[Footnotes]

[Footnotes]
1
André Marie Ampére, "Mémoire présenté a l'Académie Royale des Sciences, le 2 Octobre 1820," Annales de chimie et de physique, 15 (1820), 59–76 and 170–218, on 74–76.
2
Ampére, "Mémoire sur la théorie mathématique des phénomenes électrodynam- ique uniquement déduite de l'expérience," Académie des Sciences, Memoires, 6 (1823), issued 1827, 175–388, on 303.
3
James Clerk Maxwell, Treatise on electricity and magnetism (Oxford, 1881), 202– 203.
4
Robert John Strutt, Life of John William Strutt (Madison, 1968), 46.
5
Maxwell, Treatise (ref. 3), 205.
6
W. J. de Haas and G. L. de Haas-Lorentz, "Een proef van Maxwell en de moleculaire stroomen van Ampére," Akademie van Wetenschappen, Amsterdam, Afdeel- ing Natuurkunde, Verslagen, 24:1 (1915), 398–404.
7
Fleeming Jenkins, ed., Reports of the Committee on Electrical Standards (London, 1873), Appendix D to report of 26 Aug 1863.
8
Maxwell, Treatise (ref. 3), 206.
9
Jed Z. Buchwald, Matter, the medium and electrical current: A history of electricity and magnetism from 1842 to 1895
PhD thesis, Harvard University, 1974
10
O. W. Richardson, "A mechanical effect accompanying magnetization," Physical Review, 26(1908), 248.
11
O. W. Richardson, The electron theory of matter (Cambridge, 1914), 397.
12
Ibid., 252.
13
Max Flückiger, Albert Einstein in Bern (Bern, 1974), 172.
14
Einstein to E. Meyerson, 27 Jan 1930 (Einstein Archive, Princeton University Library).
15
Einstein Archives (ref. 14)
documents 37/5, 35/392, 35/400–414.
A. Her- mann, ed., Albert Einstein—Arnold Sommerfeld Briejwechsel (Basel, 1968), 51ff.,
T. P. Hughes, Elmer Sperry (Baltimore, 1971), 149–150, 167–170.
16
H.J. Treder, "A. Einstein: Einfache Methode zum Nachweis der Ampereschen MolekularstrSme," Wissenschaft und Fortschritt, 2 (1979), 53
Dieter Hoffmann, "Albert Einstein und die Physikalisch-Technische Reichsanstalt," Wirkung von Albert Einstein und Max von Laue (Berlin, 1980), 90-102
Akademie der Wissenschaften, Berlin, Institut fur Theorie, Geschichte und Organisation der Wissenschaftlichen, Kolloquien, 21
17
Einstein, "H. A. Lorentz, his creative genius and his personality," in H. A. Lorentz, impressions of his life and work, ed. G. L. de Haas-Lorentz (Amsterdam, 1957), 5-9
Martin J. Klein, Paul Ehrenfest, vol. 1
The making of a theoretical physicist (Amster- dam, North-Holland, 1970), 300
Hoffman, "Einstein" (ref. 14), 91.
18
Einstein and de Haas, "Experimenteller Nachweis der Ampereschen Molekularstrome," Deutsche Physikalische Gesellschaft, Berichte, 17 (1915), 152-170
"Experimental proof of the existence of Ampere's molecular currents," Akademie von Wetenschappen, Amsterdam, Proceedings, 18 (1916), 696-711
"Proefondervindelijk bewijs voor het bestaan der moleculaire stroomen van Ampere," ibid.
Afdeeling Natu- urk., Verslagen, 23 (1914-15), 1449-1464.
V. Ia. Frenkel, "His- toriia effekta Einshteina-De Gaaza," Upsekhi ftzicheskikh nauk, 128 (July 1979), 545-557
E. T. Whittaker, A history of the theories of aether and electricity (2 vols., New York, 1973), 2, 243-245
H. Melcher, "Albert Einstein und die Experimentelle Physik," Physik in der Schule, 77(1979), 1-19, esp. 3-6.
19
Einstein and de Haas, "Experimenteller Nachweis" (ref. 18), 170.
20
Ibid., 169
Einstein and de Haas, "Experimental proof (ref. 18), 711.
22
De Haas, "Further experiments on the moment of momentum existing in a magnet," Royal Academy of Amsterdam, Proceed- ings, 75(1916), 1281-1299.
23
Ibid., 1282.
24
Einstein to de Haas, n.d.
25
Einstein, "Ein einfaches Experiment zum Nachweis der Ampereschen Molekularstr6me," Deutsche Physikalische Gesellschaft, Verhandlungen, 18 (1916), 173- 177.
recte 1916
26
Einstein and de Haas, "Experimenteller Nachweis" (ref. 18), 153.
27
Klein, Paul Ehrenfest (ref. 17), esp. 264ff
Dictionary of scientific biography, s.v. "Langevin"; Thomas S. Kuhn, Black-body theory and the quantum discontinuity, 1894-1912 (Oxford, 1978), 210-220, 235-251
A. Pais, "Einstein and the quantum theory," Reviews of modern physics, 51 (1979), 863-914, esp. 878-883.
28
Kuhn (ref. 27), 236-254, 319-320, 340-352.
29
Einstein and O. Stern, "Einige Argumente fur die Annahame einer molekularen Agitation beim absoluten Nullpunkt," Annalen der Physik, 40 (1913), 551-560.
30
Ibid., 560.
31
Klein, Paul Ehrenfest (ref. 17), 256ff.
32
