[Footnotes]

[Footnotes]
*
SP, James Clerk Maxwell, Scientific papers (2 vols., Cambridge, 1890).
1
Maxwell, "Molecules [1873], SP, 2, 373-374.
2
C. C. Gillispie, "Intellectual factors in the background of analysis by probabilities," A. C. Crombie, ed., Scientific change (New York, 1963), 431-453
C. W. F. Everitt, "Maxwell," Dictionary of scientific biography, 9, 198-230;
Stephen Brush, The kind of motion we call heat (2 vols., Amsterdam, 1976)
Elizabeth Wolfe Garber, "Aspects of the intro- duction of probability into physics," Centaurus, 77(1972), 11-39.
Norton Wise, The flow analogy to electricity and magnetism: Kelvin and Maxwell (Ph.D. thesis, Princeton, 1977).
3
J. T. Merz, A history of European thought in the* nineteenth century [1904] (4 vols., New York, 1965), 2, 588-606.
4
John Sinclair, ed., The statistical account of Scotland (21 vols., 1791-1799), 20, App., xiii.
5
[Herman Merivale], "Moral and intellectual statistics of France," Edinburgh review 69(1839), 49-74, on 49.
6
"Sixth annual report," JSSL, 3 (1840), 1-13, on 2.
7
Nassau W. Senior, "Opening address [as President of Section F of the British Association]," JSSL, 23 (1860), 357-362, on 359
William Newmarch, "The progress of economic science during the last thirty years," ibid., 451-471, on 457;
Prince Albert, "Address... on opening as President the fourth session of the International Statistical Congress," ibid., 277-285, on 279.
8
J. J. Fox, "On the province of the statistician," JSSL, 23 (1860), 330-336, on 331.
9
Harald Westergaard, Contributions to the history of statistics (London, 1932)
M. Perrot and B-P. Lecuyer in Institut National de la Statistique et des Etudes Economiques, Pour une histoire de la statistique (Paris, 1978)
Michael J. Cullen, The sta- tistical movement in early Victorian Britain: The foundations of empirical social research (Lon- don, 1975)
D. V. Glass, Numbering the people (Farnborough, 1973)
John Eyler, Victorian social medicine: The ideas and methods of William Fan (Baltimore, 1979)
Victor L. Hilts, "Aliis Exterendum or, The origins of the Statistical Society of London," Isis, 69 (1978), 21-43
Philip Abrams, The origins of British sociology (Chicago, 1968)
David Elesh, "The Manchester Statistical Society: A case study of discontinuity in the history of empirical social research," Journal for the history of the behavioral sciences, 8 (1972), 280-301, 407- 417.
10
A. Quetelet, Sur I'homme et le developpement de ses facultes, ou essai de physique sociale [1835] (2 vols., Bruxelles, 1836), 7, 3-11.
11
Quetelet, "Recherches sur la loi de la croissance de rhomme," Academie Royale des Sciences et Belles-lettres, de Bruxelles, Nouveaux m'emoires, 7 (1832), 1-7.
12
Quetelet, Du systeme social et des lois qui le r'egissent (Paris, 1848), x.
13
Harriet H. Shoen, "Prince Albert and the application of statistics to problems of government," Osiris, 5(1938), 276-318, on 286-287.
14
Lord Stanley, "Opening address," JSSL, 19 (1856), 305-310, on 305
Senior, "Opening address" (ref. 7), 359
[Henry Holland], "Human longevity," Edinburgh review, 705 (1857), 46-77, on 54-55.
15
[William Newmarch], "Some observations on the present position of statistical inquiry," JSSL, 23 (1860), 362-369, on 362-363.
16
H. T. Buckle, History of civilization in England [1857, 1861] (2 vols., New York, 1913), 2, 255.
17
Ibid., 7, 119.
18
Ibid., 23.
19
Gillispie, "Intellectual factors" (ref. 2)
"Probability and politics: Laplace, Condorcet and Turgot," American Philosophical Society, Proceedings, 116 (1972), 1-20.
20
Augustus De Morgan, An essay on probabilities and on their applica- tion to life contingencies and insurance offices (London, 1838).
