[Footnotes]

[Footnotes]
*
AEC/O, Atomic Energy Commission, In the matter of J. Robert Oppenheimer: Transcript of hearing before personnel security board, Wash- ington, D.C., April 12, 1954 through May 6, 1954 (Washington, 1954)
1
Dwight D. Eisenhower, "Note for Diary," 2 Dec 1953, Diary Series, Ann Whit- man Files, Dwight D. Eisenhower Library, Abilene, Kansas.
2
Ibid., 3 Dec 1953.
3
Joseph and Stewart Alsop, "We accuse!," Harper's, 209 (Oct 1954), 25-45.
4
Holl, "In the matter of J. Robert Oppenheimer: Origins of the government's security case" (unpublished paper at American Historical Association, 28 Dec 1975), 9, 13-15, 22-25
5
Harold Green, "The Oppenheimer case: A study in the abuse of law, " Bulletin of the atomic scientists, 19 (Sep 1977), 12-16, 57-61.
6
William L. Borden to J. Edgar Hoover, 7 Nov 1953
AEC/O, 837-838.
7
Peter Michelmore, The swift years: The Robert Oppenheimer story (New York, 1969), 163-164, 195-197
Philip Stern, with Green, The Oppenheimer case (New York, 1969) 22-23.
8
Stern (ref. 7), 192.
10
Ibid.
11
Holl (ref. 4), 5-7
J. A. Waters to file, 14 May 1953
Waters to Lewis L. Strauss, "Individuals other than division of security employees who have reviewed or had access to the personnel security file of J. Robert Oppenheimer," 12 May 1954, AEC/R.
12
Teller, McCabe to Director, FBI, 14 May 1952 (reporting FBI interview with Teller), FBI/O
Strauss, Borden, staff memorandum (on conversation with Strauss), 13 Aug 1951, Stern papers, box 10, John F. Kennedy Library, Boston, Mass.
Dr. David T. Griggs to Thomas K. Finletter, 21 Jun 1952
FBI/O, and Griggs tes- timony, AEC/O, 749.
13
Hoover to Strauss, 27 Nov 1953
FBI "Sum- mary report"
"Chronology of Oppenheimer," AEC/R
14
Holl (ref. 4), 12-13.
15
T. O. Jones to file, "J. Robert and Frank Oppenheimer," 27 Mar 1947, AEC/O, 380-381.
16
Holl (ref. 4), 3
Hoover to files, 7 Jun 1953, FBI/O.
17
Murray, memorandum for Strauss, 7 Dec 1953, AEC/R
Green (ref. 5), 16
Gordon Dean to President, 25 Aug 1952 and reply, 26 Aug 1957, PSF.
18
Lilienthal testimony, AEC/O, 379, 415-419
Hoover to Major General Harry Vaughan, 28 Feb 1947, box 169 PSF
"General Advisory Committee, Atomic Energy Commission," 11 Mar 1947, FBI/O.
19
Atomic Energy Act, section 10, U.S. statutes at large, 79th Congress, 2nd Ses- sion, 767
Richard Hewlett and Francis Duncan, Atomic shield (University Park, Pennsyl- vania, 1969), 88-92.
21
Green (ref. 5), 57-58.
22
SAC, San Francisco, to Director, FBI, "J. Robert Oppenheimer," 5 Apr 1952 (on interview with Kenneth Pitzer on April 4), FBI/O.
Joe Craig, "Dr. J. Robert Oppenheimer," 30 Mar 1954, FBI/O.
24
W. A. Branigan to A. H. Belmont, "Dr. Robert Oppen- heimer," 19 May 1952, FBI/O.
25
Teller, paraphrased in SAC, WFO to Director, FBI, "Dr. J. Robert Oppen- heimer," 5 Jan 1954, FBI/O.
26
Teller, paraphrased in McCabe to Director, FBI, 14 May 1952, FBI/O.
Branigan to Belmont (ref. 24).
27
Teller, paraphrased in McCabe (ref. 26).
