[Footnotes]

[Footnotes]
*
Paris, Procès-verbaux de séances de VAcademie tenues depuis la fondation de lInstitut jusqu ä mois d'Aoüt 1835 (10 vols., Paris, 1910-1922)
1
Maurice Crosland, The society of Arcueil: A view of French science at the time of Napoleon I (Cambridge, Mass., 1967).
Owen Hannaway, reviewing Crosland in Isis, 60 (1969), 578-581
Gerald L. Geison, "Scientific change, emerging specialties, and research schools: Soundings from the social history of science," History of science (1981), treat the Arcueil circle as a research school.
2
Bern Dibner, Galvani-Volta: A controversy that led to useful elec- tricity (Norwalk, Conn., 1952)
J. L. Heilbron, "Volta," DSB, 14, 69-82
Theodore M. Brown, "Galvani," DSB, 5, 267-269.
3
I. Bernard Cohen, Franklin and Newton (Princeton, 1956)
Robert Schofield, Mechanism and materialism (Princeton, 1970)
J. L. Heilbron, Electricity in the 17th and 18th centuries (Berkeley, 1979).
4
Robert Darnton, Mesmerism and the end of the Enlightenment in France (Cam- bridge, Mass., 1968)
Charles C. Gillispie, Science and polity in the Old Regime in France (Princeton, 1980)
Geoffrey Sutton, "Electric medicine and mesmerism: The spirit of systems in the Enlightenment," ISIS, (1981), in press.
5
Luigi Galvani, Commentary on the effects of electricity on muscular motion, tr. Mar- garet Glover Foley (Norwalk, 1954).
6
PV, 1, 126, 400, 403, 406.
7
SPB, 2, 131-132.
8
PT, 90 (1800), 403-431 (in French)
Philosophical magazine, 7 (1800), 298-311.
9
Ibid., 308, 310.
10
William Hyde Wollaston, "Experiment on the chemical production and agency of electricity," PT, 91 (1801), 427-434 (read 25 June)
"Experiments in galvanic electricity by Mesrs. Nicholson, Carlisle, Cruickshank, etc.," Philosophical magazine, 7 (1800), 337-350.
M. Sudduth, "The voltaic pile and electro-chemical theory in 1800," Ambix, 27 (1980), 26-35.
11
PV, 2, 218; SPB, 2, 114
"Expériences sur le fluid galvanique," AC, 37 (1800), 132-150.
12
Robertson, "Expériences" (ref. 11), 145
PV, 2, 224.
13
Butet, "Note sur le galvanisme," SPB, 2, no. 43, 151.
14
SPB; Joseph Izarn, Manuel du galvanisme (Paris, 1804)
Journal du galvanisme, de vaccine, etc., edited by Jacques Nauche and published by the Société du Galvanisme in 1803-1804.
15
PV, 2, 221.
16
Butet (ref. 13).
17
Henry Guerlac, "Chemistry as a branch of physics: Laplace's collaboration with Lavoisier," HSPS, 7 (1976), 193-276, on 234-240.
18
SPB, 2, 165.
19
Ibid., 165-167
20
Ibid., 22.
21
Margaret Bradley, "Scientific ȩducation versus military training: The influence of Napoleon Bonaparte on the Ecole Poly technique" Annals of science, 32 (1975), 415-449, on 435
"The facilities for practical instruction in science during the early years of the Ecole Polytechnique," ibid., 33 (1976), 425-446
"Scientific education for a new society: The Ecole Polytechnique, 1795-1830," History of education, 5 (1976), 4-24.
22
. A. Fourcy, Histoire de l'Ecole Polytechnique (Paris, 1828), 215-216, 272-273.
23
Maurice Crosland, Thenard," DSB, 13, 309-314.
24
W. A. Smeaton, "Vauquelin," DSB, 13, 596-598.
25
Satish C. Kapoor, "Berthollet," DSB, 2, 73-82
Michelle Sadoun-Goupil, Le chim- iste Claude-Louis Berthollet, 1748-1822: sa vie, son oeuvre (Paris, 1977)
Fourcy, Histoire (ref. 22), 264-265.
26
Reported in the SPB, 2, 180-181 (Feb 1801).
27
Ibid., 181.
28
PV, 2, 312, 316, 320, 331
Desormes, "Expériences et observations sur les phénoménes physiques et chimiques que présente l'appareil électrique de Volta," AC, 37 (1800), 284-321
Hachette, "Sur le galvanisme," JEP, cahier 11, 284-294, on 287.
29
C. Vauquelin, "Résumé des nouvelles experiences faites sur le galvanisme, par divers physiciens," SPB, 3, 12-15.
30
Ibid., 13.
31
Ibid.
Hachette (ref. 28).
32
Vauquelin, "Résumé" (ref. 29), 13.
