ed. A. Engel, H. James, and B. Leonard (Boulder, 1962), 559–620.
3
Dietz, "Reply," Journal of geophysical research, 73 (1968), 6567.
4
Hess, "Pre-print," (ref. 3), 14–15
5
J. L. Worzel, M. Ewing, and Charles Windisch, "Ages of horizon A and the oldest atlan- tic sediments," Science, 154 (1966), 1125–1131
The history of the earth's crust: A sympo- sium, ed. Robert A. Phinney (Princeton, 1968).
6
J. Ewing and M. Ewing (ref. 1), 291.
7
F. Vine and D. H. Matthews, "Magnetic anomalies over ocean ridges," Nature, 199 (1963), 947–949.
8
L. W. Morley, "Letter," in John Lear, "Canada's unappreciated role as scientific innovator," Saturday review (2 Sep 1967), 45–50, on 47.
9
Vine and Matthews, (ref. 7), 947.
10
Ibid., 947.
11
M. Ewing, Julius Hirshman, and Bruce Heezen "Magnetic anomalies of the Mid- Oceanic-Rift," International Oceanic Congress, Pre-prints, ed., Mary Sears (Washington, 1959), 24–25.
12
R. W. Girdler, "The relationship of the Red Sea to the East African rift sys- tem," Geological Society of London, Quarterly journal, 114 (1958), 79–105
Girdler and G. Peter, "An example of the importance of natural remanent magnetization in the interpretation of magnetic anomalies," Geophysical prospecting, 8 (1960), 474–483
C. L. Drake and Girdler, "A geophysical study of the Red Sea," Royal Astronomical Society, Geography journal, 8 (1964), 473–495
Girdler, "Drifting and rifting of Africa," Nature, 2/7(1968), 1102–1106.
13
Girdler, "Relationship" (ref. 12), 482.
14
Girdler and Peter (ref. 12), 482.
15
Girdler, "Possible reversals of the earth's magnetic field in the Jurassic Period," Nature, 184(1959), 540–541.
16
A. Raff and R. Mason, "Magnetic survey off the west coast of North America," Geological Society of America, Bulletin, 72 (1961), 1268.
17
Arthur Holmes, Principles of physical geology (London, 1965), 942
Menard (ref. 2), 49.
18
Vine and Matthews (ref. 7), 948
Morley (ref. 8), 47.
19
Morley (ref. 8), 47
Vine and Matthews (ref.7), 949.
20
Matthews to the author, August, 1979.
23
Vine (ref. 21).
24
Matthews (ref. 20).
Adie, "The position of the Falkland Islands in a reconstruction of Gondwanaland," Geological magazine, 89(1952), 401–410.
25
Ibid.
26
Ibid.
27
Vine (ref. 21)
Matthews (ref. 20).
28
Vine (ref. 21).
29
Vine, "Minutes of meeting of the Sedgwick Club, 10 May 1962,"
30
Vine (ref. 21).
31
Vine (ref. 21).
32
Vine (ref. 21)
Matthews (ref. 20).
33
Vine (ref. 21)
Matthews (ref. 20).
ref. 21
34
Morley (ref. 21).
35
Morley, "Remarks," American Geophysical Union, Transactions, 35 (1954), 77–78.
36
Morley, "The areal distribution of geomagnetic activity as an aeromagnetic survey problem near the Auroral Zone," ibid., (1953), 836–840.
37
Morley, "Geological interpretation of aerial magnetic and radiometric profiles, Arctic Archipelago," Canada, Geological Survey, Geological survey bulletin, 73 (1961), ix–31.
38
Morley (ref. 8), 48.
39
Morley and A. Larochelle, "Paleomagnetism as a means of dating geological events," in Geochronology in Canada, ed. F. Fritz Osborne (Toronto, 1964), 39–50 (Royal Society of Canada, Special publication, no. 8).
40
Ibid., 49.
41
Morley (ref. 8), 47.
42
Ibid., 47–48.
44
Vine (ref. 21).
45
Vine, "Magnetic anomalies associated with mid-ocean ridges," The history of the earth's crust, ed. Robert A. Phinney (Princeton, 1968), 73–89, on 82
Hess, "Seismic anisotrophy of the uppermost mantle under oceans," Nature, 203 (1964), 629–631, on 631.
46
Vine (ref. 21).
47
Vine, "Spreading of the ocean floor: New evidence," Science, 154 (1966), 1405–1415, on 1406.
48
I. McDougall and D. H. Tarling, "Dating of polarity zones in the Hawaiian Islands," Nature, 200 (1963), 56
A. Cox and R. Doell, "Reversals of the earth's magnetic field," Science, 144(1964), 1537–1538.
49
J. M. Ade-Hall, "The magnetic properties of some submarine oceanic lavas," Royal Society of London, Geologic journal, 9 (1964–1965), 85–92, and Vine (ref. 47), 1406.
50
Vine (ref. 47), 1406.
G. Peter and H. B. Stewart, "Ocean surveys: The systematic approach," Nature, 206 (1965), 1017–1018
V. Vacquier, Royal Society of London, Philosophical transactions, A258
Vine and Matthews (ref. 7)
James R. Heirtzler, Xavier Le Pichon, J. Gregory Baron, Deep-sea research, 13 (1966).