28
Teller, paraphrased in SAC, Albuquerque, to Director, FBI, "Dr. J. Robert Oppenheimer," 27 May 1952 (on interview of May 26).
29
Charles Bates to Director, FBI, 24 May 1952, FBI/O.
30
Murray, memorandum for Strauss, 7 Dec 1953, AEC/R.
31
Griggs to Finletter, 21 Jun 1952
C. Arthur Rolander to Strauss, "J. Robert Oppenheimer case," 25 Feb 1954
William C. Patterson, "J. Robert Oppenheimer," 31 Mar 1954
"Dr. J. Robert Oppenheimer," 1 Jul 1952
32
Rolander to Bates (ref. 31).
33
Stern (ref. 7), 195-196
James A. Perkins (the aide) to author, 23 Sep 1980.
34
Strauss to Rolander, 14 Apr 1954, SP.
35
Borden, staff memorandum (ref. 12).
36
Joseph and Stewart Alsop (ref. 3), 36.
37
Lilienthal, The journals of David E. Lilienthal (3 vols., New York, 1964-1966), 3, 522 (22 Jun 1954).
39
Borden (ref. 35).
40
C. D. Jackson to Henry Luce, memorandum on "We accuse!," 12 Oct 1954, JP.
41
Ibid.
42
Strauss to Robert A. Taft, 23 Jun 1953
43
Strauss to Taft (draft), 22 Jun 1953
Lee DuBridge to James Killian, 29 Jun 1953, JRO, box 20.
44
A. H. Belmont to D. M. Ladd, 10 Sep and 16 Oct 1953, FBI/O.
45
Waters to Strauss, "Individuals... who have received... file of... Oppenheimer," 12 May 1954, AEC/R.
Borden testimony, AEC/O, 833.
46
"Oppenheimer" file, SP.
47
Green (ref. 5), 15-16, 56-57.
48
Belmont to Ladd, 10 Sep 1953, FBI/O
Green (ref. 5), 15-16, 58.
49
New York Times, 7 Nov 1953, p. 1.
Clinton Anderson, with Milton Viorst, Outsider in the senate (New York, 1970), 185.
50
Jackson to Luce, 12 Oct 1954, JP.
51
Ibid.
Eisenhower Diary, 3 Dec 1953
Eisenhower, "Memorandum for attorney general," 3 Dec 1953, Whitman Files
Strauss, telegram to Teller, 3 Dec 1953, Teller Papers, Hoover Institute.
52
Strauss to Hoover, 1 Mar 1954, FBI/O.
53
Mrs. Henry D. Smyth to Stern, 7 Aug 1967
54
Murray, memorandum for Strauss, 7 Dec 1953.
55
Smyth to Strauss, 15 Dec 1953, AEC/R.
56
Hoover to Tolson, Ladd, Belmont, Glavin, L. B. Nichols, 15 Dec 1953, FBI/O.
57
C. D. Jackson Diary, 18 Dec 1953, Jackson Papers.
58
Quarles, paraphrased in Strauss, "The case of Dr. X," 21 Dec 1953, AEC/R.
59
Ibid.
60
"Record of telephone conversation (Dr. J. Robert Oppenheimer calling Lewis Strauss)," 14 Dec 1953, AEC/R.
61
Strauss, Men and decisions (New York, 1962), 275-276.
New York Times, 11 May 1950, p. 12.
62
K. D. Nichols, quoted in Peter Goodchild, J. Robert Oppenheimer (Boston, 1981), 226
Strauss (ref. 61), 443-445.
63
Strauss to Hoover, 22 Dec 1953, FBI/O
Strauss, Memorandum (on conversation with K. D. Nichols), 12 Nov 1969, SP.
64
Executive Order 10450, Federal register, 18, 2489
Lilienthal, Journals, 3 (ref. 37), 462.
"I didn't think he had a chance." (Denise Royal, The story of J. Robert Oppenheimer (New York, 1969), 157.
65
William Rogers to William Mitchell, 8 Jun 1953
Mitchell to Rogers, 7 May 1953, in AEC 71/30, 15 Jun 1953, AEC/R.