33
Desormes, "Expériences" (ref. 28), 304-307.
34
Ibid., 284.
35
Ibid., 292-293.
36
Ibid., 292.
37
PV, 2, 320
Wollaston, ref. 10.
38
Desormes, "Expériences" (ref. 28), 320-321.
39
Biographie universelle, s.v. "Gautherot."
"Sur le galvanisme," AC, 39 (1801), 203-210.
Vauquelin, "Résumé" (ref. 29)
Hallé, PV, 2, 369-370
Fourcroy and Vauquelin, ibid., 398-400.
40
Vauquelin, "Résumé" (ref. 29), 15
Gautherot, "Galvanisme" (ref. 39), 209.
41
Gautherot, "Galvanisme" (ref. 39), 205-206.
42
Fourcroy and Vauquelin (ref. 39), 398.
43
Ibid., 399.
44
Ibid.
45
Humphry Davy, "An account of some galvanic combinations, formed by the arrangement of single metallic plates and fluids, analogous to the new galvanic apparatus of Mr. Volta," PT, 91 (1801), 397-402 (read 18 June).
46
Vauquelin, "Résumé" (ref. 29), 14.
41
Hachette (ref. 28), 291-292.
48
Fourcroy, Vauquelin, and Thenard, "Nouvelles expériences galvaniques," AC, 39 (1801), 103
Fourcroy and Vauquelin (ref. 38), 399.
49
"Sur un probléme de physique, relatif a l'électricité," SPB, 3, 21-23
Gillispie, "Laplace," DSB, 15, 273-402, on 398.
50
Heilbron, Electricity (ref. 3), 496-498.
Eugene Frankel, "J. B. Biot and the mathematization of experimental physics in Napoleonic France," HSPS, 8 (1977), 32-72
"Career-making in post-revolutionary France: The case of Jean-Baptiste Biot," British journal for the history of science, 11 (1978), 36-48
Crosland, Arcueil (ref. 1), 254-259.
51
Frankel, "Career-making" (ref. 50), 37
Bradley, "Scientific education versus mil- itary training" (ref. 21), 415-418.
52
Franck Bourdier, "Cuvier, Frédéric," DSB, 3, 520-521.
53
SPB, 3, 40 (Aug 1801)
PV, 2, 372
"Sur quelques propriétés de l'appareil galvanique," AC, 39 (1801), 242-250.
54
Ibid., 249.
Heilbron, Electricity (ref. 3), 82.
55
"Quelques propriétés" (ref. 53), 249.
56
PV, 2, 382
"Sur le mouvement du fluide galvanique, par le C. Biot, associé de l'institut nationale," SPB, 3, 45-48.
57
Ibid. 46.
58
Ibid.
59
Ibid., 48.
60
J. T. Merz, A history of European thought in the nineteenth century (4 vols., London, 1904-1912), l, chapt. 4.
61
PV, 2, 392
JEP, cahier 11, 308-314.
62
Crosland, Arcueil (ref. 1), 9.
63
Charles C. Gillispie, Lazare Carnot, savant (Princeton, 1971), chapt. 1.
64
Crosland, Arcueil (ref. 1), 1, 61.
Martinus van Marum, "Journey to Switzerland in 1802," Life and works, ed. R. J. Forbes (4 vols., Haarlem, 1969-76), 2, 366.
65
W. A. Smeaton, "Fourcroy," DSB, 5, 89-93.
65
Fourcy, Histoire (ref. 22), 219-222, 236-237.
67
G. Kersaint, "Antoine Francois de Fourcroy," Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle, Mémoires, D:2 (1966), 107.
68
Crosland, Arcueil (ref. 1), 204
L. Pearce Williams, "Science, education, and Napoleon I," Isis, 47 (1956), 369-382.
69
Fourcy, Histoire (ref. 22), 275-276
Bradley, "Facilities for practical instruction" (ref. 21), 275-276.
70
Roger Hahn, The anatomy of a scientific institution: The Paris Academy of Sciences, 1666-1803 (Berkeley, 1971), 312.
71
Demeril to Cuvier, 26 Dec 1802
Henri Deherain, "Lettres à Georges Cuvier sur l'organization de l'Institute de l'An XI," Journal des savants (1916), 368-376, on 369.
72
Fourcroy to Cuvier, 11 Jan 1802, ibid., 371.
73
Jacques Payan, "Clément," DSB, 3, 315-316
Robert Fox, The caloric theory of gases from Lavoiser to Regnault (Oxford, 1971), 133-148
"Watt's expansive principle in the work of Sadi Carnot and Nicolas Clément," Royal Society of London, Notes and records, 24 (1969), 233-253
"The rise and fall of Laplacian physics," HSPS, 4 (1974), 89-130, on 106-107.