S. E. De Morgan, Memoir of Augustus De Morgan (London, 1882).
21
John V. Strong, "The infinite ballot box of nature: De Morgan, Boole, and Jevons on probability and the logic of induction," Philosophy of Science Association, PSA: Proceedings (1976), 1, 401-427
"John Stuart Mill, John Herschel, and the pro- bability of causes," ibid., (1978), 1, 31-41
R. L. Ellis, "On the foundations of the theory of probabilities," TPSC, 8 (1849), 1-6
James D. Forbes, "On the alleged evidence for a physical connection between stars forming binary or multiple groups, deduced from the doctrine of chances," PM, 37 (1850), 401-427
J. S. Mill, A system of logic [1843], in Col- lected works, 8 (Toronto, 1973), 1142 ff
George Boole, An investigation of the laws of thought on which are founded the mathematical theories of logic and probabilities [1854] (New York, 1958), 368.
22
Boole, Laws (ref. 21), 244-245.
23
Laplace, Theorie analytique des probabilities [18203], in Oeuvres, 7 (Paris, 1836), 355-358.
24
Joseph Fourier, Analytical theory of heat, tr. Alexander Freeman (New York, 1945), 32, 460-461.
25
Joseph Fourier, "Memoire sur les resultats moyens deduits d'un grand nombre d'observations," Recherches statistiques sur la ville de Paris et la departement de la Seine, 3 [1826], in Oeuvres(2 vols., Paris, 1888-1890), 2, 525 ff.
26
Fourier, "Extrait d'un memoire sur la theorie analytique des assurances," Annales de chimie et de physique, 10 (1819), 177-189, on 188-189.
ref. 24
A. A. Cournot, Exposition de la theorie des chances et des probabilites (Paris, 1843), iii.
27
Lewis Campbell and William Garnett, Life of James Clerk Maxwell (London, 1882), 133-134
Maxwell, SP, 2, 218-219 [1870]
Theory of heat [1871]
Lord Ray- leigh (London, 1904), 316.
28
Quetelet, Popular instructions on the calculation of probabilities [1828], tr. Richard Beamish (London, 1837), 10-11
"Des lois concernant le developpement de fhomme," Observatoire de Bruxelles, Annuaire, 38 (1871), 205.
29
S. A. R. le due regnant de Saxe-Coburg et Gotha sur la theorie des probabilities, appliqu'ees aux sciences morales et politiques (Bruxelles, 1846), 136.
30
Quetelet, Anthropométrie, ou mesure des differentes facultés de l'homme (Bruxelles, 1871), 253.
31
John Herschel, "Quetelet on probabilities," Edinburgh review, 93 (1850), 1-57, on 5, 29.
32
Ibid., 23.
33
Campbell, Life (ref. 27), 138-144
Everitt, "Maxwell" (ref. 2), 219
Garber, "Introduction" (ref. 2).
34
Ivo Schneider, "Rudolph Clausius' Beitrag zur Einfuhrung wahrscheinlichkeitstheoretischer Methoden in die Physik der Gase nach 1856," Archive for history of exact science, 14 (1975), 243.
35
Rudolph Clausius, "The nature of the motion which we call heat" [1857]
Kinetic theory (2 vols., New York, 1965), 1, 111-134, on 126.
36
E. W. Garber, "Clausius and Maxwell's kinetic theory of gases," HSPS 2 (1971), 303-319, on 303
Garnett in Campbell, Life (ref. 27), 562.
37
Joseph Larmor, ed., Memoir and scientific correspondence of the late Sir George Gabriel Stokes (2 vols., Cambridge, 1907), 2, 8-11.
38
Maxwell, "Illustrations of the dynamical theory of gases" [1860], SP, 1, 380.
Heat (ref. 2), 1, 184-187.
W. F. Donkin, "On an analogy, relating to the theory of probabilities and on the principle of the method of least squares," Quarterly jour- nal of pure and applied mathematics, 1 (1857), 152-162.
39
Clausius, "On the dynamical theory of gases," PM, 19 (1860), 434-436.
40
Clausius, "On the conduction of heat by gases," PM, 23 (1862), 417-435, 512- 534, on 419, 422.
41
R. L. Ellis, "Remarks on an alleged proof of the 'Method of least squares,'" PM, 37 (1850), 321-328.
42
Maxwell, "The dynamical theory of gases," SP, 2 43
43
Campbell, Life (ref. 33), 441.