Eisenhower's [1953
Green [ref. 5], 57
66
Strauss, (ref. 61), 171-174.
67
C. D. Jackson Diary, 2 Dec 1953, JP.
69
Ibid., 38-43.
70
Green (ref. 5), 16, 56-59.
72
"Edward Condon's security clearance," Bulletin of the atomic scientists, 11 (Feb 1955), 66.
73
Oppenheimer to Strauss, 22 Dec 1953, New York Times, 13 Apr 1954, p. 16.
74
K. D. Nichols to Oppenheimer, 23 Dec 1953, in AEC/O, 3-7.
75
Stern (ref. 7), 226-227
McCabe to Director, FBI, 14 May 1952, FBI/O.
76
K. D. Nichols to Oppenheimer, 23 Dec 1953, in AEC/O, 6.
77
Garrison in Stern (ref. 7), 509-517.
78
Bryan La Plante, memorandum for K. D. Nichols, 29 Jan 1954, AEC/R.
79
Holl (ref. 4), 21-22
Green (ref. 5), 59
Robb, memorandum for the file, 30 Jan 1967
ibid., 27 Feb 1968, GP.
80
AEC meeting, 3 Feb 1954, AEC/R
81
Green (ref. 5), 58
Robb to Bernstein, 23 Jan 1981.
82
Belmont to Ladd, "Dr. J. Robert Oppenheimer," 2 Feb 1954, FBI/O.
83
Groves to Strauss, 1 Feb 1954
Groves to Oppenheimer, May 18 1950
"Conversation with [David Teeple] and General Groves," 6 Jan 1954, SP
Strauss, memorandum for files, 18 Feb 1954, SP.
84
Mitchell, "Meeting with counsel for J. Robert Oppenheimer," 15 Mar 1954, AEC/R.
Eugene Zuckert to Eugene Wigner, 9 Feb 1954, JRO.
85
Green (ref. 5), 59-60.
86
Entries of 16 Feb and 3 Mar 1954, in "Chronology" (ref. 13).
87
Gordon Gray to Mitchell, 10 Feb 1954
Gray to Mitchell, 17 Apr 1954
Oppenheimer, C. A. Rolander to file, "J. Robert Oppenheimer case–Trevor Gardner," 14 Apr 1954, FBI/O.
88
Gordon Gray oral history, p. 187, Eisenhower Library.
89
Gray, memorandum for files, 28 May 1954, GP.
90
Gray, memorandum for files, 7 May 1954, GP
AEC, "Security clearance pro- cedures," 12 Sep 1950, Federal register, 15, p. 6242.
91
New York Times, 6 Apr 1954, p. 1
President's news conference, 7 Apr 1954, Papers of the presidents: Dwight D. Eisenhower (Washington, 1960), 1954, p. 382.
92
James Hagerty Diary, 8 Apr 1954, Hagerty Papers, Eisenhower Library.
93
Ibid., 9 and 11 Apr 1954.
94
Ibid., 10 Apr 1954.
Eisenhower's efforts, Hagerty Diary, 10 Apr 1954, and for the AEC statement of 13 April
Bulletin of the atomic scientists, 10 (May 1954), 187.
95
Hagerty Diary (ref. 92), 11 Apr 1954
Brownell, paraphrased in Hagerty Diary, 11 Apr 1954.
96
Ibid.
ibid., 9 Apr 1954.
97
AEC/O, 53
Garrison in Stern (ref. 7), 86-88.
98
K. D. Nichols, 4 Mar 1954, AEC/O, 7-20.
99
"Scientists affirm faith in Oppenheimer," Bulletin of the atomic scientists, 10 (May 1954), 188-190.
100
Lilienthal journal, 23 Apr 1954, Journals, 3 (ref. 37), 506
AEC/O, 20, 539-540, 566
Stern (ref. 7), 313-320.
101
Oppenheimer and Robb exchanges, in AEC/O, 146-149, 155-156, 159-160, 181-182
ibid., 911-913, 409-411, 420- 423.
102
Else (ref. 71), 13-14.
