[Footnotes]

[Footnotes]
1
Organization chart, Physical Research Department, 1100, 2 Jul 1945 (BLC)
2
J. Bardeen and W. Brattain, "The transistor, a semiconduc- tor triode," PR, 74 (1948), 230-231
"Nature of the forward current in germanium point contacts," ibid., 231-232
"Physical principles involved in transistor action," PR, 75 (1949)
E. J. M. Kendall, Transistors (Oxford, 1969).
3
Brattain, "Genesis of the transistor," The physics teacher, 6 (1968), 108-114
"One researcher's personal account," Adventures in experimental physics, 5 (1976), 3-13
W. Shockley, "The invention of the transistor: An example of creative-failure methodol- ogy," European Solid State Device Research Conference, 2nd, Proceedings (Lancaster, 1972), 55-75
"The path to the conception of the junction transistor," IEEE, Transac- tions, ED-23 (1976), 597-620
Bardeen, "Semiconductor research leading to the point con- tact transistor," The Nobel lectures, 1942-1962 (Amsterdam, 1964), 313-386.
4
W. Gorton, "The genesis of the transistor," Bell Labs Memorandum for Record, 27 Dec 1949, 1100, WSC- XB (BLC).
M. Kikuchi and Y. Uemura, Theory and appli- cation of semiconductors: Progress of the last half century (Tokyo, 1960)
R. Nelson, "The link between science and invention: The case of the transistor," in Universities National Bureau Commission for Economic Research, The rate and direction of inventive activity: Economic and social factors (Princeton, 1962), 549-583.
5
C. Weiner, "How the transistor emerged," IEEE, Spectrum, 10 (1973), 24-33
Ernest Braun and Stuart MacDonald, Revolution in miniature: The history and impact of semiconductor electronics (Cambridge, 1978).
6
Cyril S. Smith, "The prehistory of solid-state physics," Physics today, IS: 12 (1965), 18-30.
7
W. Hume-Rothery, The metallic state (Oxford, 1931).
8
L. Hoddeson and G. Baym, "The development of the quantum mechanical elec- tron theory of metals: 1900-28," PRSL, A371 (1980), 8-23
A. H. Wilson, "Solid state physics 1925-33: Opportunities missed and opportunities seized," ibid., 39-48.
A. Sommerfeld and H. Bethe, "Elektronentheorie der Metalle," Handbuch der Physik, 24:2 (Berlin, 1933), 333-622
R. Peierls, "Elek- tronentheorie der Metalle," Ergebnisse der exakten Naturwissenschaften, 11 (1932), 274-322.
9
Herring, "Recollections," PRSL, A371 (1980), 67-76
Bardeen, "Reminiscences of early days in solid state physics," ibid., 77-83
Seitz, "Biographical notes," ibid., 84-99
10
J. C. Slater, Solid state and molecular theory. A scientific biography (New York, 1975).
12
Weiner, "Transistor" (ref. 5).
Frederick Seitz, The modern theory of solids (New York, 1940).
13
Braun and Mac- Donald, "Revolution" (ref. 5)
Colin Hempstead, Semiconductors 1833-1919, an historical study of selenium and some related materials (Ph.D. thesis, University of Durham, 1977)
Pearson and Brattain, "History of semiconductor research," IRE, Proceedings, 43 (1955), 1794-1806
Brattain, "Development of concepts in semiconductor research," American journal of physics, 24 (1956), 421-425
G. Renard, "La découverte et le perfectionnement des transistors," Revue d'histoire des sciences, 16 (1963), 323-358
Karl Lark-Horovitz, "The new electron- ics," in F. S. Brackett, ed., The present state of physics (Washington, D.C., 1954), 57-127.
14
Susskind, "Ferdinand Braun: Forgotten forefather," Advances in electronics and electron physics, 50 (New York, 1980), 240-260.
15
L. O. Grondahl and P. H. Geiger, "A new electronic rectifier," IEEE, Journal, 46 (1927), 215-222
Grondahl, "Theories of a new solid junction rectifier," Science, 36 (1926), 306-308.
16
W. Schottky and W. Deutschmann, "Leitungs- und Photoeffekte an Sperr- schichten," Physikalische Zeitschrift, 30 (1929), 839-846.
17
Wilson, "The theory of electronic semiconductors," PRSL, A133 (1931), 458- 491, and A134, 277-287
"A note on the theory of rectification," PRSL, A136 (1932), 487-498.
Semiconductors and metals (Cambridge, 1939), 57-62.
18
Kelly, "Contributions of research to telephony: A new look at the past and a glance into the future," Franklin Institute, Journal, 261 (1956), 189-200, on 191.
21
J. Scaff, "The role of metallurgy in the technology of electronic materials," Metallurgical transactions, 1 (1970), 561-573
23
Long to Brattain, 25 Apr 1972, Brattain's private collection, Walla Walla, WA
25
Minerva (in press).