44
Thomas S. Kuhn, Black body theory and the quantum discontinuity, 1894-1912 (Oxford, 1978), 45.
45
C. G. Knott, Life and scientific work of Peter Guthrie Tait (Cambridge, 1911), 213-214
M. J. Klein, "Maxwell, his demon, and the second law of thermodynamics," American scientist, 58 (1970), 84-97.
46
R. J. Strutt, Fourth Baron Rayleigh, Life of John William Strutt, Third Baron Ray- leigh, 2nd ed. (Madison, Wisconsin, 1968), 47
Brush, Heatiref. 2), 590
47
Maxwell, "Diffusion," SP, 2, 646.
48
Edward Daub, "Maxwell's demon," Studies in the history and philosophy of science, 9 (1976), 213-227.
49
Crosbie Smith, "Natural philosophy and thermodynamics: William Thomson and the 'Dynamical theory of heat,'" British journal for the history of science, 9 (1976), 293-319.
50
P. G. Tait and Balfour Stewart, The unseen universe, or Physical speculations on a future state (London, 1875), 91.
51
Buckle. Jevons, The principles of science, 2nd ed. [1878] (Lon- don, 1928), 766.
52
Buckle, History (ref. 16), 7, 16-17.
53
Ibid., 20-22.
54
Quarterly review, 104 (1858), 38-74
Lord Acton, "Mr. Buckle's thesis and method" [1858] in William McNeill, ed., Essays in the liberal interpretation of history (Chi- cago, 1967), 3-21.
55
T. C. Sanders in Fraser's magazine, 56 (1857), 409-424, and in Saturday review, 4 (1857), 38-40
[William Cyples], "Morality of the doctrine of averages," Cornhill magazine, 70 (1864), 218-224
Anon., Temple bar, 75(1865), 495-504.
56
Prince Albert, "Address" (ref. 7), 280.
57
Robert Campbell, "On a test for ascertaining whether an observed degree of uniformity, or the reverse, in tables of statistics is to be looked upon as remarkable," PM, 18 (1859), 359-368, 360.
58
Campbell, Life (ref. 27), 294-295, 305-306.
59
John Tyndall, "The Belfast address" [1874], in George Bassala et al., ed., Vic- torian science (New York, 1970), 436-478, on 474-475
T. H. Huxley, "On the hypothesis that animals are automata, and its history" [1874], in Collected essays [1897] (9 vols., New York, 1968), 7, 199-250, on 249
Frank M. Turner, "The Victorian conflict between science and religion: A professional dimension," Isis, 69 (1978), 356-376
"Public science in Britain, 1880-1919," Isis, 71 (1980), 589-608.
60
Campbell, Life (ref. 27), 394, 405
ibid., 321.
61
Tait and Stewart, Unseen universe (ref. 50), v
Campbell, Life (ref. 27), 321.
62
Campbell, Life (ref. 27), 261.
63
William Hamilton, Discussions on philosophy and literature (New York, 1856), 41, 100, 275, 297
George Elder Davie, The democratic intellect: Scotland and her universities in the nineteenth century (Edinburgh, 1961)
Richard Olson, Scottish philosophy and British physics (Princeton, 1975).
64
Peter Heimann, "Molecular forces, statistical representation and Maxwell's demon," Studies in the history and philosophy of science, 1 (1970), 189-211, on 201.
65
Campbell, Life (ref. 27), 238.
66
Ibid., 343, 379, 635-636.
67
Ibid., 635-636.
68
Maxwell, "Molecules," SP, 2, 373.
69
Maxwell, "Introductory lecture on experimental physics," SP, 2, 253, and Heat (ref. 27), 315-316.
70
Campbell, Life (ref. 27), 336.
71
William Thomson, "The structure of matter and the unity of science," in Basalla, ed., Victorian science (ref. 59), 101-128, on 109
Tait and Stewart, Unseen universe (ref. 50), 181-182.
72
[Fleeming Jenkin], "The atomic theory of Lucretius," North British review, 48 (1868), 111-128, on 118.
73
Campbell, Life (ref. 27), 637-639.
74
Ibid., 438-439.
75
Ibid., 441.
76
Ibid., 440.
77
Ibid., 441.
78
Ibid., 444.
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