103
Rabi, testimony in AEC/O, 468.
104
Else (ref. 71), 14-18.
105
Lilienthal testimony, in AEC/O, 409-411 and 420-423.
Robb to Gray, "Lilienthal testimony in Oppenheimer hearings," 7 Mar 1968, GP.
106
Lilienthal journal, 23 Apr 1954, in Lilienthal, Journals, 3 (ref. 37), 505-506.
107
"The Oppenheimer case," Time, 63 (28 Jun 1954) 23-24.
108
Haakon Chevalier, Oppenheimer : The story of a friendship (New York, 1965), 115-117.
109
Oppenheimer, in AEC/O, 130-131, 136-140, 142-149, 887-889
110
Ibid., 135-149
Chevalier (ref. 108), 104-113.
111
"Findings and recommendations of the Personal Security Board in the matter 1954 Robert OPPenheimer'"in AEC/O, 1008-1009, 1015-1017
Hagerty Diary, 27 Apr
112
Oppenheimer and Robb in AEC/O, 112-113.
113
Ibid., 117-119, 123-124, 128-130, 143, 147, 875.
115
Lomanitz to Oppenheimer, 15 Oct 1943, Ernest O. Lawrence Papers, Bancroft Library, Berkeley.
116
Condon to Oppenheimer, 27 Jun 1949, Washington Post, 16 Apr 1954, p. 31.
117
AEC/O, 210-215.
Ibid., 209-215.
118
Oppenheimer and Robb, in AEC/O, 61, 139-140, 277-278, 877.
"New debate on the Oppenheimer case," U.S. news and world report, 32 (24 Dec 1954), 100.
119
Stern (ref. 7), 144
120
Oppenheimer and Seaborg text, in AEC/O, 223, 237-241.
121
Gray to Thomas Morgan, 17 Jun 1954, GP
Stern (ref. 7), 282-283.
122
General Advisory Committee to Lilienthal, 30 Oct 1949, AEC/R
Oppen- heimer, in AEC/O, 896-897
"Findings" (ref. Ill), in AEC/O, 1016-1019.
123
Oppenheimer, in AEC/O, 81 and 221.
Oppenheimer, "Speech to the Association of Los Alamos Scientists," 2 Nov 1945, James Franck Papers, University of Chicago.
Robert Jungk, Brighter than a thousand suns (New York, 1958), 171-220.
124
"The Oppenheimer case," Time, 63 (28 Jun 1954), 23
Robb, in Coughlan, "The tangled drama and private hells of two famous scientists," Life, 55 (13 Dec 1963), 102.
125
CP membership, Branigan to Belmont, "Dr. J. Robert Oppenheimer," 19 Apr 1954, FBI/O
Chevalier to Stern, 15 Jun 1968, Stern papers
Oppenheimer to Chevalier, 7 Aug 1964, JRO.
126
Oppenheimer, in Coughlan (ref. 124), 102.
127
McCloy, in AEC/O, 736.
AEC, "Security clearance procedures," Federal register, 15, 6241-6243
AEC, "Personnel security clearance criteria for determining eligibility, ibid., 75, 8093-8094.
128
McCloy, in AEC/O, 737.
129
Von Neumann, in AEC/O, 649-650.
130
Groves, in AEC/O, 171.
131
Bush, in AEC/O, 565-567.
Eisenhower to Conant, 26 Apr 1954 [not sent], DDE Diary Series, box 6 Eisenhower Library
Bush, "If we alienate our scientists," New York Times Maga- zine, 13 Jun 1954, pp. 9, 60, 62-67.
132
Lloyd Garrison in Stern (ref. 7), 542
AEC/O, 566.
133
McCormack, in AEC/O, 635-636.
134
Wilson, in AEC/O, 689-695
Griggs, in AEC/O, 742-770.
Stern to Philip Morrison, 13 Jun 1966, Stern papers, box 10.
135
Federal register, 15, p. 6243.
136
Latimer, in AEC/O, 657-660.
138
Alvarez, in AEC/O, 897-899.