Einstein to Besso, 12 Feb 1915
Pierre Speziali, ed., Albert Einstein—Michele Besso correspondence, 1903-1955 (Paris, 1972), 57-58.
Einstein, "Experimenteller Nachweis der Ampereschen Molekularstrdme," Naturwissenschaften, 3 (1915), 237-238
33
Einstein, "Nachweis" (ref. 32), 237.
34
G. Hevesy to E. Rutherford, 14 Oct 1913, in Klein, Paul Ehrenfest (ref'. 17), 278.
35
Holton, Thematic origins of scientific thought (Cambridge, 1973), esp. 362-367
Klein, "Einstein and the wave-particle duality," The natural philosopher, 3 (1964), 5-49, on 7.
36
Einstein, "Ober die Entwicklung unserer Anschauungen iiber das Wesen und die Constitution der Strahlung," Physikalische Zeitschrift, 10 (1909), 817-826.
37
Einstein and de Haas, "Experimenteller Nachweis" (ref. 18), 152.
38
Einstein, "Lorentz" (ref. 17), 6.
39
John Perry, Spinning tops and gyroscopic motion (New York, 1957), 65.
40
Samuel J. Barnett, "Magnetization by angular acceleration," Science, 30 (1909), 413.
41
A. Schuster, "A critical examination of the possible causes of terrestrial magne- tism," Physical Society of London, Proceedings, 24 (1911-12), 121-137.
42
S. J. Barnett, "Magnetization by rotation," Physical review, 6 (1915), 171-172, 239-270, on 171, 270.
43
S. J. Barnett, "Magnetization" (ref. 40).
44
S. J. Barnett, "The magnetization of iron, nickel, and cobalt by rotation and the nature of the magnetic molecule," Physical review, 70(1917), 7-21.
45
Ibid.
46
S. J. Barnett, "Magnetization" (ref. 42), 255.
47
S. J. Barnett, "Magnetization" (ref. 44), 21.
48
I. Q. Stewart, "On the moment of momentum accompanying magnetic moment in iron and nickel," Physical review, 11 (1918), 100-120.
49
Ibid., 120.
50
Emil Beck, "Zum experimentellen Nachweis der Ampereschen Molekularstrome," Annalen der Physik, 75(1919), 109-148, on 113.
51
Ibid., 144.
52
Einstein to de Haas, 9 Sep 1919 (ref. 24).
53
G. Arvidsson, "Eine Untersuchung uber die Ampereschen Molekularstrome nach der Methode von A. Einstein und W. J. de Haas," Physikalische Zeitschrift, 21 (1920), 88-91.
54
De Haas, "Le moment de la quantite de mouvement dans un corps magnetique," Atomes et electrons (Paris, 1923), 206-226, on 214 (Conseil de Physique Sol- vay, Rapports et discussions, 3).
55
Ibid., 226.
56
Christa Kirsten and Hans-Jurgen Treder, eds., Albert Einstein in Berlin, 1913-1933 (2 vols., Berlin, 1979), 2, 161.
57
S. J. Barnett, "Further experiments on magnetization by rotation," Washington Academy of Science, Journal, 11 (1921), 162-163, on 163.
58
S. J. Barnett, "Additional experiments on the nature of the magnetic molecule," Physical review, 77(1921), 404-405.
59
S. J. Barnett, "The angular momentum of the elementary magnet," National Research Council, Bulletin, 3:3 (1922), 235-268, on 242.
60
L. A. Bauer to J. C. Merriam (President of the Carnegie Institution), 28 Nov 1922, Carnegie Institution, Washington D. C, Archives, s.v. HS. J. Barnett"
61
J. A. Fleming to Bauer, 28 Nov 1922 (ref. 60).
62
Fleming to Bauer, 27 Nov 1922 (ref. 60).
63
S. J. Barnett and L. J. H. Barnett, "New researches on the magnetization of fer- romagnetic substances by rotation and the nature of the elementary magnet," American Academy of Arts and Sciences, Proceedings, 60 (1925), 126-216, on 215.
64
Ibid., 128.
65
A. P. Chattock and L. F. Bates, "On the Richardson gyromagnetic effect," Royal Society of London, Philosophical transactions, 223A (1922), 257-288
W. Sucksmith and L. F. Bates, "On a null method of measuring the gyromagnetic ratio," ibid., Proceedings, 104 (1923), 499-511.
66
"Gyromagnetic effects: History, theory and experiments," Physica, 13 (1933), 256-268, on 266.
Ibid., 254.
67
"Review of gyromagnetic ratio experiments," Reviews of modern physics, 34 (1962), 102-109.
S. P. Heims and E. T. Jaynes, "Theory of gyromagnetic effects and some related phenomena," ibid., 143-165.
68
Kuhn, "The functions of measurement in modern physical science," Isis, 168 (1961), 161-193.
69
De Haas, "Le moment de la quantite," (ref. 54), 212.
70
S. J. Barnett and L. J. H. Barnett "Improved experiments on magnetization by rotation," Physical review, 20(1922), 90-91, on 90.
71
M. Deutsch, "Evidence and inference in nuclear research," Daedalus (Fall 1958), 88-98, on 97-98.
This content is only available via PDF.

Article PDF first page preview

Article PDF first page preview