26
Memorandum, 15 May 1931
Brat- tain to Hoddeson, 10 Jan 1979
S. Goudsmit, "The Michigan symposium in theoretical physics," Michigan alumnus quarterly review (20 May 1961), 181-182.
29
Organization chart, 31 Dec 1938 (BLC)
30
"Electronic conduction in solids" and "Physics of the solid state," Case Reports, 1936-40 (BLC).
31
Nevill Mott and Harry Jones, The theory of the properties of metals and alloys (Oxford, 1936)
Richard C. Tolman, The principles of statistical mechanics (Oxford, 1938)
Linus Pauling, The nature of the chemical bond (Ithaca, N.Y., 1939).
32
Southworth, Forty years of radio research (New York, 1962), 158-160
33
J. H. Jeans, Mathematical theory of electricity and magnetism (Cambridge, 1925), 356
H. Torrey and C. Whitmer, Crystal rectifiers (New York, 1948 [MIT Radiation Laboratory Series, 15]).
34
Scaff, "Metallurgy" (ref. 21); interviews with Ohl and Scaff; Ohl to Hoddeson, 2 Jan 1979.
35
Brattain to Hoddeson, 10 Jan 1979
36
Southworth (ref. 32)
Brattain to Hoddeson, 10 Jan 1979.
37
National Academy of Sci- ences, Washington, D.C., 26-27.
38
Memorandum, Kelly to Buckley, 15 Jan 1945, esp. 18, 25 (AT&T archives).
39
M. D. Fagen, ed., A history of engineering and science in the Bell System: National service in war and peace {1925-1975)
Murray Hill, N.J., 1978
M. J. Kelly, "Radar and Bell Laboratories," Bell Telephone magazine, 24:4 (1945-46), 3-37
Buck- ley, "Bell Laboratories in the war," Bell Telephone magazine, 23:4 (1944-45), 227-240
Memorandum, "War work expense for the period 1/1/41-7/30/44," issued 9 Oct 1944
Buckley papers (BLC).
40
ref. 33
41
Shockley, "Path" (ref. 3), 604
43
Kelly, "A first record of thoughts concerning an important postwar problem of the Bell Telephone Laboratories and Western Electric Company," 1 May 1943, 1-2
memorandum, Kelly to Buckley, 29 Jul 1949, "Five year program for control of labora- tories operations," 5-6 (BLC).
44
V. Bush, Science, the endless frontier (Washington, D.C., 1945)
Science, 182 (1973), 116
183 (1974), 798-799
191 (1976), 41- 46.
45
J. H. de Boer, Electron emission and absorption phenomena (Cambridge, 1935)
N. F. Mott and R. W. Gurney, Electronic processes in ionic crystals (Oxford, 1940)
"Resumption of part-time postgraduate study plan 1945-46," 30 Aug 1945, Buckley papers (BLC).
Kelly, "Five year program" (ref. 43
Kelly to Slater, 11 Dec 1944 (BLC).
50
Torrey and Whitmer (ref. 33), 22, 361-381.
51
N. F. Mott, "The theory of crystal rectifiers," PRSL, A171 (1939), 27-38
W. Schottky, "Halbleitertheorie der Sperrschicht," Naturwissenschaf- ten, 26 (1938), 843
"Zur Halbleitertheorie der Sperrschicht- und Spitzengleichrichter," ZP, 113 (1939), 376-414
"Vereinfachte und erweiterte Theorie der Randschictgleichrichter," ZP, 118 (1942), 539-592.
Mott and R. W. Gurney, Electronic processes in ionic crystals (Oxford, 1940).
52
Torrey and Whitmer (ref. 33).
53
A. H. Wilson, Theory of metals (Oxford, 1936), and Mott and Gurney (ref. 51).
54
Schottky and Deutschmann (ref. 16).
55
Wilson, Semiconductors and metals (ref. 17).
56
Grondahl, "The copper-cuprous oxide rectifier and photoelectric cell," Reviews of modern physics, 5 (1933), 141-168
F. Waibel, "Ober den Aufbau der Sperrschicht beim Kupferoxydulgleichrichter," Siemens-Werken, Wissenschaftliche Veroffentlichungen, 15:3 (1936), 75-86.
57
Mott, "Theory" (ref. 51).
58
Bardeen, "Trends in semiconductor research," Advances in semi-conductor science (London, 1949), 2-6.
59
W. E. MeyerhofT, "Contact potential differences in silicon crystal rectifiers," PR, 71 (1947), 727-735.
62
Hilsch and Pohl, "Steuerung von Elektronen- stromen mit einem dreielektroden Kristall und ein Modell einer Sperrschicht," ZP, 111 (1938), 399-408.
Shockley, 1972 (BLC).
64
Shockley, "Invention" (ref. 3), 57
Shockley, NB, 29 Dec 1939
Shockley, "Path" (ref. 3), 603.
66
Shockley, "Invention" (ref. 3), 57.
67
Shockley, "Path" (ref. 3), 604.
70
Shockley, NB 20455, 13-17 Apr 1945, 11-24.
71
Shockley, "Invention" (ref. 3), 58
"Path" (ref. 3), 604
72
Shockley, NB 20455, 23 Jun 1945, 36.