139
Pitzer, in AEC/O, 701, 704
SAC, San Francisco, to Director, FBI, "J. Robert Oppenheimer," 5 Apr 1952
140
Coughlan (ref. 124), 91-98
Stanley Blumberg and Gwinn Owens, Energy and conflict: The life and times of Edward Teller (New York, 1976), 124-139
Barton J. Bernstein, "The h-bomb decisions: Were they inevitable?" (OAH paper, Apr 1980).
141
Teller, in AEC/O, 710, and 726-727.
142
McCabe to Director, FBI, 14 May 1952
SAC, Albuquerque to Director, FBI, "Dr. J. Robert Oppenheimer," 27 May 1952, FBI/O.
144
Rolander (ref. 143)
Blumberg and Owens (ref. 140), 361.
145
Ibid., 360-361.
146
Ibid., 360-361.
147
Kevles, interview with Teller, 19 May 1963
150
Coughlan (ref. 124), 103.
151
C. E. Hennrich to A. H. Belmont, "Dr. J. Robert Oppenheimer," 20 May 1954, FBI/O
Robb to Bernstein, 30 Jun 1981.
Hoover's writing on Hennrich to Belmont, "Dr. J. Robert Oppenheimer," 20 May 1954
Belmont to Boardman, "Dr. J. Robert Oppenheimer," 20 May 1954
Hoover to Attorney General, 24 May 1954, FBI/O.
152
"Findings" (ref. 1ll)
AEC/O, 1006-1019.
153
"Findings" (ref. 1ll)
AEC/O, 1013-1015.
Oppenheimer in 1950
Oppenheimer in 1953
FBI in 1946
Ibid., 321-322, 503-504
Mitchell to Gray, 4 May 1954, AEC/R
Rogers to Mitchell, 8 Jun 1953, AEC/R.
154
"Findings" (ref. 1ll)
AEC/O, 1017-1018.
155
Gray to Harry Stanley, 10 Jun 1954
Gray to Frank Wisner, 8 Jun 1954, GP.
156
Ibid.
Gray to Stanley, 10 Jun 1954.
157
"Findings" (ref. 1ll)
AEC/O, 1011-1012.
158
Rogers to Mitchell, 8 Jun 1953, AEC/R.
159
AEC, "Security clearance procedures," 12 Sep 1950, Federal regis- ter, 15, 6243
AEC, "Personnel security clearance criteria for determining eligibility," Federal register, 15, 8093.
160
Gray to Wisner, 8 Jun 1954
Green (ref. 5), 60.
161
"Findings" (ref. 1ll)
AEC/O, 1019, 1021.
162
Belmont to L. V. Boardman, "Dr. J. Robert Oppenheimer," 2 Jim 1954, FBI/O
Gray, "Memorandum for Mr. Gordon Gray's files re Oppenheimer case," 28 May 1954.
163
Gray to Robb, 23 Feb 1967, and reply, 24 Feb 1967, GP.
164
AEC Meeting, 28 May 1954, AEC/R
Hagerty Diary (ref. 92), 29 May 1954.
165
Hagerty Diary (ref. 92), 1 Jun 1954.
166
Garrison to K. D. Nichols, 1 Jun 1954
Nichols to Garrison, 3 Jun 1954
AEC/O, 1029 and 1037-1038.
AEC meeting 987, 18 May 1954, AEC/R.
167
K. D. Nichols, memorandum to Strauss, Smyth, Murray, Zuckert, and Camp- bell, 12 Jun 1954, in AEC/O, 1041-1046.
Garrison to Strauss, 14 Jul 1954, in Stern (ref. 7), 545-546, 537-541.
168
Strauss to Gray, 11 Jun 1954, GP
Hagerty Diary (ref. 92), 10 Jun 1954.
169
Green (ref. 5), 61
Strauss (ref. 6), 291.
Mrs. Smyth to Stern, 7 Aug 1967, Stern papers, box 10.
170
Hagerty Diary (ref. 92), 29 Jun 1954
ibid., 27 Jun 1954.
171
Strauss-Zuckert-Campbell opinion, in AEC/O, 1049-1052.