74
Crosland, "Thenard" (ref. 23), 310
Arcueil (ref. 1), 130
Hannaway (ref. 1).
75
Crosland, "Gay-Lussac," DSB, 5, 317-327
Arcueil (ref. 1), 251.
76
Berthollet, Researches into the laws of chemical affinity, tr. M. Farrell (Baltimore, 1809), 4-5.
77
Fourcroy and Thenard, "Recherches sur les oxides et sur les sels de Mercure," JEP, cahier 13 (1806), 312-331.
Smeaton, "Fourcroy" (ref. 65), 92.
78
Desormes and Clément, "Precis d'expériences faites au laboratoire du Cit. Guy- ton, sur l'oxide de carbonne gazeux," JEP, cahier 11 (1801), 322-326.
79
Heilbron, "Volta" (ref. 2), 79.
80
PV, 2, 410.
81
Reported in PV, 2, 425, 432, 438; published in AC, 40 (1801), 225-256
Institute's Memoires, 5 (1804), 195-210
"Exposition abrégée des principals expériences répetées par M. Volta," SPB, 3, 74-80.
Biot, Biographie universelle, s.v. "Volta,"
82
PV, 2, 425
Crosland, Arcueil (ref. 1), 20.
83
PV, 2, 440 (2 Dec 1801)
"Rapport sur les expériences du Citoyen Volta," AC, 41 (1801), 3-37
Institute's Memoires for 1801, 195-222
84
Theodore M. Brown, "The electric current in early nineteenth-century French Physics," HSPS, 1 (1969), 61-103, on 69-76.
ref. 81
85
Biot "Rapport" (ref. 81), 199-200.
86
Ibid., 210.
87
Arago, "Alexandre Volta," in his Oeuvres completes (12 vols., Paris, 1854-59), l, 187-240, on 233.
88
PV, 2, 436.
89
PV, 2, 480, 515
90
Napoleon to Chaptal, Minister of the Interior, 15 Jun 1802
Bonaparte, Correspondance (32 vols., Paris, 1858-70), 7, 492.
91
PV, 2, 559-560, 598
92
PV, 2, 700, 701.
93
ref. 14
PV, 3, 492, for 29 Dec 1806.
94
Laplace et al., "Rapport... sur les recherches, faites pendant l'an XI, relative- ment au galvanisme," PV, 3, 11-17.
95
PV, 4, 161, 6 Feb 1809
ibid., 162, 13 Feb
Crosland, Arcueil (ref. 1), 25
PV, 3, 292, 26 Dec
96
PV, 2, 588
Biot, "Recherches physiques sur cette question: Quelle est l'influence de l'oxidation sur l'électricité developpée par la colonne de Volta?" AC, 47 (1801), 5-45.
97
Ibid., 44.
98
Berthollet, Essai de statique chimique (2 vols., Paris, 1803), l,262.
99
Ibid., 263.
100
René Just Haüy, Traité elementaire de physique (2 vols., Paris, 1803), 2, 1- 58.
101
Izarn, Manuel de galvanisme, and the Journal du galvanisme (ref. 14)
102
J. P. Stradius, "Grotthus," DSB, 5, 558-559.
103
Grotthus, "De la décomposition de l'eau et des corps qu'elle tient en dissolu- tion à l'aide de l'électricité dite galvanique," AC, 58 (1806), 54-74, on 65.
104
"On some chemical agencies of electricity," PT, 97 (1807), 1-56
AC, 67 (1807), 177-266
SPB, 1 (1808), 71-76, 97-100, 105-110.
105
Davy, "Chemical agencies" (ref. 104), 9, 29.
106
Ibid., 39, 41.
107
Bakerian Lecture for 1807, PT, 98 (1808), 1-44, on 3.
108
Crosland, Arcueil (ref. 1), 24.
109
Berthollet, "Rapport sur un ouvrage de MM. Gay-Lussac et Thenard," Jour- nal des mines, 30 (1811), 6-56, on 7-8.
110
Recherches physico-chimiques (2 vols., Paris, 1811) l, 12-14, 19-21.
111
Stewart Gillmor, Coulomb and the evolution of physics and engineering in eighteenth-century France (Princeton, 1970), 194-198.
112
Recherches (ref. 110), l, 15-18, 21-29, 34-45.
113
Biot, "Volta" (ref. 81).
114
Fox, "Rise" (ref. 73), 99-101
Gillispie, "Laplace," (ref. 49), 358.
115
Crosland, Arcueil (ref. 1), 64.
116
Crosland, "Chaptal," DSB, 3, 198-203
Arcueil (ref. 1), 113-116.
117
Ivor Grattan-Guinness, Joseph Fourier (Cambridge, Mass., 1972), 16-22, 444- 456.
118
Fox, "Rise" (ref. 73), 109-112.
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