73
Bardeen, NB 20780, 18 Mar-23 Apr 1946, 38-57
"Surface states and rectification at a metal to semiconductor contact," PR, 71 (1947), 717-727
I. Tamm, "Dber eine mogliche Art der Elektronenbindung an Kristalloberflachen," Physikalische Zeitschhft der Sowjetunion, 1 (1932), 733-746
W. Shockley, "On the surface states associated with a periodic potential," PR, 56 (1939), 317-323.
74
Bardeen (ref. 73)
Meyerhof (ref. 59)
S. Benzer, "Ge-Ge contacts," PR, 71 (1947), 141.
76
Traced in Pearson, NB 20912
Bardeen, NB 20780
Brattain, NB 18194
Dreher, NB 21373.
Brattain, "Genesis" (ref. 3).
77
Bardeen, NB 20780, 23 Apr 1946, 47-57
Pearson, NB 20912, 22 Apr 1946, 1- 11
Pearson, "A high impedance field-effect silicon transistor," PR, 90 (1953), 336.
78
Pearson and Bardeen, "Electrical properties of pure silicon and silicon alloys con- taining boron and phosphorus," PR, 75 (1949), 865-883
Pearson and Shockley, "Mea- surements of Hall effect and resistivity of germanium and silicon from 10° to 600° K," PR, 71 (1947), 142
"Modulation of conductance of thin films of semi-conductors by surface changes," PR, 74 (1948), 232-233
Seitz, "The electrical conductivity of silicon and germanium," NDRC Report, 14-110, 3 Nov 1942
Lark-Horovitz and V. Johnson, "Theory of resistivity in germanium alloys," PR, 69 (1946), 258-259.
80
Brattain, NB 18194, 2-9 Apr 1947, 78-99
Bardeen, NB 20780, 29 Sep 1947, 58- 60
Brattain, "Evidence for surface states from change in contact potential on illumina- tion," PR, 72 (1947), 345.
81
Dreher, NB 21373, 19 May-11 Jun 1947, 85-109
Brattain and Shockley, "Den- sity of surface states deduced from contact potential measurements," PR, 72 (1947), 345.
83
Brattain, NB 18194, 13-17 Nov 1947, 138-142
Brattain, "Genesis" (ref. 3)
Gorton, "Genesis" (ref. 4).
84
Brattain, NB 18194, 17-20 Nov 1947, 142-151
"Genesis" (ref. 3)
PR, 72 (1948), 345
Shockley, "Path" (ref. 3).
85
Brattain, NB 18194, 20 Nov 1947, 151-153
patent #2,524,034 (filed 26 Feb 1948).
Shockley, "Path" (ref. 3), 608
Gorton, "Genesis" (ref. 4), 4.
87
Brattain, "Genesis" (ref. 3).
89
Bardeen, NB 20780, 22 Nov 1947, 61-67, on 67
ibid., 23 Nov 1947 (a Sun- day!), 68-70
patent #2, 524, 033 (filed 26 Feb 1948).
90
Brattain, NB 18194, 24 Nov-8 Dec 1947, 156-177.
91
Bardeen, "Semiconductor research" (ref. 3).
92
Brattain, NB 18194, 8 Dec 1947, 176.
94
Brattain, NB 18194, 10 Dec 1947, 179.
96
Brattain, "One researcher's account" (ref. 3), 9
Brattain, NB 18194, 12 Dec 1947, 185.
97
Brattain, NB 18194, 12 Dec 1947, 183-190, esp. 187
Brattain, "Genesis" (ref. 3)
Bardeen, "Semiconductor research" (ref. 3), 96
Gorton, "Genesis" (ref. 4), 4-5.
98
Brattain, NB 21780, 19 Dec 1947, 4.
Shockley claims ("Path" [ref. 3])
101
"NDRC Report 14-585. Purdue University, covering March 1942 to November 1945,"
Final report of work performed on contract between Feb. 1, 1946-Jan. 31, 1949
103
Brattain, NB 18194, 16 Dec 1947, 192-193
104
Brattain, NB 18194, 16 Dec 1947, 193-194.
105
Brattain, NB 21780, 24 Dec 1947, 6-9
Brattain, "One researcher's account" (ref. 3).
106
Bardeen, NB, 20780, 24 Dec 1947, 71-74, on 72.
107
Brattain to Hoddeson, 10 Jan 1979.
108
Zahl, "Birth of the transistor," Microwave journal, 9(1966), 94-96
109
Fagen [ref. 39], 621-625).
110
Zahl (ref. 108)
111
American Physical Society on "Photoelectric effects and their relation to rectification at metal-semiconductor contacts" (PR, 73 [1948], 1256).
112
Shockley, "The theory of pn junctions in semiconductors and pn junction transistors," Bell System technical journal, 28 (1949), 435-489
Shockley, "Path" (ref. 3)
G. K. Teal and J. B. Little, "Growth of germanium single crystals," PR, 78 (1950), 647.
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