172
Ibid., 1052-60.
173
Ibid., 1052
Harry Kalven, Jr., "The case of J. Robert Oppenheimer before the Atomic Energy Commission," Bulletin of the atomic scientists, 10 (Sep 1954), 264-269.
"New debate on the Oppenheimer case," U.S. news and world report, 27(24 Dec 1954), 86, 89-102
174
Strauss to Gray, 11 Jun 1954, GP
Strauss to Bernard Stanley, 13 Jun 1954, I. Jack Martin Records, Eisenhower Library
"Conversation Mr. Strauss with Mr. Rogers, Deputy Attorney General (3:00 p.m.)," 1 Mar 1954, AEC/R.
175
Norris Bradbury to Strauss, 16 Jun 1954
176
Murray opinion, in AEC/O, 1060
Murray in New York Times, 9 Dec 1957, p. 8.
178
Smyth opinion, in AEC/O, 1061-1065.
Stern (ref. 7), 403
179
L. B. Nichols to Mr. Tolson, 2 Jun 1954, FBI/O.
180
Newspapers quoted in New York Times, 2 Jul 1954, p. 6.
181
Arthur Schlesinger, Jr., "the Oppenheimer case," Atlantic, 194 (Oct 1954), 29- 36
Joseph and Stewart Alsop (ref. 3)
Waldo Frank, "An American tragedy: The Oppenheimer case," Nation, 179 (Sep 1954), 245-249.
182
Smith letter, 22 Jul 1954, Bulletin of the atomic scientists, 10 (Sep 1954), 286.
183
Kennan, in AEC/O, 365.
185
cases 16, 20 (not fired), and 60 (not fired)
Adam Yarmolinsky, ed., Case studies in personnel security (Washing- ton, 1955), 14-19, 28-31, 96-99.
186
Oppenheimer, in Stern (ref. 7), 495.
187
Garrison, in Stern (ref. 7), 509-512.
188
Green (ref. 5), 61.
189
R. R. Roach to A. H. Belmont, "Dr. J. Robert Oppenheimer," 9 Jul 1954, FBI/O.
190
Assistant Attorney General Warren Olney III to Mitchell, 25 Jun 1954, OF 104J, Eisenhower Library.
191
Stern (ref. 7), 442-444.
192
Blumberg and Owens (ref. 140), 364
Coughlan (ref. 124), 104.
193
Strauss, "Memorandum for files of Lewis L. Strauss," 23 Jun 1954, SP.
Alvarez to Teller, n.d., Teller Papers.
James Shepley and Clay Blair's The hydrogen bomb
Bethe to Teller, 30 Nov 1954, Teller Papers, and Coughlan (ref. 124), 106 and 109.
194
Joseph Alsop and Oppenheimer, 8 Jun 1954, JRO, box 200.
195
Respectively, New York Times, 15 Jul 1954, p. 15, and 30 Jun 1954, p. 1.
196
Respectively, Minneapolis Tribune, 16 Jun 1957, p. 1, and New York Times, 30 Jun 1954, p. 1.
199
Jungk (ref. 123), 321.
200
J. W. Buchta to Leonard Schiff, 30 Jun 1949, Schiff Papers, Stanford University.
202
Chevalier (ref. 108), 115-116.
203
Ibid., 116-117.
204
Ibid., 117.
205
Lomanitz, quoted in Michelmore (ref. 7), 156.
207
Oppenheimer, "Physics in the contemporary world," Technology review, 50 (1948), 201 and 231.
Truman to Acheson, 7 May 1946, PSF, Truman Library
"Groves call to Dr. Oppenheimer," 6 Aug 1945, MED file 201
Records of Manhattan Engineering District, RG 77, National Archives
Oppenheimer, in New York Times Magazine, 8 Aug 1965, p. 8.
208
Heinar Kipphardt, In the matter of J. Robert Oppenheimer, trans. Ruth Speirs (New York, 1967), 126-127.
209
Oppenheimer to David Bohm, 5 Dec 1966
draft, n.d., JRO, box 20.
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