G. E. Backus, "Magnetic anomalies over oceanic ridges," Nature, 201 (1964), 591–592.
51
Vine (ref. 47), 1406.
52
M. Talwani, Le Pichon, and Heirtzler, "East Pacific Rise: The magnetic pattern and the fracture zones," Science, 150 (1965), 1109–1115
Heirtzler, Le Pichon, and Baron, "Magnetic anomalies over the Reykjanes Ridge," Deep-sea research, 13 (1966), 427–443, on 440.
53
Heirtzler and Le Pichon, "Magnetic anomalies over the Mid-Atlantic Ridge," Jour- nal of geophysical research, 70(1965), 4013–4033, on 4031.
54
Heirtzler and Le Pichon (ref. 53), 4028.
55
Matthews, "Mid-ocean ridges," International dictionary of geophysics, ed. S. K. Run- corn (Oxford, 1967), 979–991
G. Bodvarsson and G. P. L. Walker, "Crustal drift in Ice- land," Royal Astronomical Society, Geophysical journal, 8(1964), 285–300.
56
ref. 7
Vine to Hess. 18 Jan 1965, Hess Papers, Princeton University Library.
57
J. Tuzo Wilson, "Transforn faults, oceanic ridges and magnetic anomalies southwest of Vancouver Island," Science, 750(1965), 482–485
Vine (ref. 21).
58
Vine and Wilson, "Magnetic anomalies over a young oceanic ridge off Vancouver Island," Science, 150(1965), 486–489.
59
Vine (ref. 21).
60
Vine and Wilson (ref. 58), 488.
61
Heirtzler, Le Pichon and Baron, "Magnetic anomalies over the Reykjanes Ridge," Deep-sea research, 13 (1966), 427–443, on 436.
62
Ibid., 441–442.
63
Talwani et al. (ref. 52), 1114–1115.
64
Vine (ref. 45), 87.
65
Vine (ref. 21).
66
W. Wertenbaker, The floor of the sea (Boston, 1974), 203–205.
67
W. C. Pitman, III, and Heirtzler, "Magnetic anomalies over the Pacific Antarctic Ridge," Science, 154(1966), 1164–1171, on 1164.
68
N. D. Opdyke, B. Glass, J. D. Hays, and J. Foster, "Paleomagnetic study of Antarctic deep-sea cores," Science, 154 (1966), 349–357.
69
Vine (ref. 21)
70
Talwani, Le Pichon, and Heirtzler, "Patterns of magnetic anomalies over the Mid-Ocean Ridge," The world rift system, ed. T. N. Irvine, Canada, Geological Survey, Paper 66–14 (1966), 345–346
B. D. Loncarevic, C. S. Mason and Matthews, "Mid- Atlantic Ridge between 45°N and 46°N," The world rift system, 212.
71
Loncarevic, "Comment," The world rift system (ref. 70), 346.
72
Talwani, "Comment," ibid.
73
M. Ewing, J. Ewing and Talwani, "Sediment distribution in the oceans: The Mid- Atlantic Ridge," Geological Society of America, Bulletin, 75 (1964), 17–36
M. Ewing, Le Pichon, and J. Ewing, "Crustal structure of the mid-ocean ridges, IV. Sediment distribu- tion in the South Atlantic Ocean and the Cenozoic history of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge," Journal of geophysical research, 71 (1966), 1611–1636
Saito, M. Ewing, and L. H. Burckle, "Tertiary sediment from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge," Science, 152 (1966), 1075–1079.
74
Saito, M. Ewing, and Burckle (ref. 73)
M. Ewing, Le Pichon, and J. Ewing (ref. 73).
75
Heirtzler to the author, March, 1981.
76
Ibid.
77
Heirtzler et al. (ref. 61), 440.
78
Heirtzler (ref. 75).
79
Hess to Vine, 10 Sep 1965
80
Menard to Hess, 29 Mar 1966
Hess to Menard, 4 Apr 1966 (Harry Hess Papers).
81
I. D. Muir, C. E. Tilley, and J. H. Scoon, "Basalts from the northern part of the rift zone of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge," Journal of petrology, 5 (1964), 409–434, on 429.
J. A. Miller, "Age determinations made on samples of basalt from the Tristan Da Cunha Group and other parts of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge," Royal Society of London, Philosophical transactions, 256A (1963–1964), 565–569, on 568
Matthews (ref. 55).
82
Edward Bullard, "William Maurice Ewing," National Academy of Sciences, Bio- graphical memoirs, 51 (1980), 119–193, on 153.
83
Heirtzler et al. (ref. 61), 442
H. Wensink, "Paleomagnetic stratigraphy of younger basalts and intercalated Plio-Pleistocene tillites in Iceland," Geologisch Rundschau, 54 (1964), 364–384.
84
Talwani, "A review of marine geophysics," Marine geology, 2 (1964), 29–80, on 73; Heirtzler, et al. (ref. 61), 442
Heirtzler and Le Pichon (ref. 53), 4028.
85
Heirtzler (ref. 75).
86
Wertenbaker (ref. 66), 199.
87
Heirtzler (ref. 75).
88
Heirtzler (ref. 75).
89
Heirtzler (ref. 75).
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